Sura Al-Ma’idah
سورة المائدة

Asbab Nuzul: Sura Al-Maidah – سورة المائدة
Tafsir and Asbab Al-Nuzul
005| Sura Al-Ma’idah – سورة المائدة

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Asbab An-Nuzul
Surat Al-Maidah

Sura Al-Ma’ida (Arabic: سورة المائدة‎, Sūratu al-Mā’idah, “The Table” or “The Table Spread with Food”) is the fifth chapter of the Qur’an, with 120 verses. It is a Madinan sura. The sura’s main topics are Isa (Jesus’) and Musa’s (Moses) missions, as well as the claim that their messages are distorted by non-believing Jews and Christians.

Al-Ma’ida –  المائدة

  • Classification: Madinan
  • Meaning of the name: The Table Spread with Food

Statistics

  • Sura number: 5
  • Number of verses: 120
  • Juz’ number: 6 to 7
  • Hizb number: 11 to 13
  • Number of Sajdahs: none
  • Previous Sura: An-Nisa
  • Next Sura: Al-An’am

Animals

It begins by specifying which animals are forbidden and which are permissible to consume. These are verse 1 and verse 3.

(1) O ye who believe! fulfil (all) obligations. Lawful unto you (for food) are all four-footed animals, with the exceptions named: But animals of the chase are forbidden while ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb: for Allah doth command according to His will and plan.

(3) Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah. that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form); that which is sacrificed on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat) by raffling with arrows: that is impiety.

This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But if any is forced by hunger, with no inclination to transgression, Allah is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

[Quran 5:3] This verse has a Parenthetical Sentence “…This day have those who disbelieve despaired of your religion, so fear them not, and fear Me. This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion..” This verse was revealed at Arafat as reported in the authentic hadith:

Narrated ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab: Once a Jew said to me, “O the chief of believers! There is a verse in your Holy Book Which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed as a day of celebration.”

‘Umar bin Al-Khattab asked, “Which is that verse?” The Jew replied, “This day I have perfected your religion For you, completed My favor upon you, And have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” (5:3) ‘Umar replied,”No doubt, we know when and where this verse was revealed to the Prophet. It was Friday and the Prophet was standing at ‘Arafat (i.e. the Day of Hajj).”-Bukhari

[Quran 5:5] Specifies that food of Christians and Jews is lawful for Muslims to eat. The link to Abdullah Yusuf Ali’s translation further clarifies this verse. The verse is believed to have been revealed after the Battle of Khaybar.[citation needed]

[Quran 5:32] This verse explicitly forbids murder: It relates only to the people of the book, i.e. the Jews, it is not an instruction for Muslims. Muslims are instructed in the next verse 5:33 [5.32] For this reason did We prescribe to the children of Israel that whoever slays a soul, unless it be for manslaughter or for mischief in the land, it is as though he slew all men; and whoever keeps it alive, it is as though he kept alive all men; and certainly Our apostles came to them with clear arguments, but even after that many of them certainly act extravagantly in the land.

[5:33] This verse permits Muslims to impose capital punishment on those who engage in an unprovoked war against Muslims[neutrality is disputed]

[5:33] Indeed, the penalty for those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive upon earth [to cause] corruption is none but that they be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off from opposite sides or that they be exiled from the land. That is for them a disgrace in this world; and for them in the Hereafter is a great punishment,

Qiyamah

Verse 36 is a reference to the day of judgement, one of three principal beliefs of Islam, and a central concept in Islamic eschatology:

The Quran, chapter 5 (Al-Ma’ida), verse 36:

“ As to those who reject Faith,- if they had everything on earth, and twice repeated, to give as ransom for the penalty of the Day of Judgment, it would never be accepted of them, theirs would be a grievous penalty. – translated by Unknown” [Quran 5:51]

This verse was revealed to Muhammad after a group of Jews and Christians who had signed a peace treaty with the Muslims broke the treaty and murdered some allies of the Muslim community.[citation needed]

‘’O you who believe! do not take the Jews and the Christians for friends…”

[Quran 5:54] Verse 54 is one of three verses in the Qur’an that includes the word Irtiddah, relevant to apostasy. It is also interesting in relation to who the “beloved” are; some hadith view it as being Abu Musa al-Ashari, while others[who?] say it is Salman the Persian, and even some[who?] say it is Abu Bakr[citation needed].

[Quran 5:55] Verse 55 is well known and important to Shi’a Muslims, and is interpreted by them to suggest that Ali is the Wali of the Muslims.

The Shi’ah View

In this verse, God used the singular form “waliyyukum” implying the “wilayah” (Guardianship of the believers) is a single project. In other words, the “wilayah” of the Messenger and that of the Ali springs from the root of God’s wilayah. The word “wali” in the context of this verse cannot mean “friend” because there is not a single verse in the Qur’an where God says that anyone of His Messengers is a friend or helper of their followers. Further if the verse implied “wilayah” in the sense of friend or helper, then the singular form “waliyyukum” would not have been used but the plural form “awliya’ukum” would be appropriate because the “friendship” of God is unique. Tahir ul Qadri writes regarding this verse:

A narration attributed to Ammar bin Yasir reports:

A beggar came up to ‘Ali and stood beside him. He was kneeling in prayer. He (‘Ali) pulled out his ring and he gave the ring to the beggar. Then ‘Ali called on the Prophet and told him the news. At this occasion, this verse was revealed to him: (Surely your (helping) friend is Allah and His Messenger and (along with them) are the believers who establish prayers, pay zakah and bow down (in humility before Allah). Allah’s Messenger read out the verse and said: One who has me as his master has ‘Ali as his master. O Allah! Be his friend who befriends him (‘Ali) and be his enemy who is his enemy.

  • Sunnis tend to view this with differing views.
  • Shi’as tend to view this as Sahih

[Quran 5:56] Verse 56 is notable for being featured on the flag of Hezbollah.

[Quran 5:67] Verse 67 is relevant to the The Farewell Pilgrimage and Ghadir Khumm. It is said to contain a prophecy

[Quran 5:69] Verses [Quran 2:62], [Quran 5:69] and [Quran 22:17] addresses the Jews, Christians and Sabians.

[Quran 5:87] Verses 87 is reported in Sahih Bukhari to be a Hadiths related to Mut’ah.

Asbāb al-Nuzūl
Surah Al-Maidah

By: Alī ibn Ahmad al-Wāhidī

5:2.| O ye who believe! Profane not Allah’s monuments…

[5:2]. Said Ibn ‘Abbas: “This was revealed about al-Hutam whose full name is Sharih ibn Dubay‘ah al-Kindi. This man went from al-Yamamah to Medina to see the Prophet, Allah bless him and his Household and give him peace. When he arrived at Medina, he went in alone to speak with the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace. He said: ‘What do you call people for?’ he said: ‘To testify that there is no god but Allah, to establish the prayer and to pay the poor due’.

The man said: ‘This is good, except that I have chiefs without whose consultation I cannot take any decision. It may be that I embrace Islam and bring them with me’. And then he left. Before this, the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, had said to his Companions: ‘A man will enter in on you and will speak with the tongue of the devil’. When the man left, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: ‘He has come in with a disbeliever’s countenance and retreated with the steps of a treacherous one.

The man is no Muslim’. The man passed by the camels of Medina which graze freely and led them away with him. People went after him but could not find him. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace went to perform the pilgrimage in the year of Hudaybiyyah, he heard the chanting “Labbayk” from the pilgrims of al-Yamamah. He said to his Companions: ‘Here is al-Hutam and his followers!’ This man had put garlands on the camels he stole from Medina and offered them to the Ka‘bah.

When the Muslims wanted to get him, Allah, exalted is He, revealed (O ye who believe! Profane not Allah’s monuments…), by monuments here is meant that which is offered for Allah, even if those who offer it profess a religion other than Islam”.

Said Zayd ibn Aslam: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and his Household and give him peace, and his Companions were in Hudaybiyyah when the idolaters barred them from entering the Sacred House.

The Muslims were devastated. Then, a group of idolaters passed by them, they were in their way to perform the lesser pilgrimage. Some of the Companions of the Messenger, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: ‘Let us bar these people as their friends have barred us.

And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (O ye who believe! Profane not Allah’s monuments nor the Sacred Month nor the offerings nor the garlands, nor those repairing to the Sacred House)’, i.e. do not transgress against these pilgrims because their friends have barred you from entering the Sacred House”.

5:3.| ” This day have I perfected your religion for you…

[5:3]. This verse was revealed on Friday, on the Day of ‘Arafah, at the farewell pilgrimage, after ‘Asr prayer in the tenth year of the Hijrah while the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, was present in ‘Arafat on the back of his camel al-‘Adba’. ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Hamdan al-‘Adl informed us> Ahmad ibn Ja‘far al-Qati‘i> ‘Abd Allah ibn Ahmad> his father> Ja‘far ibn ‘Awn> Abu ‘Umays> Qays ibn Muslim> Tariq ibn Shihab who said:

“A Jewish man went to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be well pleased with him, and said: ‘O leader of the believers, you recite one verse in your Scripture which, if it had been revealed to us, we would have taken the day in which it was revealed as a day of celebration’. ‘Which verse is this?’ asked ‘Umar. He said: ‘It is (This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you…)’.

‘Umar said: ‘By Allah, I know the day in which it was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and the hour in which it was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and his family and give him peace. It was revealed on Friday, in the afternoon of the day of ‘Arafah’ ”.

This was narrated by Bukhari from al-Hasan ibn Sabah and also by Muslim from ‘Abd ibn Humayd, and Ibn Sabah and Ibn Humayd related it from Ja‘far ibn ‘Awn. Al-Hakim Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Shadhyakhi informed us> Zahir ibn Ahmad> al-Husayn ibn Nuhammad ibn Mus‘ab> Yahya ibn Hakim> Abu Qutaybah> Hammad> ‘Ammar ibn Abi ‘Ammar:

“Ibn ‘Abbas recited this verse in the presence of a Jewish man, and the latter said: ‘If this verse was revealed to us, we would have taken the day in which it was revealed as a celebration day’. Ibn ‘Abbas said: ‘Well, it was revealed in two days of celebration which coincided with each other: it was a Friday which coincided with the day of ‘Arafah’”.

5:4.| They ask thee (O Muhammad) what is made lawful for them…

[5:4]. Abu Bakr al-Harithi informed us> Abu’l-Shaykh al-Hafiz> Abu Yahya> Sahl ibn ‘Uthman> Yahya ibn Abi Za’idah> Musa ibn ‘Ubayda> Aban ibn Salih> al-Qa‘qa’ ibn Hakim> Salma Umm Rafi‘> Abu Rafi‘ who said:

“The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, commanded me to kill dogs. But people said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, what is made lawful for us from this community [of dogs] which we are commanded to kill?’ And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed (They ask thee (O Muhammad) what is made lawful for them.

Say: (all) good things are made lawful for you. And those beasts and birds of prey)”. This was narrated by al-Hakim Abu ‘Abd Allah in his Sahih> Abu Bakr ibn Balawayh> Muhammad ibn Shadhan> Mu‘alla ibn Mansur> Ibn Abi Za’idah.

The commentators of the Qur’an said in explanation of this story:

“Said Abu Rafi‘:

‘Gabriel, peace be upon him, went to see the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, but did not enter in on the Prophet even though he was granted permission to enter. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, came out and said to him:

‘We have given you permission to enter, O Gabriel!’

He said: ‘Yes, you have, O Messenger of Allah, except that we do not enter a house where there is a picture or a dog’.

They looked around and found that there was a puppy in one of the rooms’.

Abu Rafi‘ said: ‘The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, commanded me to kill every dog in Medina. I proceeded with the execution of the command until I reached al-‘Awali where I found a woman who kept a dog for her protection.

Out of compassion for her, I did not kill her dog. I went back to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and informed him of what had happened, and he commanded me to go back and kill it. I went back and killed it. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, commanded the killing of dogs, a group of people went to him and said:

‘O Messenger of Allah, What is lawful for us of this community that we have been commanded to kill?’

The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, did not answer, and then Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse. When this verse was revealed the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, allowed keeping dogs which can be benefited from and warned against keeping dogs from which no benefit is derived. He also commanded the killing of rabid dogs, rapacious dogs and dogs that hurt and harm people. Apart from these, all other dogs were exempted from killing’ ”.

Sa‘id ibn Jubayr said: “This verse was revealed about ‘Adiyy ibn Hatim and Zayd ibn al-Muhalhil (the same Zayd al-Khayl [Zayd of the horses] whom the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, renamed Zayd al-Khayr [Zayd of goodness]), both of whom were from the tribe of Tayy. These two men went to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and said:

‘O Messenger of Allah, we are people who hunt using dogs and falcons, and the dogs of the family of Dhurayh and those of the family of Abu Juwayriyah hunt cows, wild asses, deer and lizards, some of which we slaughter before they are killed and some are killed before we get to slaughter them. What is lawful for us in this case since, Allah, exalted is He, has forbidden eating the flesh of dead animals?’ And so this verse was revealed: (They ask thee (O Muhammad) what is made lawful for them.

Say: (all) good things are made lawful for you), meaning that which has been slaughtered (And those beasts and birds of prey), meaning the game hunted by trained predatory animals which are here hunting dogs and birds of prey”.

5:11.| O ye who believe! Remember Allah’s favour unto you, how a people were minded to stretch out their hands against you…

[5:11]. Sa‘id ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ja‘far al-Mu’adhdhin informed us> Abu ‘Ali al-Faqih> Abu Lubabah Muhammad ibn al-Mahdi al-Mihani> ‘Ammar ibn al-Hasan> Salamah ibn al-Fadl> Muhammad ibn Ishaq> ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd> al-Hasan al-Basri> Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Ansari who related that a man from Muharib by the name of Ghawrath ibn al-Harith said to his people of Banu Ghatafan and Muharib:

“Shall I kill Muhammad for you?” “Yes, but how are you going to do it?” they asked him. He said: “I will assassinate him!” This man then proceeded to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and found him sitting with his sword in his lap. He said: “O Muhammad, let me see this sword of yours”. He handed the sword over to him.

The man took the sword out of its scabbard, moved it about but whenever he was on the point of striking the Prophet with it, Allah, glorious and majestic is He, restrained him. The man then said: “O Muhammad, are you not scared of me?” “No!” answered the Prophet. The man said: “You are not scared of me even though the sword is in my hand?” The Prophet said: “Allah will protect me from you”.

The man put the sword back in its scabbard and gave it back to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, upon which Allah, exalted is He, revealed (Remember Allah’s favour unto you, how a people were minded to stretch out their hands against you…). Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Tha‘labi informed us> ‘Abd Allah ibn Hamid> Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan> Muhammad ibn Yahya> ‘Abd al-Razzaq> Ma‘mar> al-Zuhri> Abu Salamah> Jabir who reported that the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, stopped by at a certain location and so people spread about to seek shade under the trees.

The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, hang his weapon on a tree and sat down to rest. A Bedouin came along, got hold of the sword belonging to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, turned to him and said: “Who will save you from me now?” The Prophet said: “Allah!” The Bedouin repeated the same question two or three times, and the answer of the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, was always the same: “Allah!” The Bedouin then put the sword back in its scabbard.

The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, called his Companions and informed them of what happened while the Bedouin, who went unpunished, was still sitting next to him. Mujahid, al-Kalbi and ‘Ikrimah said: “One of the Companions of the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, killed two men from Banu Salim at a period when the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, had a truce with Banu Salim. The next-of-kin of the two men went to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, to ask for blood money.

The prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, took Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, Talhah and ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf and went to Ka‘b al-Ashraf, to seek help from Banu’l-Nadir to pay the blood money. They said: ‘Indeed Abu’l-Qasim, it is high time for you to come and ask us to help you. Sit down so that we feed you and fulfil your request’. When the Prophet and his Companions sat down, they gathered close by and said to each other: ‘Muhammad will never be as close to you as he is now; who can climb up to the top of the house, throw a rock on him and rid us of him?’

‘Umar ibn Jihash ibn Ka‘b said: ‘I will do it!’ He got hold of a huge millstone intending to throw it on the Prophet, but Allah, exalted is He, prevented him from doing so. When Gabriel informed the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, of what happened, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, left that house, and Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse”.

5:33.| The only reward of those who make war upon Allah and His messenger…

[5:33]. Abu Nasr Ahmad ibn ‘Ubayd Allah al-Makhladi informed us> Abu ‘Amr ibn Nujayd> Muslim> ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Hammad> Sa‘id ibn Abi ‘Arubah> Qatadah> Anas who related that a group of people from ‘Ukal and ‘Uraynah went to see the Messenger of Allah, Allah, bless him and give him peace. They said: “O Messenger of Allah, we were never people of agriculture, and before we settled around Medina we used to be people who looked after cattle”.

The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, ordered that they be given a flock of camels, a shepherd and commanded them to set off with them, with a dispensation to drink their milk and urine. When they reached the region of al-Harrah, they killed the shepherd of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and took off with the camels.

The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sent after them and when they were captured and brought to him, he cut off their hands and feet and gouged their eyes. They were left in this state in Medina until they died. Said Qatadah: “It was mentioned to us that this verse was revealed about them (The only reward of those who make war upon Allah and His messenger and strive after corruption in the land…)”. Narrated by Muslim from Muhammad ibn al-Muthanna from ‘Abd al-A‘la from Sa‘id up to the quotation of Qatadah.

5:38.| As for the thief, both male and female, cut off their hands…

[5:38]. Said al-Kalbi: “This was revealed about Tu‘mah ibn Ubayriq who stole an armour. His story has already been covered”.

5:41-47.| O Messenger! Let not them grieve thee who vie one with another in the race to disbelief…

[5:41-47]. Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Hiri informed us by dictation> Abu Muhammad, the chamberlain of Ibn Ahmad al-Tusi> Muhammad ibn Hammad al-Abiwardi> Abu Mu’awiyah> al-A’mash> ‘Abd Allah ibn Murrah> al-Bara’

ibn ‘Azib who said: “One day, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, passed by a Jewish man who had just been flogged and had his face darkened with coal.

He summoned the Jews and asked them:

‘Is this what your Scripture decrees as punishment for the adulterer?’

‘Yes!’ they replied. He then summoned one of their doctors and asked him:

‘I implore you by Allah who has sent the Torah to Moses, is this what your Scripture decrees as punishment for the adulterer’.

He said: ‘No! And if you had not implored me by Allah, I would not tell you. Our Scripture rules that the punishment of the adulterer is stoning. But it became widespread among our notables. Initially, when one of the notables committed adultery, we left him unpunished while we applied stoning on the communality in cases of adultery. Then we decided to look for a punishment that was applied on both the notables and communality of people. And so we agreed on darkening the face with coal and flogging to replace stoning’.

The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: ‘O Allah! I am the first to reapply your command after they had suspended it’. And he ordered that the Jewish man be stoned. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (O Messenger! Let not them grieve thee who vie one with another in the race to disbelief) up to His words (If this be given unto you, receive it…), they said: ‘Go to Muhammad; if he directs you to flog the adulterer and darken his face with coal and apply flogging, then follow him. But do not follow him if he directs you to apply stoning on him’.

Up to His words (Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are disbelievers) [5:44]. He said: ‘This relates to the Jews’. Up to His words (Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are wrong-doers) [5:45]. He said: ‘This relates to the Christians’. Up to His words (Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are evil-livers) [5:47]. He said: ‘This relates to all disbelievers’. Narrated by Muslim from Yahya ibn Yahya from Abu Mu’awiyah”.

Abu ‘Abd Allah ibn Abi Ishaq informed us> Abu’l-Haytham Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ghawth al-Kindi> Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Sulayman al-Hadrami> Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah> Abu Mu’awiyah> al-A’mash> ‘Abd Allah ibn Murrah> al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib who related that the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, stoned a Jewish man and a Jewish woman and said afterwards: “(Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are disbelievers) [5:44], (Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are wrong-doers) [5:45], (Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are evil-livers) [5:47]. All these three verses were revealed about the disbelievers”. This was narrated by Muslim from Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah.

5:49.| So judge between them by that which Allah hath revealed…

[5:49]. Said Ibn ‘Abbas: “A group of Jews which included Ka‘b ibn Asad, ‘Abd Allah ibn Suriya and Shas ibn Qays said to each other: ‘Let us go to Muhammad lest we seduce him from his religion’. When they went to him, they said: ‘O Muhammad, you know that we are the rabbis and nobles of the Jews, and if we were to follow you, the Jews will follow us without objection. We will believe in you and confirm your message in exchange for a favour: we have a dispute with some people and we want you to judge in our favour against them’. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, refused to do so, and Allah, exalted is He, revealed about them (… but beware of them lest they seduce thee from some part of that which Allah hath revealed unto thee…)”.

5:51.| O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for friends… 

[5:51]. Said ‘Atiyyah al-‘Awfi: “‘Ubadah ibn al-Samit went to see the Prophet and asked him: ‘O Messenger of Allah! I have numerous clients from amongst the Jews, who are ever ready to support me. However, I stand before Allah and His Messenger to absolve myself from the guardianship of the Jews. And I turn, instead, to Allah and His Messenger’. Hearing this, ‘Abd Allah ibn Ubayy said: ‘I am a man who fears the turn of events and will not absolve myself from the guardianship of the Jews’.

The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, then said: ‘O Abu’l-Hubab, that which you reserve to yourself of the guardianship of the Jews apart from ‘Ubadah ibn al-Samit is all yours and none of it is his’. He said: ‘I accept’. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed about the two of them: (O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for friends. They are friends one to another) up to His saying (And thou seest those in whose heart is a disease) [5:52], i.e. ‘Abd Allah ibn Ubayy (race toward them) for support (saying: We fear lest a change of fortune befall us)”.

5:55.| Your guardian can be only Allah; and His messenger and those who believe…

[5:55]. Said Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah: “‘Abd Allah ibn Sallam went to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, some people from Banu Qurayzah and Banu’l-Nadir have deserted us and swore not to keep our company. And we cannot keep the company of your Companions due to the distance separating us’. He then complained about the bad treatment he received from the Jews, and so this verse was revealed.

When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, read to him, he said: ‘We accept Allah, His Messenger and the believers as guardians’ ”. Al-Kalbi related something close to this and added that the end of the verse was revealed about ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, for he gave his ring to a beggar while he was bowing during prayer.

Abu Bakr al-Tamimi informed us> ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Ja‘far> al-Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Hurayrah> ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab> Muhammad ibn al-Aswad> Muhammad ibn Marwan> Muhammad ibn al-Sa’ib> Abu Salih> Ibn ‘Abbas who said:

“Accompanied by a group of believers from amongst his people, ‘Abd Allah ibn Sallam came to see the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace. They said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, our houses are very far and we have no assembly or a place in which we can gather for chatting. When our people saw that we believed in Allah and His Messenger and confirmed his call, they eschewed us and vowed never to keep our company, speak with us or marry from or into us.

This has proved too hard for us’. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, replied: ‘(Your guardian can be only Allah; and His messenger and those who believe)’, up to the end of the verse. Then the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, went out to the mosque. Some people were standing in prayer while others were bowing. He saw a beggar in the mosque and he asked him:

‘Did you get something from anyone?’ The beggar replied: ‘Yes, I got a ring of gold’. The Prophet asked him: ‘Who gave it to you?’ The beggar said: ‘That person who is standing in prayer’, and he pointed to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. The Prophet asked him again: ‘In which position did he give it to you?’ The beggar said: ‘He gave it to me while bowing in prayer’. The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said ‘Allah is the greatest!’ and then recited (And whoso taketh Allah and His messenger and those who believe for guardian (will know that), lo! the party of Allah, they are the victorious)” [5:56].

5:57.| O Ye who believe! Choose not for guardians such of those who received the Scripture before you, and of the disbelievers, as make a jest and sport of your religion.

[5:57]. Said Ibn ‘Abbas: “Rifa‘ah ibn Zayd and Suwayd ibn al-Harith were among those who displayed their faith in Islam but were hypocrites. Some Muslim men used to show affection to them, and so Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse”.

5:58.| And when ye call to prayer they take it for a jest and sport… 

[5:58]. Said al-Kalbi: “When the caller to prayer, appointed by the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, called to prayer, the Muslims stood up to perform it. Seeing this, the Jews used to comment: ‘they stood up, may they never stand up! They prayed, may they never pray! They bowed down, may they never bow down!’ They used to say this to mock the Muslims and make fun of them. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse”.

Said al-Suddi: “This was revealed about a man from the helpers of Medina. Whenever he heard the caller to prayer say, ‘I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’, he would say: ‘May the liar be burnt!’ One night, the servant of this man entered his house and brought some fire with him, while this man and his family were sleeping. A spark from this fire caused the whole house to burn down with the man and his family in it”. Other commentators said: “When the disbelievers heard the call to prayer, they resentfully envied the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and the Muslims for it.

They said: ‘O Muhammad, you have innovated something that we have never heard of amongst bygone nations. If you claim prophethood, then you have gone against the prophets who came before you with this matter that you have innovated. Had there been any good in this matter, the prophets and messengers before you would have had a better right to it. So from where did you get this cry which resembles the cry of camels? What an ugly sound and what a revolting disbelief!’ And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse (And who is better in speech than him who prayeth unto his Lord and doeth right, and saith: Lo! I am of those who surrender (unto Him)) [41:33]”.

5:59.| Say: O People of the Scripture! Do ye blame us for aught else than that we believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed aforetime, and because most of you are evil-livers.?

[5:59]. Said Ibn ‘Abbas: “A group of Jews went to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and asked him about the messengers he believed in. He replied: ‘I believe (… in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed unto Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and that which the Prophets received from their Lord.

We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered) [2:136]’. But when he mentioned Jesus, they rejected his prophethood and said: ‘By Allah, we know of no adherents of any religion who are less lucky in this world and the next than you; nor do we know of any other religion which is more evil than yours. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (Say: O People of the Scripture! Do ye blame us for aught else than that we believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us) up to His words (and because most of you are evil-livers?)’ ”.

5:67.| O Messenger! Make known that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord…

[5:67]. Said al-Hasan: “The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: ‘When Allah, exalted is He, sent me as His message, I felt oppressed by it, for I knew that some people will give me the lie’. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, was apprehensive of the Quraysh, Jews and Christians, and so Allah, exalted is He, revealed this verse”.

Abu Sa‘id Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Saffar informed us> al-Hasan ibn Ahmad al-Makhladi> Muhammad ibn Hamdun ibn Khalid> Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Halwani> al-Hasan ibn Hammad Sijjadah> ‘Ali ibn ‘Abis> al-A‘mash> Abu’l-Hajjab> ‘Atiyyah> Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri who said: “This verse (O Messenger! Make known that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord…) was revealed on the day of ‘Ghadir Khumm’ about ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be well pleased with him”. (Allah will protect thee from mankind) [5:67].

Said ‘A’ishah, may Allah be well pleased with her: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, stayed up one night and so I said: ‘What’s the matter, O Messenger of Allah?’

He said: ‘Is there not any righteous man who would stand to watch over us tonight?’ Then we heard commotion caused by arms and the Messenger of Allah asked:

‘Who’s there?’ ‘It is Sa‘d and Hudhayfah, we have come to keep watch over you’, came the response. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, went to sleep, and he slept so deep that I heard his snoring; this verse was then revealed. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, then popped his head out of the collar of his garment and said: ‘O people, you can leave, for Allah has protected me’ ”.

Isma‘il ibn Ibrahim al-Wa‘iz informed us> Isma‘il ibn Nujayd> Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Khalil> Muhammad ibn al-‘Ala’> al-Himmani> al-Nadr> ‘Ikrimah> Ibn ‘Abbas who said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, used to be guarded. Abu Talib used to send every day men from the Banu Hashim to guard him until this verse was revealed (O Messenger! Make known that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord) up to His words (Allah will protect thee from mankind). And so when his uncle wanted to send with him people to protect him, he said: ‘O uncle! Indeed Allah has protected me from the jinn and humans’ ”.

5:82-86.| Thou wilt find the most vehement of mankind in hostility to those who believe (to be) the Jews) up to His words (But those who disbelieve and deny Our revelations, they are owners of hell-fire.

[5:82-86]. These verses were revealed about the Negus and his followers. Said Ibn ‘Abbas: “When he was in Mecca, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, used to fear the idolaters’ persecution of his Companions. He therefore sent Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib and ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas‘ud, at the head of a group of his Companions, to the Negus.

He said: ‘The Negus is a righteous man; he is not an oppressor and none is oppressed in his dominion. So head toward him and remain there until Allah creates relief for the Muslims’. When they went to him, the Negus honoured them and then asked them: ‘Do you memorise anything of that which was revealed to you?’ They answered in the affirmative and then recited to him [some Qur’an,] with monks and priests surrounding him.

Whenever they read a verse, the tears rolled down their cheeks due to the truth which they recognized. Allah, exalted is He, says: (That is because there are among them priests and monks, and because they are not proud)”.

Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Farisi informed us> Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Hamdun ibn al-Fadl> Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan> Muhammad ibn Yahya> Abu Salih, the scribe of al-Layth> al-Layth> Yunus> Ibn Shihab> Sa‘id ibn al-Musayyab and ‘Urwah ibn al-Zubayr as well as others who said: “The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sent ‘Amr ibn Umayyah al-Damri with a message to the Negus.

The latter read the message of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and then called Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib and all the Emigrants with him and he also invited priests and monks to the assembly. He ordered Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib to recite to them from the Qur’an, and he read Surah Maryam, peace be upon her.

They believed in the Qur’an and tears flowed from their eyes. It is about them that Allah, exalted is He, revealed (And thou wilt find the nearest of them in affection to those who believe (to be) those who say: Lo! We are Christians) up to His words (Inscribe us as among the witnesses)”. Other commentators said: “Ja‘far ibn Abi Talib and his companions came from Abyssinia accompanied by a delegation from the Negus to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace.

The delegation included seventy men, all wearing wool. There were sixty-two from Abyssinia and eight from Syria: Bahirah the monk, Abrahah, Idris, Ashraf, Tammam, Quthaym, Durayd and Ayman. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, recited to them Surah Yasin, they wept and believed. They commented: ‘How similar is this to what used to be revealed to Jesus’. And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed about them these verses”.

Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-‘Adl informed us> Zahir ibn Ahmad> Abu’l-Qasim al-Baghawi> ‘Ali ibn al-Ja‘d> Sharik> Salim> Sa‘id ibn Jubayr who, commenting on Allah’s words (That is because there are among them priests and monks), said: “The Negus sent thirty men among his best subjects to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, recited to them Surah Yasin, they wept, and so this verse was revealed”.

5:87.| O ye who believe! Forbid not the good things which Allah hath made lawful for you…

[5:87]. Abu ‘Uthman ibn ‘Amr al-Mu’adhdhin informed us> Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Hamdan> al-Husayn ibn Nasr ibn Sufyan> Ishaq ibn Mansur> Abu ‘Asim> ‘Uthman ibn Sa’id>> ‘Ikrimah> Ibn ‘Abbas who related that a man went to see the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and said: “I have forbidden meat on myself because whenever I eat it I feel the urge to sleep with women”, and so the verse (O ye who believe! Forbid not the good things which Allah hath made lawful for you) and also (Eat of that which Allah hath bestowed on you as food lawful and good…) [5:88]. The commentators of the Qur’an said:

“The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, sat down one day and gave an admonition to people whereby he described the Day of Judgement to them and did not mention anything other than things which would instil fear in them. People cried as a result of the softening of their hearts. Then ten of the prophetic Companions gathered in the house of ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un al-Jumahi. They included Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud, ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amr, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, Salim, the client of Abu Hudhayfah, al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad, Salman al-Farisi and Ma’qil ibn Muqarrin.

They agreed to fast the day and stand in prayer at night, never to sleep in their beds, eat meat or fat, never to sleep with their wives or use perfume. They also agreed to wear coarse wool garments, reject the worldly life, wander through the land and become monks, and cut off their male organs. When the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, heard of this, he gathered them and said: ‘I was informed that you agreed to do such-and-such things, is this true?’

They said: ‘It is, but we only meant to do good’. He said to them: ‘I was not commanded to do those things, and your own selves have a right over you. Fast and break fast, stand in prayer at night and sleep, for I stand in prayer at night but I also sleep; I sometimes fast and sometimes do not; I eat meat and fat. And whoever shuns my practice is not of me’. Then he went out and gave a sermon to people in which he said: ‘How come some people have forbidden sleeping with women, eating, wearing perfume, sleeping and the desires of this world?

I am not commanding you to be priests or monks, for there is no room in my religion for abstention from eating meat and sleeping with women, nor is there room for adoption of monasteries. The wandering of my community consists of fasting and its monasticism is Jihad. And worship Allah and do not associate anyone with Him; perform the greater and lesser pilgrimage, establish the prayer, pay the poor-due, and fast the month of Ramadan. Those who were before you perished because of their extremism; they made things hard on themselves and so Allah made it hard on them.

The remains of those people are in monasteries and cloisters’. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed this verse, upon which they said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, What is to be done with the vows that we have made?’ This is because they had vowed to each other to carry out the things they agreed on. As an answer, Allah, exalted is He, revealed (Allah will not take you to task for that which is unintentional in your oaths) [2:225]”.

5:90.| ‘O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan’s handiwork.

[5:90]. Abu Sa‘id ibn Abi Bakr al-Mutawwi’i informed us> Abu ‘Amr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hiri> Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Mawsili> Abu Khaythamah> al-Hasan ibn Musa> Zuhayr> Simak ibn Harb> Mus‘ab ibn Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas> his father who said: “I went to a group of Emigrants and Helpers and they said to me: ‘Let us feed you and give you wine to drink’, this was before intoxicants were made unlawful. So I went to a field where they had a roasted camel’s head and a barrel of wine.

I ate and drank with them. Then I mentioned the Emigrants and the Helpers and said: ‘The Emigrants are better than the Helpers’. One of the man grabbed one of the jawbones [of the head we ate] and hit me with it, severing my nose in the process. I went to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and informed him of what had happened, and Allah, exalted is He, revealed about me the matter of intoxicants (drink and games of chance)”. Narrated by Muslim from Abu Khaythamah.

‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Hamdan al-‘Adl informed us> Ahmad ibn Ja‘far ibn Malik> ‘Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal> his father> Khalaf ibn al-Walid> Isra’il> Abu Ishaq> Abu Maysarah> ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab who made a supplication, saying: “O Allah, explain to us unequivocally the matter of intoxicants”, and so the verse of Surah al-Baqarah was revealed (They question thee about strong drink and games of chance) [2:219] ‘Umar was summoned and this verse was recited to him.

But he prayed again: “O Allah, explain to us unequivocally the matter of intoxicants”, and so the verse of Surah al-Nisa’ was revealed (O ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken…). The crier of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, used to say after announcing the beginning of any prayer: “Whoever is drunk should not approach the prayer”. Again ‘Umar was summoned and this verse was recited to him.

Again he prayed: “O Allah, explain to us unequivocally the matter of intoxicants”.

This verse was then revealed (Strong drink and games of chance). ‘Umar was summoned and the verse was recited to him and when it got to the words of Allah (Will ye then have done?), upon which ‘Umar said: “We refrain from it, we refrain from it”. There were things that happened due to the consumption of intoxicants, before they were made lawful, which the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, disliked.

Of these is the story of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hamzah, may Allah be well pleased with them. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya informed us> Abu Bakr ibn Abi Khalid> Yusuf ibn Musa al-Marwazi> Ahmad ibn Salih> ‘Anbasah> Yusuf> Ibn Shihab> ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn> Husayn ibn ‘Ali who related that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib said: “I had an old camel mare which was my share from the booty of Badr.

Before that, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, had given me an old camel mare from the quint (khums). And when I was going to marry Fatimah, I had an appointment with a goldsmith from Banu Qaynuqa‘ whom I wanted to travel with me to buy Bulrush (Idhkhir) from a goldsmith for my wedding ceremony. I went to gather some saddles, sacks and ropes — for my camels which were kneeled down close to a Helper’s room.

When I came back, I found my two camels with their humps cut off, their haunches ripped open and their insides taken away. I could not believe what I saw, and asked: ‘Who did this?’ They said: ‘It was Hamzah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib; he is now in the house drinking with some Helpers. They have a songstress who had sung: O Hamzah, proceed to the old fat camels Which are tied in the courtyard.

Put the knife to their throat And, O Hamzah, smear blood on them. And feed us from their slices, meat on skewer attached together on glowing fire. For you are, O Abu ‘Umarah, our hope To relieve us from harm and affliction. So when he heard this, he jumped to his sword, cut off the camels’ humps, ripped open their haunches and took away their insides’.

I proceeded until I entered in on the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace. He had with him Zayd ibn Harithah. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, knew why I went to see him. He said: ‘What’s the matter with you?’ I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I have not seen anything like what I saw today. Hamzah attacked my camels, cut off their humps, ripped open their haunches and he is still drinking until now in a certain house’.

The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, called for his outer garment and walked off. Zayd ibn Harithah and I followed him. He proceeded until he arrived to the house where Hamzah was drinking. He asked permission to enter and permission was granted. They were all drunk. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, began reproaching Hamzah for what he did while Hamzah’s eyes were red from being completely drunk.

Hamzah looked at the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace; then he stared at him, looked at his knees, then stared at his face and said: ‘Are you not but the slaves of my father?’ The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, realised that he was very drunk. He stepped back, left the house and we left after him”. Narrated by Bukhari from Ahmad ibn Salih. This incident was among the reasons which made incumbent the revelation of forbidding intoxicants.

5:93.| There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who believe and do good works for what they may have eaten (in the past).

[5:93]. Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Mutawwi‘i informed us> Abu ‘Amr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hiri> Abu Ya‘la> Abu’l-Rabi‘ Sulayman ibn Dawud al-‘Ataki> Hammad> Thabit> Anas who said: “I was serving people wine in the house of Abu Talhah when intoxicants were made unlawful. Their wine was made from unripe dates, split unripe dates and dates. We heard a crier announcing that intoxicants were made unlawful.

And so wine started flowing in the streets of Medina. Abu Talhah said: ‘Go out and spill it’, and so I spilled it. But then one of the people said: ‘So-and-so and so-and-so were killed with wine in their bellies’. As a result, Allah, exalted is He, revealed (There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who believe and do good works for what they may have eaten (in the past))”. Narrated by Muslim from Abu’l-Rabi‘ and by Bukhari from Abu Nu‘man and both Abu’l-Rabi‘ and Abu Nu‘man narrated it from Hammad.

Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Muzakki informed us> Abu ‘Amr ibn Matar> Abu Khalifah> Abu’l-Walid Shu‘bah> Abu Ishaq> al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib who said: “A group of Companions of the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, died while still drinking wine. When intoxicants were made unlawful, some said: ‘What will happen to our companions? They have died while still drinking wine’. And so this verse was revealed: (There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who believe and do good works for what they may have eaten (in the past))”.

5:100.| Say: The evil and the good are not alike…

[5:100]. Al-Hakim Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Shadhyakhi informed us> al-Hakim Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn ‘Ubayd Allah al-Bayyi‘> Muhammad ibn al-Qasim al-Mu’addib> Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub al-Razi> Idris ibn ‘Ali al-Razi> Yahya ibn al-Durays> Sufyan> Muhammad ibn Suqah> Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir> Jabir who reported that the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said:

“Allah, glorious and majestic is He, has made unlawful for you the worship of idols, the consumption of intoxicants and the slandering of lineages. Indeed, cursed is the one who drinks wine, and cursed is the one who presses the grapes from which it is made, cursed is the one who serves it and cursed is the one who uses the money gotten from selling it”. A Bedouin stood up and said: “O Messenger of Allah, trading in wine used to be my job and I made some money from it, will that money be of any benefit to me if I used it in Allah’s obedience..?”

The Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, answered him: “It would not benefit you a bit if you were to spend it on pilgrimage, Jihad or charity, for Allah does not accept except that which is wholesome”. Confirming the words of His Messenger, Allah bless him and give him peace, Allah, exalted is He, revealed (Say: The evil and the good are not alike even though the plenty of the evil attract thee).

5:101.| O ye who believe! Ask not of things which, if they were made unto you, would trouble you…

[5:101]. ‘Amr ibn ‘Amr al-Muzakki informed us> Muhammad ibn Makki> Muhammad ibn Yusuf> Muhammad ibn Isma’il Bukhari> al-Fadl ibn Sahl> Abu’l-Nadr> Abu Khaythamah> Abu Juwayriyyah> Ibn ‘Abbas who said: “Some people used to put questions to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, to mock him. One would ask him: ‘Who is my father?’ and another who has lost his camel:

‘Where is my camel?’ And so Allah, exalted is He, revealed about them this verse (O ye who believe! Ask not of things which, if they were made unto you, would trouble you) up to the end of the verse”. Abu Sa’id al-Nasruyiyy informed us> Abu Bakr al-Qati’i> ‘Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal> Ahmad ibn Hanbal> Mansur ibn Wardan al-Asdi> ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd al-A’la> his father> Abu’l-Bukhturi> ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be well pleased with him, who said:

“When the verse (And pilgrimage to the House is a duty unto Allah for mankind) [3:97], people asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah, is it every year?’ He did not answer but they asked him again: ‘Is it every year?’ He kept silent. When they asked him the fourth time he said: ‘No! But if I had said ‘yes!’ it would have been incumbent upon you to go to pilgrimage every year’. Following this, Allah, exalted is He, revealed (O ye who believe! Ask not of things which, if they were made unto you, would trouble you)”.

5:105.| O ye who believe! Ye have charge of your own souls. He who erreth cannot injure you if ye are rightly guided.

[5:105]. Al-Kalbi reported from Abu Salih who related that Ibn ‘Abbas said: “The Messenger of Allah sent a letter to the people of Hajar, whose chief was Mundhir ibn Sawa, inviting them to Islam, or to pay the Jizyah if they chose not to embrace Islam. When Mundhir ibn Sawa received the letter, he showed it to the Arabs, Jews, Christians, Sabeans and Magians who were around him. They all agreed to pay the Jizyah and disliked embracing Islam

The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, wrote back to him, saying: ‘As for the Arabs, do not accept from them except Islam otherwise they will have nothing but the sword. As for the people of the Book and the Magians, accept the Jizyah from them. When this letter was read to them, the Arabs embraced Islam while the people of the Book and the Magians agreed to pay the Jizyah.

The hypocrites among the Arabs said: ‘How strange from Muhammad! He claims that Allah has sent him to fight all people until they surrender to Allah and does not accept the Jizyah except from the people of the Book. But we only see that he has accepted from the idolaters of the people of Hajar that which he had rejected from the Arab idolaters’. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed (O ye who believe! Ye have charge of your own souls. He who erreth cannot injure you if ye are rightly guided), i.e. who errs from amongst the people of the Book”.

5:106.| O ye who believe! Let there be witnesses between you…

[5:106]. Abu Sa’id ibn Abi Bakr al-Razi informed us> Abu ‘Amr ibn Hamdan> Abu Ya’la> al-Harith ibn Shurayh> Yahya ibn Zakariyya ibn Abi Za’idah> Muhammad ibn Abu’l-Qasim> ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Sa’id ibn Jubayr> his father> Ibn ‘Abbas who said:

“Tamim al-Dari and ‘Adiyy ibn Badda’ used to come to Mecca. On one occasion, a man from Quraysh, from Banu Sahm, travelled with the two of them. However, this man died in a land where there was not a single Muslim and he had to entrust them with his belongings, with the understanding that they were to be given to his family.

When the two of them arrived, they gave his belongings to his family but kept to themselves a silver bowl adorned with layers of gold. They denied having seen this bowl when they were asked about it. The two men were taken to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, who asked them to swear that they neither saw the bowl nor did they keep it.

When they swore, he let them go. Later this bowl was found with some of the people of Mecca who said that they had bought it from Tamim al-Dari and ‘Adiyy ibn Badda’. The heirs of the man from Banu Sahm took the bowl and two men from among them swore that the bowl belonged to their man, that their testimony is truer than the testimony of the other two men and that they did not transgress. These two verses were revealed about this event (O ye who believe! Let there be witnesses between you) up to the end”.