Surah Al-Baqarah
سورة البقرة

Tafsir: Al-Quranul Kareem – Ibn Kathir
Chapter 2| Surah Al-Baqarah – The Cow |Part Four

Part One | Part Two | Part Three | Part Four | Part Five

Decorative Lines

Surat Al-Baqarah
”The Cow”

Part | Four

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172.| O you who believe (in the Oneness of Allah  Islamic Monotheism)! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you with, and be grateful to Allah, if it is indeed He Whom you worship.

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173.| He has forbidden you only the Maitah (dead animals), and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allah. But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

The Command to eat Pure Things and the Explanation of the Prohibited Things.

Allah commands;

‘’O you who believe (in the Oneness of Allah  Islamic Monotheism)! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you with, and be grateful to Allah, if it is indeed He Whom you worship…

Allah commands His believing servants to eat from the pure things that He has created for them and to thank Him for it, if they are truly His servants.

Eating from pure sources is a cause for the acceptance of supplications and acts of worship, just as eating from impure sources prevents the acceptance of supplications and acts of worship, as mentioned in a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad, that Abu Hurayrah said that Allah’s Messenger said:

‘’O people! Allah is Tayyib (Pure and Good) and only accepts that which is Tayyib. Allah has indeed commanded the believers with what He has commanded the Messengers, for He said:

‘’O (you) Messengers! Eat of the Tayyibat and do righteous deeds. Verily, I am well-acquainted with what you do. (23:51), and:

‘’O you who believe! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you with.

He then mentioned a man, who is engaged in a long journey, whose hair is untidy and who is covered in dust, he raises his hands to the sky, and says, `O Lord! O Lord!’ Yet, his food is from the unlawful, his drink is from the unlawful, his clothes are from the unlawful, and he was nourished by the unlawful, so how can it (his supplication) be accepted?” It was also recorded by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi.

After Allah mentioned how He has blessed His creatures by providing them with provisions, and after commanding them to eat from the pure things that He has provided them, He then stated that He has not prohibited anything for them, except dead animals.

He has forbidden you only the Maitah (dead animals), and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allah.

Dead animals are those that die before being slaughtered; whether they die by strangling, a violent blow, a headlong fall, the goring of horns or by being partly eaten by a wild animal.

Dead animals of the sea are excluded from this ruling, as is explained later, Allah willing, as Allah said:

‘’Lawful to you is (the pursuit of) water game and its use for food,’’ (5:96)

… and because of the Hadith about the whale recorded in the Sahih.

The Musnad, Al-Muwatta and the Sunan recorded the Prophet saying about the sea: Its water is pure and its dead are permissible.) Ash-Shafii, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and Ad-Daraqutni reported that Ibn Umar said that the Prophet said:

We have been allowed two dead things and two bloody things:

  • fish and locusts;
  • and liver and spleen.

We will mention this subject again in Surah Al-Ma’idah, if Allah wills.

Issue: According to Ash-Shafii and other scholars, milk and eggs that are inside dead unslaughtered animals are not pure, because they are part of the dead animal.

In one narration from him, Malik said that; they are pure themselves, but become impure because of their location.

Similarly, there is a difference of opinion over the cheeses (made with the milk) of dead animals. The popular view of the scholars is that it is impure, although they mentioned the fact that the Companions ate from the cheeses made by the Magians (fire worshippers).

Hence, Al-Qurtubi commented: “Since only a small part of the dead animal is mixed with it, then it is permissible, because a minute amount of impurity does not matter if it is mixed with a large amount of liquid.”

Ibn Majah reported that Salman said that Allah’s Messenger was asked about butter, cheese and fur. He said:

‘’The allowed is what Allah has allowed in His Book and the prohibited is what Allah has prohibited in His Book. What He has not mentioned is a part of what He has pardoned.’’

Allah has prohibited; eating the meat of swine, whether slaughtered or not, and this includes its fat, either because it is implied, or because the term Lahm includes that, or by analogy.

Similarly prohibited are; offerings to other than Allah, that is what was slaughtered in a name other than His, be it for monuments, idols, divination, or the other practices of the time of Jahiliyyah.

Al-Qurtubi mentioned that; Aishah was asked about what non-Muslims slaughter for their feasts and then offer some of it as gifts for Muslims.

She said, “Do not eat from what has been slaughtered for that day, (or feast) but eat from their vegetables.”

The Prohibited is Allowed in Cases of Emergency Then Allah permitted eating these things when needed for survival or when there are no permissible types of food available.

Allah said:

‘’But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, meaning, without transgression or overstepping the limits,’’

…then there is no sin on him. meaning, if one eats such items, for,

Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Mujahid said, “If one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing the set limits. For example, if he didn’t, then he would have to resort to highway robbery, rising against the rulers, or some other kinds of disobedience to Allah, then the permission applies to him. If one does so transgressing the limits, or continually, or out of disobedience to Allah, then the permission does not apply to him even if he is in dire need.”

The same was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr.

Sa`id and Muqatil bin Hayyan are reported to have said that without willful disobedience means, “Without believing that it is permissible.”

It was reported that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah:

(…without willful disobedience nor transgressing) saying, “Without willful disobedience means eating the dead animal and not continuing to do so.”

Qatadah said: (without willful disobedience), “Without transgressing by eating from the dead animals, that is when the lawful is available.”

Issue: When one in dire straits finds both  dead animals, and foods belong to other people which he could get without risking the loss of his hands or causing harm, then it is not allowed for him to eat the dead animals.

Ibn Majah reported that Abbad bin Shurahbil Al-Ghubari said,

“One year we suffered from famine. I came to Al-Madinah and entered a garden. I took some grain that I cleaned, and ate, then I left some of it in my garment. The owner of the garden came, roughed me up and took possession of my garment. I then went to Allah’s Messenger and told him what had happened. He said to the man: You have not fed him when he was hungry – or he said starving – nor have you taught him if he was ignorant.

The Prophet commanded him to return Abbad’s garment to him, and to offer him a Wasq (around 180 kilograms) – or a half Wasq – of food.

This has a sufficiently strong chain of narrators and there are many other witnessing narrations to support it, such as the Hadith that Amr bin Shu`ayb narrated from his father that his grandfather said:

Allah’s Messenger was asked about the hanging clusters of dates.

He said:

‘’There is no harm for whoever takes some of it in his mouth for a necessity without putting it in his garment.’’

Muqatil bin Hayyan commented on: (…then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful), “For what is eaten out of necessity.”

Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “Allah is pardoning for what has been eaten of the unlawful, and Merciful’ in that He allowed the prohibited during times of necessity.”

Masruq said, “Whoever is in dire need, but does not eat or drink until he dies, he will enter the Fire.” This indicates that eating dead animals for those who are in need of it for survival is not only permissible but required.

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174.| Verily, those who conceal what Allah has sent down of the Book, and purchase a small gain therewith (of worldly things), they eat into their bellies nothing but fire. Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor purify them, and theirs will be a painful torment.

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175.| Those are they who have purchased error at the price of guidance, and torment at the price of forgiveness. So how bold they are (for evil deeds which will push them) to the Fire.

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176.| That is because Allah has sent down the Book (the Qur’an) in truth. And verily, those who disputed as regards the Book are far away in opposition.

Criticizing the Jews for concealing what Allah revealed.

Allah said:

‘’Verily, those who conceal what Allah has sent down of the Book, Meaning the Jews who concealed their Book’s descriptions of Muhammad, all of which testify to his truth as a Messenger and a Prophet.’’

They concealed this information so that they would not lose authority and the position that they had with the Arabs, where they would bring them gifts, and honor them. The cursed Jews feared that if they announced what they know about Muhammad, then the people would abandon them and follow him. So they hid the truth so that they may retain the little that they were getting, and they sold their souls for this little profit.

They preferred the little that they gained over guidance and following the truth, believing in the Messenger and having faith in what Allah was sent him with.

Therefore, they have profited failure and loss in this life and the Hereafter.

As for this world, Allah made the truth about His Messenger known anyway, by the clear signs and the unequivocal proofs. Thereafter, those whom the Jews feared would follow the Prophet, believed in him and followed him anyway, and so they became his supporters against them. Thus, the Jews earned anger on top of the wrath that they already had earned before, and Allah criticized them again many times in His Book.

For instance, Allah said in this Ayah, ‘’Verily, those who conceal what Allah has sent down of the Book, and purchase a small gain therewith (of worldly things).

… meaning, the joys and delights of this earthly life.

Allah said:

‘’…they eat into their bellies nothing but fire, meaning, whatever they eat in return for hiding the truth, will turn into a raging fire in their stomachs on the Day of Resurrection.’’

Similarly, Allah said:

‘’Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire.!’’ (4:10)

Also, reported in an authentic Hadith is that Allah’s

Messenger said:

Those who eat or drink in golden or silver plates are filling their stomachs with the fire of Jahannam (Hell).

Allah said:

‘’Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor purify them, and theirs will be a painful torment. This is because Allah is furious with them for concealing the truth. They thus deserve Allah’s anger, so Allah will not look at them or purify them, meaning that He will not praise them but will cause them to taste a severe torment.’’

Then, Allah said about them:

‘’Those are they who have purchased error for guidance. ‘’

Hence, they opposed the guidance, that is, not announcing the Prophet’s description they find in their Books, the news about his prophecy and the good news of his coming which the previous Prophets proclaimed, as well as following and believing in him. Instead, they preferred misguidance by denying him, rejecting him and concealing his descriptions that were mentioned in their Books.

Allah said:

‘’…and torment at the price of forgiveness, meaning, they preferred torment over forgiveness due to the sins they have committed.’’

Allah then said:

‘’So how bold they are (for evil deeds which will push them) to the Fire.’’

Allah states that they will suffer such severe, painful torment that those who see them will be amazed at how they could bear the tremendous punishment, torture and pain that they will suffer. We seek refuge with Allah from this evil end.

Allah’s Statement:

That is because Allah has sent down the Book (the Qur’an) in truth.

… means, they deserve this painful torment because Allah has revealed Books to His Messenger Muhammad, and the Prophets before him, and these revelations bring about truth and expose falsehood. Yet, they took Allah’s signs for mockery. Their Books ordered them to announce the truth and to spread the knowledge, but instead, they defied the knowledge and rejected it.

This Final Messenger Muhammad (pbuh) called them to Allah, commanded them to work righteousness and forbade them from committing evil. Yet, they rejected, denied and defied him and hid the truth that they knew about him. They, thus, mocked the Ayat that Allah revealed to His Messengers, and this is why they deserved the torment and the punishment.

This is why Allah said here:

That is because Allah has sent down the Book (the Qur’an) in truth. And verily, those who disputed about the Book are far away in opposition.

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177.| It is not Birr that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west; but Birr is the one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, the Prophets, and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to Al-Masakin (the poor), and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set servants free, performs As-Salah (Iqamat-As-Salah), and gives the Zakah, and who fulfill their covenant when they make it, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are the people of the truth and they are Al-Muttaqun (the pious).

Al-Birr (Piety, Righteousness)

This Ayah contains many great wisdoms, encompassing rulings and correct beliefs. Allah says;

It is not Birr that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west; but Birr is the one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, the Prophets…,

As for the explanation of this Ayah, Allah first commanded the believers to face Bayt Al-Maqdis, and then to face the Ka`bah during the prayer. This change was difficult for some of the People of the Book, and even for some Muslims.

Then Allah sent revelation which clarified the wisdom behind this command, that is, obedience to Allah, adhering to His commands, facing wherever He commands facing, and implementing whatever He legislates, that is the objective. This is Birr, Taqwa and complete faith. Facing the east or the west does not necessitate righteousness or obedience, unless it is legislated by Allah. This is why Allah said:

It is not Birr that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Birr is the one who believes in Allah and the Last Day, Similarly, Allah said about the sacrifices:

It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah, but it is the piety from you that reaches Him. (22:37)

Abu Al-Aliyah said, “The Jews used to face the west for their Qiblah, while the Christians used to face the east for their Qiblah. So Allah said: (It is not Birr that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers)), meaning, “this is faith, and its essence requires implementation.”

Similar was reported from Al-Hasan and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Ath-Thawri recited: (but Birr is the one who believes in Allah), and said that; what follows are the types of Birr.

He has said the truth. Certainly, those who acquire the qualities mentioned in the Ayah will have indeed embraced all aspects of Islam and implemented all types of righteousness; believing in Allah, that He is the only God worthy of worship, and believing in the angels the emissaries between Allah and His Messengers.

The `Books’ are the Divinely revealed Books from Allah to the Prophets, which were finalized by the most honorable Book (the Qur’an). The Qur’an supercedes all previous Books, it mentions all types of righteousness, and the way to happiness in this life and the Hereafter.

The Qur’an abrogates all previous Books and testifies to all of Allah’s Prophets, from the first Prophet to the Final Prophet, Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them all.

Allah’s statement:

…and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, refers to those who give money away while desiring it and loving it.

It is recorded in the Sahihayn that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said:

The best charity is when you give it away while still healthy and thrifty, hoping to get rich and fearing poverty.

Allah said:

‘’And they give food, inspite of their love for it, to the Miskin (the poor), the orphan, and the captive (saying): “We feed you seeking Allah’s Face only. We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you.” (76:8, 9) and,

‘’By no means shall you attain Birr unless you spend of that which you love. (3:92)’’

Allah’s statement:

‘’…and give them preference over themselves even though they were in need of that, (59:9), refers to a higher category and status, as the people mentioned here give away what they need, while those mentioned in the previous Ayat give away what they covet (but not necessarily need).’’

Allah’s statement:

‘’…the kinsfolk, refers to man’s relatives, who have more rights than anyone else to one’s charity, as the Hadith supports:’’

Sadaqah (i.e., charity) given to the poor is a charity, while the Sadaqah given to the relatives is both Sadaqah and Silah (nurturing relations), for they are the most deserving of you and your kindness and charity.

Allah has commanded kindness to the relatives in many places in the Qur’an.

… to the orphans, The orphans are children who have none to look after them, having lost their fathers while they are still young, weak and unable to find their own sustenance since they have not reached the age of work and adolescence.

Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ali said that the Prophet said: … and to Al-Masakin, The Miskin is the person who does not have enough food, clothing, or he has no dwelling. So the Miskin should be granted the provisions to sustain him enough so that he can acquire his needs.

In the Sahihayn it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that Allah’s Messenger said:

The Miskin is not the person who roams around, and whose need is met by one or two dates or one or two bites. Rather, the Miskin is he who does not have what is sufficient, and to whom the people do not pay attention and, thus, do not give him from the charity.

… and to the wayfarer, is the needy traveler who runs out of money and should, thus, be granted whatever amount that helps him to go back to his land. Such is the case with whoever intends to go on a permissible journey, he is given what he needs for his journey and back.

The guests are included in this category.

Ali bin Abu Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “Ib As-Sabil (wayfarer) is the guest who is hosted by Muslims.”

Furthermore, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Jafar Al-Baqir, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Az-Zuhri, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Muqatil bin Hayyan said similarly.

… and to those who ask, refers to those who beg people and are thus given a part of the Zakah and general charity.

… and to set servants free, These are the servants who seek to free themselves, but cannot find enough money to buy their freedom.

We will mention several of these categories and types under the Tafsir of the Ayah on Sadaqah in Surah Bara’h, if Allah Willing.

Allah’s statement:

‘’Performs As-Salah (Iqamat-As-Salah), means, those who pray on time and give the prayer its due right; the bowing, prostration, and the necessary attention and humbleness required by Allah.’’

Allah’s statement:

‘’…  and gives the Zakah, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Muqatil bin Hayyan have stated, means, the required charity (Zakah) due on one’s money.’’

Allah’s statement:

‘’… and who fulfill their covenant when they make it,’’  is similar to:

‘’Those who fulfill the covenant of Allah and break not the Mithaq (bond, treaty, covenant).’’ (13:20)

The opposite of this characteristic is hypocrisy. As found in a Hadith:

The signs of a hypocrite are three:

  • if he speaks, he lies;
  • if he promises, he breaks his promise;
  • and if he is entrusted, he breaches the trust.

In another version:

  • If he speaks, he lies;
  • if he vows, he breaks his vow;
  • and if he disputes, he is lewd.

Allah’s statement:

‘’…and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of fighting (during the battles).’’ … means, during the time of meekness and ailment.

(…and at the time of fighting (during the battles),

Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Abbas, Abu Al-Aliyah, Murrah Al-Hamdani, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Abu Malik, Ad-Dahhak and others have stated, means on the battlefield while facing the enemy.

And calling them the patient here, is a form of praise, because of the importance of patience in these circumstances, and the suffering and difficulties that accompany them.

And Allah knows best, it is He Whom help is sought from, and upon Him we rely.

Allah’s statement:

‘’Such are the people of the truth, means, whoever acquires these qualities, these are truthful in their faith. This is because they have achieved faith in the heart and realized it in deed and upon the tongue.’’

So they are the truthful,

‘’… and they are Al-Muttaqun (the pious). because they avoided the prohibitions and performed the acts of obedience.’’

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178.| O you who believe! Al-Qisas (the Law of equality) is prescribed for you in case of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or the relatives) of the killed (against blood money), then it should be sought in a good manner, and paid to him respectfully. This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord. So after this, whoever transgresses the limits (i.e. kills the killer after taking the blood money), he shall have a painful torment.

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179.| And there is (a saving of) life for you in Al-Qisas (the Law of equality in punishment), O men of understanding, that you may acquire Taqwa.

The Command and the Wisdom behind the Law of Equality.

Allah says;

‘’ ‘O you who believe! Al-Qisas (the Law of equality) is prescribed for you in case of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female.’’

Allah states: O believers! The Law of equality has been ordained on you (for cases of murder), the free for the free, the slave for the slave and the female for the female. Therefore, do not transgress the set limits, as others before you transgressed them, and thus changed what Allah has ordained for them.

The reason behind this statement is that (the Jewish tribe of) Banu An-Nadir invaded Qurayzah (another Jewish tribe) during the time of Jahiliyyah (before Islam) and defeated them. Hence, (they made it a law that) when a person from Nadir kills a person from Quraizah, he is not killed in retaliation, but only pays a hundred Wasq of dates.

However, when a person from Quraizah kills a Nadir man, he would be killed for him. If Nadir wanted (to forfeit the execution of the murderer and instead require him) to pay a ransom, the Quraizah man pays two hundred Wasq of dates (double the amount Nadir pays in Diyah (blood money)).

So Allah commanded that justice be observed regarding the penal code, and that the path of the misguided and mischievous persons be avoided, who in disbelief and transgression, defy and alter what Allah has commanded them. Allah said:

Al-Qisas (the Law of equality in punishment) is prescribed for you in case of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female.

Allah’s statement:

‘’The free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female) was abrogated by the statement life for life.’’ (5:45)

However, the majority of scholars agree that the Muslim is not killed for a disbeliever whom he kills.

Al-Bukhari reported that Ali narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: The Muslim is not killed for the disbeliever (whom he kills).

No opinion that opposes this ruling could stand correct, nor is there an authentic Hadith to contradict it.

However, Abu Hanifah thought that the Muslim could be killed for a disbeliever, following the general meaning of the Ayah (5:45) in Surah Al-Ma’idah.

The Four Imams (Abu Hanifah, Malik, Shafii and Ahmad) and the majority of scholars stated that; the group is killed for one person whom they murder.

Umar said, about a boy who was killed by seven men, “If all the residents of San`a’ (capital of Yemen today) collaborated on killing him, I would kill them all.”

No opposing opinion was known by the Companions during that time which constitutes a near Ijma (consensus).

There is an opinion attributed to Imam Ahmad that; a group of people is not killed for one person whom they kill, and that only one person is killed for one person.

Ibn Al-Mundhir also attributed this opinion to Mu`adh, Ibn Az-Zubayr, Abdul-Malik bin Marwan, Az-Zuhri, Ibn Sirin and Habib bin Abu Thabit.

Allah’s statement:

‘’But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or the relatives) of the killed (against blood money), then it should be sought in a good manner, and paid to him respectfully.’’

… refers to accepting blood money (by the relatives of the victim in return for pardoning the killer) in cases of intentional murder.

This opinion is attributed to Abu Al-Aliyah, Abu Sha`tha’, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ata Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas said: (But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or the relatives) of the killed (against blood money), means, “the killer is pardoned by his brother (i.e., the relative of the victim) and accepting the Diyah after capital punishment becomes due (against the killer), this is the `Afw (pardon mentioned in the Ayah).”

Allah’s statement:

‘’…then it should be sought in a good manner, means, when the relative agrees to take the blood money, he should collect his rightful dues with kindness:’’

… and paid to him respectfully. means, the killer should accept the terms of settlement without causing further harm or resisting the payment.

Allah’s statement:

‘’This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord.’’

… means the legislation that allows you to accept the blood money for intentional murder is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord. It lightens what was required from those who were before you, either applying capital punishment or forgiving.

Sa`id bin Mansur reported that Ibn Abbas said, “The Children of Israel were required to apply the Law of equality in murder cases and were not allowed to offer pardons (in return for blood money). Allah said to this Ummah (the Muslim nation):

The Law of equality in punishment is prescribed for you in case of murder: the free for the free, the servant for the servant, and the female for the female. But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or the relatives) of the killed (against blood money).

Hence, `pardoning’ or `forgiving’ means accepting blood money in intentional murder cases.”

Ibn Hibban also recorded this in his Sahih.

Qatadah said: (This is an alleviation from your Lord), Allah had mercy on this Ummah by giving them the Diyah which was not allowed for any nation before it.

  • The People of the Torah (Jews) were allowed to either apply the penal code (for murder, i.e., execution) or to pardon the killer, but they were not allowed to take blood money.
  • The People of the Injil (the Gospel – the Christians) were required to pardon (the killer, but no Diyah was legislated).
  • This Ummah (Muslims) is allowed to apply the penal code (execution) or to pardon and accept the blood money.”

Similar was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Allah’s statement:

‘’So after this whoever transgresses the limits, he shall have a painful torment.’’

… means, those who kill in retaliation after taking the Diyah or accepting it, they will suffer a painful and severe torment from Allah.

The same was reported from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ata Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

The Benefits and Wisdom of the Law of Equality.

Allah’s statement:

‘’And there is life for you in Al-Qisas, legislating the Law of equality, i.e., killing the murderer, carries great benefits for you. This way, the sanctity of life will be preserved because the killer will refrain from killing, as he will be certain that if he kills, he would be killed. Hence life will be preserved.’’

In previous Books, there is a statement that killing stops further killing! This meaning came in much clearer and eloquent terms in the Qur’an: (And there is (a saving of) life for you in Al-Qisas (the Law of equality in punishment).

Abu Al-Aliyah said, “Allah made the Law of equality a `life’. Hence, how many a man who thought about killing, but this Law prevented him from killing for fear that he will be killed in turn.”

Similar statements were reported from Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Malik, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

Allah’s statement:

‘’O men of understanding, that you may acquire Taqwa.’’

… means, `O you who have sound minds, comprehension and understanding! Perhaps by this you will be compelled to refrain from transgressing the prohibitions of Allah and what He considers sinful.’

Taqwa (mentioned in the Ayah) is a word that means doing all acts of obedience and refraining from all prohibitions.

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180.| It is prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you, if he leaves wealth, that he makes a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable manners. (This is) a duty upon Al-Muttaqin (the pious).

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181.| Then whoever changes it after hearing it, the sin shall be on those who make the change. Truly, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.

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182.| But he who fears from a testator some unjust act or wrongdoing, and thereupon he makes peace between the parties concerned, there shall be no sin on him. Certainly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Including Parents and Relatives in the Will was later abrogated.

Allah says;

‘’It is prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you, if he leaves wealth, that he makes a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable manners.’’

(This is) a duty upon Al-Muttaqin (the pious).

This Ayah contains the command to include parents and relatives in the will, which was obligatory, according to the most correct view, before the Ayah about inheritance was revealed.

When the Ayah of inheritance was revealed, this Ayah was abrogated, so fixed shares of the inheritance for deserving recipients were legislated by Allah.

Therefore, deserving inheritors take their fixed inheritance without the need to be included in the will or to be reminded of the favor of the inherited person.

For this reason we see the Hadith narrated in the Sunan and other books that Amr bin Kharijah said: I heard Allah’s Messenger saying in a speech:

Allah has given each heir his fixed share. So there is no will for a deserving heir.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Muhammad bin Sirin said:

Ibn Abbas recited Surah Al-Baqarah until he reached the Ayah: ”    (…if he leaves wealth, that he makes a bequest to parents and next of kin), he then said, “This Ayah was abrogated.”

This was recorded by Sa`id bin Mansur and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak.

Al-Hakim Said, “It is Sahih according to their criteria (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).”

Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Ibn Abbas said that Allah’s statement: ” (a bequest to parents and next of kin), was abrogated by the Ayah:

‘’There is a share for men and a share for women from what is left by parents and those nearest related, whether the property be small or large a legal share.’’ (4:7)

Ibn Abu Hatim then said, “It was reported from Ibn Umar, Abu Musa, Sa`id bin Musayyib, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Ata Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Sirin, Ikrimah, Zayd bin Aslam and Ar-Rabi bin Anas. Qatadah, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Tawus, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Shurayh, Ad-Dahhak and Az- Zuhri said that; this Ayah (2:180 above) was abrogated by the Ayah about the inheritors (4:7).”

The Will for the Relatives that do not qualify as Inheritors It is recommended that the remaining relatives who do not have a designated fixed share of the inheritance, be willed up to a third, due to the general meaning of the Ayah about the will.

It is recorded in the Sahihayn that Ibn Umar said that; Allah’s Messenger said:

It is not permissible for any Muslim who has something to will to stay for two nights without having his last will and testament written and kept ready with him.

Ibn Umar commented, “Ever since I heard this statement from Allah’s Messenger, no night has passed, but my will is kept ready with me.”

There are many other Ayat and Hadiths ordering kindness and generosity to one’s relatives.

The Will should observe Justice.

The will should be fair, in that one designates a part of the inheritance to his relatives without committing injustice against his qualified inheritors and without extravagance or stinginess.

It is recorded in the Sahihayn that Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas said,

“O Allah’s Messenger! I have some money and only a daughter inherits from me, should I will all my remaining property (to others)?”

He said, “No.”

Sa`d said, “Then may I will half of it?”

He said, “No.”

Sa`d said, “One-third?”

He said, “Yes, one-third, yet even one-third is too much.

It is better for you to leave your inheritors wealthy than to leave them poor, begging from others.”

Al-Bukhari mentioned in his Sahih that Ibn Abbas said, “I recommend that people reduce the proportion of what they bequeath by will to a fourth (of the whole legacy) rather than a third, for Allah’s Messenger said:

Then whoever changes it after hearing it, the sin shall be on those who make the change. means, whoever changed the will and testament or altered it by addition or deletion, including hiding the will as is obvious, then” (the sin shall be on those who make the change).

Ibn Abbas and others said, “The dead person’s reward will be preserved for him by Allah, while the sin is acquired by those who change the will.”

Truly, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.

… means, Allah knows what the dead person has bequeathed and what the beneficiaries (or others) have changed in the will.

Allah’s statement:

‘’But he who fears from a testator some unjust act or wrongdoing, and thereupon he makes peace between the parties concerned, there shall be no sin on him. Certainly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.’’

(But he who fears from a testator some unjust act or wrongdoing),

Ibn Abbas, Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and As-Suddi said,

“Error.”

These errors include such cases;

  • as when the inheritor indirectly acquires more than his fair share, such as by being allocated that a certain item mentioned in the legacy be sold to him.
  • Or, the testator might include his daughter’s son in the legacy to increase his daughter’s share in the inheritance, and so forth.

Such errors might occur out of the kindness of the heart without thinking about the consequences of these actions, or by sinful intention.

In such cases, the executive of the will and testament is allowed to correct the errors and to replace the unjust items in the will with a better solution, so that both the Islamic law and what the dead person had wished for are respected and observed. This act would not constitute an alteration in the will and this is why Allah mentioned it specifically, so that it is excluded from the prohibition (that prohibits altering the will and testament) mentioned in the previous Ayah. And Allah knows best.

The Virtue of Fairness in the Will.

Abdur-Razzaq reported that Abu Hurayrah said that Allah’s Messenger said:

A man might perform the works of righteous people for seventy years, but when he dictates his will, he commits injustice and thus his works end with the worst of his deeds and he enters the Fire.

A man might perform the works of evil people for seventy years, but then dictates a just will and thus ends with the best of his deeds and then enters Paradise.

Abu Hurayrah then said, “Read if you wish:

‘’These are the limits ordained by Allah, so do not transgress them.” (2:229)

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183.| O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may acquire Taqwa.

002 - 184

184.| Fast for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that your fast is better for you if only you know.

The Order to Fast.

Allah said:

‘’O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may have Taqwa.’’

In an address to the believers of this Ummah, Allah ordered them to fast, that is, to abstain from food, drink and sexual activity with the intention of doing so sincerely for Allah the Exalted alone. This is because fasting purifies the souls and cleanses them from the evil that might mix with them and their ill behavior.

Allah mentioned that He has ordained fasting for Muslims just as He ordained it for those before them, they being an example for them in that, so they should vigorously perform this obligation more obediently than the previous nations.

Similarly, Allah said:

‘’To each among you, We have prescribed a law and a clear way. If Allah had willed, He would have made you one nation, but that (He) may test you in what He has given you; so compete in good deeds.’’ (5:48)

Allah said in this Ayah:

‘’ ‘O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may have Taqwa. Ssince the fast cleanses the body and narrows the paths of Shaytan.’’

In the Sahihayn the following Hadith was recorded:

O young people! Whoever amongst you can afford marriage, let him marry. Whoever cannot afford it, let him fast, for it will be a shield for him.

Allah then commands;

‘’Fast for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days.’’

Allah states that the fast occurs during a fixed number of days, so that it does not become hard on the hearts, thereby weakening their resolve and endurance.

The various Stages of Fasting.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Aishah said, “(The day of) `Ashura’ was a day of fasting. When the obligation to fast Ramadan was revealed, those who wished fasted, and those who wished did not.”

Al-Bukhari recorded the same from Ibn `Umar and Ibn Mas`ud.

Allah said:

‘’…those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).’’

Mu`adh commented, “In the beginning, those who wished, fasted and those who wished, did not fast and fed a poor person for each day.”

Al- Bukhari recorded Salamah bin Al-Akwa saying that; when the Ayah was revealed, those who did not wish to fast, used to pay the Fidyah (feeding a poor person for each day they did not fast) until the following Ayah (2:185) was revealed abrogating the previous Ayah.

It was also reported from Ubaydullah from Nafi that Ibn Umar said;

“It was abrogated.”

As-Suddi reported that Murrah narrated that Abdullah said about this Ayah:

“It means `those who find it difficult (to fast).’

Formerly, those who wished, fasted and those who wished, did not but fed a poor person instead.”

Allah then said:

‘’But whoever does good of his own accord, meaning whoever fed an extra poor person.’’

it is better for him. And that you fast is better for you if only you know.

Later the Ayah: (So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month) (2:185) was revealed and this abrogated the previous Ayah (2:184).

The Fidyah (Expiation) for breaking the Fast is for the Old and the Ailing

Al-Bukhari reported that; Ata heard Ibn Abbas recite:  (And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day).

Ibn Abbas then commented,

“(This Ayah) was not abrogated, it is for the old man and the old woman who are able to fast with difficulty, but choose instead to feed a poor person for every day (they do not fast).”

Others reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr mentioned this from Ibn Abbas.

So the abrogation here applies to the healthy person, who is not traveling and who has to fast, as Allah said:

‘’So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month.’’ (2:185)

As for the old man (and woman) who cannot fast, he is allowed to abstain from fasting and does not have to fast another day instead, because he is not likely to improve and be able to fast other days. So he is required to pay a Fidyah for every day missed. This is the opinion of Ibn Abbas and several others among the Salaf who read the Ayah: (And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g., an old man)), to mean those who find it difficult to fast as Ibn Mas`ud stated.

This is also the opinion of Al-Bukhari who said, “As for the old man (person) who cannot fast, (he should do like) Anas who, for one or two years after he became old fed some bread and meat to a poor person for each day he did not fast.”

This point, which Al-Bukhari attributed to Anas without a chain of narrators, was collected with a continuous chain of narrators by Abu Ya`la Mawsuli in his Musnad, that Ayub bin Abu Tamimah said; “Anas could no longer fast. So he made a plate of

Tharid (broth, bread and meat) and invited thirty poor persons and fed them.”

The same ruling applies for the pregnant and breastfeeding women if they fear for themselves or their children or fetuses. In this case, they pay the Fidyah and do not have to fast other days in place of the days that they missed.

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185.| The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number (of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasting) must be made up) from other days. Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah (i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Most Great)) for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.

The Virtue of Ramadan and the Revelation of the Qur’an in it.

Allah says;

‘’The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an, Allah praised the month of Ramadan out of the other months by choosing it to send down the Glorious Qur’an, just as He did for all of the Divine Books He revealed to the Prophets.’’

Imam Ahmad reported Wathilah bin Al-Asqa that Allah’s Messenger said:

The Suhuf (Pages) of Ibrahim were revealed during the first night of Ramadan. The Torah was revealed during the sixth night of Ramadan. The Injil was revealed during the thirteenth night of Ramadan. Allah revealed the Qur’an on the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan.

The Virtues of the Qur’an.

Allah said:

‘’…a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). Here Allah praised the Qur’an, which He revealed as guidance for the hearts of those who believe in it and adhere to its commands.’’

Allah said: (and clear proofs) meaning, as clear and unambiguous signs and unequivocal proof for those who understand them.

These proofs testify to the truth of the Qur’an, its guidance, the opposite of misguidance, and how it guides to the straight path, the opposite of the wrong path, and the distinction between the truth and falsehood, and the permissible and the prohibited.

The Obligation of Fasting Ramadan.

Allah said:

‘’So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month.’’

This Ayah requires the healthy persons who witness the beginning of the month, while residing in their land, to fast the month. This Ayah abrogated the Ayah that allows a choice of fasting or paying the Fidyah. When Allah ordered fasting, He again mentioned the permission for the ill person and the traveler to break the fast and to fast other days instead as compensation.

Allah said:

‘’…and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number (of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasting) must be made up) from other days.’’

This Ayah indicates that ill persons who are unable to fast or fear harm by fasting, and the traveler, are all allowed to break the fast. When one does not fast in this case, he is obliged to fast other days instead.

Allah said:

‘’Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.’’

This Ayah indicates that Allah allowed such persons, out of His mercy and to make matters easy for them, to break the fast when they are ill or traveling, while the fast is still obligatory on the healthy persons who are not traveling.

Several Rulings concerning the Fast The authentic Sunnah states that; Allah’s Messenger traveled during the month of Ramadan for the battle for Makkah. The Prophet marched until he reached the area of Kadid and then broke his fast and ordered those who were with him to do likewise. This was recorded in the Two Sahihs.

Breaking the fast mentioned in this Hadith was not required, for the Companions used to go out with Allah’s Messenger during the month of Ramadan, then, some of them would fast while some of them would not fast and neither category would criticize the others. If the command mentioned in the Hadith required breaking the fast, the Prophet would have criticized those who fasted. Allah’s Messenger himself sometimes fasted while traveling.

For instance, it is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Ad-Darda said, “We once went with Allah’s Messenger during Ramadan while the heat was intense. One of us would place his hand on his head because of the intense heat.

Only Allah’s Messenger and Abdullah bin Rawahah were fasting at that time.” We should state that observing the permission to break the fast while traveling is better, as Allah’s Messenger said about fasting while traveling:

Those who did not fast have done good, and there is no harm for those who fasted. In another Hadith, the Prophet said: Hold to Allah’s permission that He has granted you. Some scholars say that the two actions are the same, as Aishah narrated that; Hamzah bin Amr Al-Aslami said, “O Messenger of Allah! I fast a lot, should I fast while traveling?”

The Prophet said:

‘’Fast if you wish or do not fast if you wish.’’

This Hadith is in the Two Sahihs.

It was reported that; if the fast becomes difficult (while traveling), then breaking the fast is better.

Jabir said that; Allah’s Messenger saw a man who was being shaded (by other people while traveling). The Prophet asked about him and he was told that man was fasting.

The Prophet said:

‘’It is not a part of Birr (piety) to fast while traveling.’’

This was recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

As for those who ignore the Sunnah and believe in their hearts that breaking the fast while traveling is disliked, they are required to break the fast and are not allowed to fast.

As for making up for missed fasting days, it is not required to be consecutive. One may do so consecutively or not consecutively. There are ample proofs to this fact.

We should mention that fasting consecutive days is only required exclusively during Ramadan. After the month of Ramadan, what is required then is to merely make up for missed days. This is why Allah said: (…the same number (should be made up) from other day).

Ease and not Hardship.

Allah then said:

‘’Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.’’

Imam Ahmad recorded Anas bin Malik saying that Allah’s Messenger said:

Treat the people with ease and don’t be hard on them; give them glad tidings and don’t fill them with aversion. This Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs.

It is reported in the Sahihayn that Allah’s Messenger said to Mu`adh and Abu Musa when he sent them to Yemen: Treat the people with ease and don’t be hard on them; give them glad tidings and don’t fill them with aversion; and love each other, and don’t differ.

The Sunan and the Musnad compilers recorded that Allah’s Messenger said: I was sent with the easy Hanifiyyah (Islamic Monotheism).

Allah’s statement:

‘’Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), means: You were allowed to break the fast while ill, while traveling, and so forth, because Allah wanted to make matters easy for you. He only commanded you to make up for missed days so that you complete the days of one month.’’

Remembering Allah upon performing the Acts of Worship.

Allah’s statement:

‘’…and that you must magnify Allah (i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Most Great)) for having guided you, means: So that you remember Allah upon finishing the act of worship.’’

This is similar to Allah’s statement:

‘’So when you have accomplished your Manasik, (rituals) remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with far more remembrance.’’ (2:200)

‘’…Then when the (Jumuah) Salah (prayer) is ended, you may disperse through the land, and seek the bounty of Allah (by working), and remember Allah much, that you may be successful.’’ (62:10)

‘’…and glorify the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting. And during a part of the night, glorify His praises, and after the prayers.’’ (50:39-40)

This is why the Sunnah encouraged; o Tasbih saying, Subhan Allah, i.e., all praise is due to Allah,

  • Tahmid saying Al-Hamdu Lillah, i.e., all the thanks are due to Allah, and
  • Takbir saying Allahu Akbar, i.e., Allah is the Most Great.

… after the compulsory prayers.

Ibn Abbas said, “We used to know that Allah’s Messenger has finished the prayer by the Takbir.”

Similarly, several scholars have stated that; reciting Takbir the during Id-ul-Fitr was specified by the Ayah that states: (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah (i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Most Great)) for having guided you…

Allah’s statement:

‘’…so that you may be grateful to Him. means: If you adhere to what Allah commanded you, obeying Him by performing the obligations, abandoning the prohibitions and abiding by the set limits, then perhaps you will be among the grateful.’’

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186.| And when My servants ask you (O Muhammad concerning Me, then answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright.

Allah hears the Servant’s Supplication.

Allah says;

‘’And when My servants ask you (O Muhammad concerning Me, then answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright.

Imam Ahmad reported that Abu Musa Al-Ashari said, “We were in the company of Allah’s Messenger during a battle. Whenever we climbed a high place, went up a hill or went down a valley, we used to say, `Allah is the Most Great,’ raising our voices.

The Prophet came by us and said:

‘’O people! Be merciful to yourselves (i.e., don’t raise your voices), for you are not calling a deaf or an absent one, but One Who is All-Hearer, All-Seer. The One Whom you call is closer to one of you than the neck of his animal.

‘’O Abdullah bin Qais (Abu Musa’s name) should I teach you a statement that is a treasure of Paradise: `La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah (there is no power or strength except from Allah).’ This Hadith was also recorded in the Two Sahihs, and Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah recorded similar wordings.

Furthermore, Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Prophet said:

“Allah the Exalted said, `I am as My servant thinks of Me, and I am with him whenever he invokes Me.’

Allah accepts the Invocation.

Imam Ahmad also recorded Abu Sa`id saying that the Prophet said:

No Muslim supplicates to Allah with a Du`a that does not involve sin or cutting the relations of the womb, but Allah will grant him one of the three things.

  • He will either hasten the response to his supplication,
  • save it for him until the Hereafter, or
  • would turn an equivalent amount of evil away from him.”

They said, “What if we were to recite more (Du`a).”

He said, there is more with Allah.

Abdullah the son of Imam Ahmad recorded Ubaydah bin As-Samit saying that the Prophet said:

There is no Muslim man on the face of the earth who supplicates to Allah but Allah would either grant it to him, or avert harm from him of equal proportions, as long as his supplication does not involve sin or cutting the relations of the womb. At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith.

Imam Malik recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

One’s supplication will be accepted as long as he does not get hasty and say, `I have supplicated but it has not been accepted from me.”

This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs from Malik, and this is the wording of Al-Bukhari. Muslim recorded that the Prophet said:

The supplication of the servant will be accepted as long as he does not supplicate for what includes sin, or cutting the relations of the womb, and as long as he does not become hasty. He was asked, “O Messenger of Allah! How does one become hasty?”

He said,

He says, `I supplicated and supplicated, but I do not see that my supplication is being accepted from me.’ He thus looses interest and abandons supplicating (to Allah).

Three Persons Whose Supplication will not be rejected In the Musnad of Imam Ahmad and the Sunans of At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah it is recorded that; Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

Three persons will not have their supplication rejected:

  • the just ruler,
  • the fasting person until breaking the fast, and
  • the supplication of the oppressed person, for Allah raises it above the clouds on the Day of Resurrection, and the doors of heaven will be opened for it, and Allah says, `By My grace! I will certainly grant it for you, even if after a while.’

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187.| It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting). They are Libas (i.e., body-cover, or screen) for you and you are Libas for them. Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you. So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allah has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall. And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in Itikaf in the Masjids. These are the limits (set) by Allah, so approach them not. Thus does Allah make clear His Ayat to mankind that they may acquire Taqwa.

Eating, Drinking and Sexual Intercourse are allowed during the Nights of Ramadan.

Allah says;

It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting).

These Ayat contain a relief from Allah for the Muslims by ending the practice that was observed in the early years of Islam. At that time, Muslims were allowed to eat, drink and have sexual intercourse only until the `Isha’ (Night) prayer, unless one sleeps before the `Isha’ prayer. Those who slept before `Isha’ or offered the `Isha’ prayer, were not allowed to drink, eat or sexual intercourse sex until the next night.

The Muslims found that to be difficult for them.

According to Ibn Abbas, Ata and Mujahid, the Ayat used the word `Rafath’ to indicate sexual intercourse, Similar Tafsir was offered by Sa`id bin Jubayr, Tawus, Salim bin Abdullah, Amr bin Dinar, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Az-Zuhri, Ad-Dahhak, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, As-Suddi, Ata Al-Khurasani and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

Allah said:

‘’They are Libas (i.e., body-cover, or screen) for you and you are Libas for them.

Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that this Ayah means,

“Your wives are a resort for you and you for them.”

Ar-Rabi bin Anas said, “They are your cover and you are their cover.”

In short, the wife and the husband are intimate and have sexual intercourse with each other, and this is why they were permitted to have sexual activity during the nights of Ramadan, so that matters are made easier for them.

Abu Ishaq reported that Al-Bara bin Azib said, “When the Companions of Allah’s Messenger observed fast but would sleep before breaking their fast, they would continue fasting until the following night.

Qays bin Sirmah Al-Ansari was fasting one day and was working in his land. When the time to break the fast came, he went to his wife and said, `Do you have food?’

She said, `No. But I could try to get you some.’

His eyes then were overcome by sleep and when his wife came back, she found him asleep. She said, `Woe unto you! Did you sleep?’

In the middle of the next day, he lost consciousness and mentioned what had happened to the Prophet.

Then, this Ayah was revealed:  (It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting)) until…

(and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall).

Consequently, they were very delighted.”

Al-Bukhari reported this Hadith by Abu Ishaq, who related that he heard Al-Bara say, “When fasting Ramadan was ordained, Muslims used to refrain from sleeping with their wives the entire month, but some men used to deceive themselves.

Allah revealed:

(Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you).”

Ali bin Abu Talhah narrated that Ibn Abbas said, “During the month of Ramadan, after Muslims would pray `Isha’, they would not touch their women and food until the next night. Then some Muslims, including Umar bin Al-Khattab, touched (had sex with) their wives and had some food during Ramadan after `Isha’. They complained to Allah’s Messenger. Then Allah sent down:

(Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you. So now have sexual relations with them).”

This is the same narration that Al-Awfi related from Ibn Abbas.

Allah said:

…and seek that which Allah has ordained for you (offspring), Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Abbas, Anas, Shurayh Al-Qadi, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ata, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, As-Suddi, Zayd bin Aslam, Hakam bin Utbah, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, and others said that; this Ayah refers to having offspring.

Qatadah said that the Ayah means, “Seek the permission that Allah has allowed for you.”

Sa`id narrated that Qatadah said, (and seek that which Allah has ordained for you).

Time for Suhur

Allah said:

…and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your fast till the nightfall.

Allah has allowed eating and drinking, along with having sexual intercourse, as we have stated, during any part of the night until the light of dawn is distinguished from the darkness of the night.

Allah has described that time as `distinguishing the white thread from the black thread.’ He then made it clearer when He said: (of dawn).

As stated in a Hadith that Imam Abu Abdullah Al-Bukhari recorded, Sahl bin Sa`d said, “When the following verse was revealed:

(Eat and drink until the white thread appears to you, distinct from the black thread), and (of dawn) was not revealed, some people who intended to fast, tied black and white threads to their legs and went on eating till they differentiated between the two.

Allah then revealed the words, (of dawn), and it became clear to them that it meant (the darkness of) night and (the light of) day.”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ash-Sha`bi said that Adi said, “I took two strings, one black and the other white and kept them under my pillow and went on looking at them throughout the night, but could not make any distinction between the two.

So, the next morning I went to Allah’s Messenger and told him the whole story. He said: Your pillow is very wide if the white and black threads are under it!

Some wordings for this Hadith read, Your Qafa (back side of your neck) is wide!

Some people said that these words meant that Adi was not smart. This is a weak opinion. The narration that Al-Bukhari collected explains this part of the Hadith.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Adi bin Hatim narrated: I said, “O Messenger of Allah! What is the white thread from the black thread? Are they actual threads?”

He said: Your Qafa is wide if you see the two threads.

Rather, they are the blackness of the night and the whiteness of the daylight.

Suhur is Recommended

Allah allowed eating and drinking until dawn, it represents proof that Suhur is encouraged, since it is a Rukhsah (concession or allowance) and Allah likes that the Rukhsah is accepted and implemented.

The authentic Sunnah indicates that eating the Suhur is encouraged.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Anas narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

”Eat the Suhur, for there is a blessing in Suhur”.

Muslim reported that Amr bin Al-As narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: The distinction between our fast and the fast of the People of the Book is the meal of Suhur.

Imam Ahmad reported that Abu Sa`id narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: Suhur is a blessed meal. Hence, do not abandon it, even if one just takes a sip of water. Indeed, Allah and His angels send Salah (blessings) upon those who eat Suhur.

There are several other Hadiths that encourage taking the Suhur, even if it only consists of a sip of water.

It is preferred that Suhur be delayed until the time of dawn.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Anas bin Malik narrated that Zayd bin Thabit said, “We had Suhur with Allah’s Messenger and then went on to pray.”

Anas asked, “How much time was there between the Adhan (call to prayer) and the Suhur?”

He said, “The time that fifty Ayat take (to recite).”

Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Dharr saying that Allah’s Messenger said: My Ummah will always retain goodness as long as they hasten in breaking the fast and delay the Suhur.

There are several Hadiths that narrate that, the Prophet called Suhur “the blessed meal.” There are narrations from several of the Salaf that; they allowed the Suhur to be eaten later until close to Fajr.

This is reported from Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, Hudhayfah, Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Umar, Ibn Abbas and Zayd bin Thabit.

It is also reported from many of the Tabi`in, such as Muhammad bin Ali bin Husayn, Abu Mijlaz, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Abu Ad-Duha, Abu Wa’il and other companions of Ibn Mas`ud.

This is also the opinion of Ata, Al-Hasan, Hakam bin Uyainah, Mujahid, Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, Abu Shatha Jabir bin Zayd, Al- Amash and Ma`mar bin Rashid.

We have mentioned the chains of narrations for their statements in our (Ibn Kathir’s) book about Siyam (Fasting), and all praise is due to Allah.

It is also recorded in the Two Sahihs that Al-Qasim said that Aishah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: The Adhan pronounced by Bilal should not stop you from taking Suhur, for he pronounces the Adhan at night. Hence, eat and drink until you hear the Adhan by Ibn Umm Maktum, for he does not call the Adhan until dawn.

This is the wording collected by Al-Bukhari.

Imam Ahmad reported that Qays bin Talq quoted from his father that Allah’s Messenger said: Dawn is not the (ascending) glow of white light of the horizon. Rather, it is the red (radiating) light.

Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith but their wording is: Eat and drink and do not be rushed by the ascending (white) light. Eat and drink until the redness (of the dawn) appears.

Ibn Jarir (At-Tabari) recorded that Samurah bin Jundub narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: Do not be stopped by Bilal’s Adhan or the (ascending) whiteness, until it spreads.

Muslim also recorded this Hadith.

There is no Harm in beginning the Fast while Junub (a state of major ritual impurity)

Issue: Among the benefits of allowing sexual activity, eating and drinking until dawn for those who are fasting, is that it is allowed to start the fast while Junub (in the state of impurity after sexual discharge), and there is no harm in this case if one takes a bath any time in the morning after waking up, and completes the fast.

This is the opinion of the Four Imams and the majority of the scholars.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Aishah and Umm Salamah said that;

Allah’s Messenger used to wake up while Junub from sexual intercourse, not wet dreams, and he would take a bath and fast.

Umm Salamah added that he would not break his fast or make up for that day.

Muslim recorded that Aishah said that a man asked: “O Messenger of Allah! The (Dawn) prayer time starts while I am Junub, should I fast?”

Allah’s Messenger replied,  And I, the prayer time starts while I am Junub and I fast.

He said, “You are not like us, O Messenger of Allah! Allah has forgiven your previous and latter sins.”

Allah’s Messenger said:

By Allah! I hope that I have the most fear from Allah among you and the best knowledge of what Taqwa is.

Fasting ends at Sunset

Allah said:

…then complete your fast till the nightfall.

This Ayah orders breaking the fast at sunset.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Umar bin Al-Khattab said that Allah’s Messenger said: If the night comes from this direction (the east),  and the day departs from that direction (the west), then the fasting person breaks his fast.

It is reported that Sahl bin Sa`d As-Sa`idi narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

The people will retain goodness as long as they hasten in breaking the fast. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said:

Allah the Exalted said, `the dearest among My servants to Me are those who hasten in breaking the fast the most.’

At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith and said that this Hadith is Hasan Gharib.

Prohibition of Uninterrupted Fasting (Wisal).

There are several authentic Hadiths that prohibit Al-Wisal, which means continuing the fast through the night to the next night, without eating.

Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Hurayrah saying that Allah’s Messenger said:

‘’Do not practice Al-Wisal in fasting.’’

So, they said to him, “But you practice Al-Wisal, O Allah’s Messenger!”

The Prophet replied,

“I am not like you, I am given food and drink during my sleep by my Lord.”

So, when the people refused to stop Al-Wisal, the Prophet fasted two days and two nights (along with those who practiced Wisal) and then they saw the crescent moon (of the month of Shawwal). The Prophet said to them (angrily):

If the crescent had not appeared, I would have made you fast for a longer period.

That was as a punishment for them (when they refused to stop practicing Al-Wisal).

This Hadith is also recorded in the Sahihayn.

The prohibition of Al-Wisal was also mentioned in a number of other narrations. It is a fact that practicing Al-Wisal was one of the special qualities of the Prophet, for he was capable and assisted in his practice of it. It is obvious that the food and drink that the Prophet used to get while practicing Al-Wisal was spiritual and not material, otherwise he would not be practicing Al-Wisal.

We should mention that it is allowed to refrain from breaking the fast from sunset until before dawn (Suhur).

A Hadith narrated by Abu Sa`id Khudri states that Allah’s Messenger said: Do not practice Al-Wisal, but whoever wishes is allowed to practice it until the Suhur.

They said, “You practice Al-Wisal, O Messenger of Allah!”

He said:

I am not similar to you, for I have One Who makes me eat and drink during the night.

This Hadith is also collected in the Two Sahihs.

The Rulings of Itikaf

Allah said:

And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in Itikaf in the Masjids.

Ali bin Abu Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “This Ayah is about the man who stays in Itikaf at the mosque during Ramadan or other months, Allah prohibited him from touching (having sexual intercourse with) women, during the night or day, until he finishes his Itikaf.”

Ad-Dahhak said, “Formerly, the man who practiced Itikaf would go out of the mosque and, if he wished, would have sexual intercourse (with his wife).

Allah then said:

(And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in Itikaf in the Masjids. meaning, `Do not touch your wives as long as you are in Itikaf, whether you were in the mosque or outside of it’.”

It is also the opinion of Mujahid, Qatadah and several other scholars, that; the Muslims used to have sexual intercourse with the wife while in Itikaf if they departed the mosque until the Ayah was revealed.

Ibn Abu Hatim commented, “It was reported that Ibn Mas`ud, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Mujahid, Ata Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Muqatil said that the Ayah means, `Do not touch the wife while in Itikaf.”’

What Ibn Abu Hatim reported from these people is the agreed upon practice among the scholars.

Those who are in Itikaf are not allowed to have sexual intercourse as long as they are still in Itikaf in the mosque. If one has to leave the mosque to attend to a need, such as to relieve the call of nature or to eat, he is not allowed to kiss or embrace his wife or to busy himself with other than his Itikaf. He is not even allowed to visit ailing persons, but he can merely ask about their condition while passing by.

Itikaf has several other rulings that are explained in the books (of Fiqh), and we have mentioned several of these rulings at the end of our book on Siyam (Fasting), all praise is due to Allah.

Furthermore, the scholars of Fiqh used to follow their explanation of the rules for fasting with the explanation of the rules for Itikaf, as this is the way these acts of worship were mentioned in the Qur’an.

By mentioning Itikaf after fasting, Allah draws attention to practicing Itikaf during the month of the fast, especially the last part of the month. The Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger is that he used to perform Itikaf during the last ten nights of the month of Ramadan until he died.

Afterwards, the Prophet’s wives used to perform Itikaf as the Two Sahihs recorded from Aishah the Mother of the believers.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that; Safiyyah, the daughter of Huyai, went to Allah’s Messenger to visit him in the mosque while he was in Itikaf.

She had a talk with him for a while, then she got up in order to return home. The Prophet accompanied her back home, as it was night. Her house was at Usamah bin Zayd’s house on the edge of Al-Madinah.

While they were walking, two Ansari men met them and passed by them in a hurry, for they were shy to bother the Prophet while he was walking with his wife. He told them:

Do not run away! She is (my wife) Safiyyah bint Huyai.

Both of them said, “All praise is due to Allah, How we dare think of any evil? O Allah’s Messenger!”

The Prophet said (to them):

‘’Shaytan reaches everywhere in the human body, that the blood reaches. I was afraid lest Shaytan might suggest an evil thought in your minds.’’

Imam Ash-Shafii commented,

“Allah’s Messenger sought to teach his Ummah to instantly eliminate any evil thought, so that they do not fall into the prohibited. They (the two Ansari men) had more fear of Allah than to think evil of the Prophet. Allah knows best.”

The Ayah (2:187) prohibits sexual intercourse and anything like kissing or embracing that might lead to it during Itikaf. As for having the wife helping the husband, it is allowed.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Aishah said, “Allah’s Messenger would bring his head near me (in her room) and I would comb his hair, while I was on my menses. He would enter the room only to attend to what a man needs.”

Allah’s statement:

These are the limits (set) by Allah, means, `This is what We have explained, ordained, specified, allowed and prohibited for fasting. We also mentioned the fast’s objectives, what is permitted during it, and what is required of it. These are the set limits that Allah has legislated and explained, so do not come near them or transgress them.’ so approach them not.

Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, “Allah’s set limits mentioned in the Ayah mean these four limits (and he then recited):  (It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Siyam (fasting).)

… and he recited up to:   (then complete your Sawm (fast) till the nightfall).

My father and other are used to say similarly and recite the same Ayah to us.”

Allah said:

Thus does Allah make clear His Ayat to mankind, meaning, `Just as He explains the fast and its rulings, He also explains the other rulings by the words of His servant and Messenger, Muhammad.’

Allah continues:

… to mankind that they may attain Taqwa. meaning, `So that they know how to acquire the true guidance and how to worship (Allah).’

Similarly, Allah said:

It is He Who sends down manifest Ayat to His servant (Muhammad) that He may bring you out from (types of) darkness into the light. And verily, Allah is to you full of kindness, Most Merciful. (57:9)

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188.| And eat up not one another’s property unjustly (in any illegal way, e.g., stealing, robbing, deceiving), nor give bribery to the rulers (judges before presenting your cases) that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others sinfully.

Bribery is prohibited and is a Sin.

Allah says;

And eat up not one another’s property unjustly (in any illegal way, e.g., stealing, robbing, deceiving), nor give bribery to the rulers (judges before presenting your cases) that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others sinfully.

Ali bin Abu Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “This Ayah is about the indebted person when there is no evidence of the loan. So he denies taking the loan and the case goes to the authorities, even though he knows that it is not his money and that he is a sinner, consuming what is not allowed for him.”

This opinion was also reported from Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. They all stated, “Do not dispute when you know that you are being unjust.”

The Judge’s Ruling does not allow the Prohibited or prohibit the Lawful.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Umm Salamah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

I am only human! You people present your cases to me, and as some of you may be more eloquent and persuasive in presenting his argument, I might issue a judgment in his benefit. So, if I give a Muslim’s right to another, I am really giving him a piece of fire; so he should not take it.

The Ayah and the Hadith prove that the judgment of the authorities in any case does not change the reality of the truth. Hence, the ruling does not allow what is in fact prohibited or prohibit what is in fact allowed. It is only applicable in that case. So if the ruling agrees with the truth, then there is no harm in this case. Otherwise, the judge will acquire his reward, while the cheater will acquire the evil burden. This is why Allah said:

And eat up not one another’s property unjustly, nor give bribery to the rulers (judges before presenting your cases) that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others sinfully. meaning, `While you know the falsehood of what you claim.’

Qatadah said, “O son of Adam! Know that the judge’s ruling does not allow you what is prohibited or prohibit you from what is allowed. The judge only rules according to his best judgment and according to the testimony of the witnesses. The judge is only human and is bound to make mistakes.

Know that if the judge erroneously rules in some one’s favor, then that person will still encounter the dispute when the disputing parties meet Allah on the Day of Resurrection. Then, the unjust person will be judged swiftly and precisely with that which will surpass whatever he acquired by the erroneous judgment he received in the life of this world.”

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189.| They ask you (O Muhammad) about the crescents. Say: “These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage.” It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, etc.) that you enter the houses from the back, but Al-Birr is from Taqwa. So enter houses through their proper doors,and have Taqwa of Allah that you may be successful.

The Crescent Moons.

Allah says;

They ask you (O Muhammad) about the crescents. Say: “These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage.”

Al-Awfi related that Ibn Abbas said, “The people asked Allah’s Messenger about the crescent moons. Thereafter, this Ayah was revealed, so that they mark their acts of worship, the Iddah (the period of time a divorced woman or a widow is required to wait before remarrying) of their women and the time of their Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah).”

Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ibn Umar narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: Allah has made the crescents signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind. Hence, fast on seeing it (the crescent for Ramadan) and break the fast on seeing it (the crescent for Shawwal).

If it (the crescent) was obscure to you then count thirty days (mark that month as thirty days).

This Hadith was also collected by Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, and he said, “The chain is Sahih, and they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not recorded it.”

Righteousness comes from Taqwa.

Allah said:

It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, etc.) that you enter the houses from the back, but Al-Birr is from Taqwa. So enter houses through their proper doors.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, they used to enter the house from the back upon assuming the Ihram. Thereafter, Allah revealed (the following Ayah:  (It is not Al-Birr (piety,righteousness, etc.) that you enter the houses from the back but Al-Birr is from Taqwa. So enter houses through their proper doors).”

Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded the same Hadith from Al-Bara but with the wording; “The Ansar used to enter their houses from the back when returning from a journey. Thereafter, this Ayah (2:189 above) was revealed…”

Al-Hasan said, “When some people during the time of Jahiliyyah would leave home to travel, and then decide not to travel, they would not enter the house from its door. Rather, they would climb over the back wall. Allah the Exalted said: (It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness) that you enter the houses from the back).”

Allah’s statement:

…and have Taqwa of Allah that you may be successful.

Have Taqwa of Allah, means to do what He has commanded you and refrain from what He has forbidden for you, (that you may be successful), tomorrow when you stand before Him and He thus rewards you perfectly.

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190.| And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors.

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191.| And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (the sanctuary at Makkah), unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers.

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192.| But if they cease, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

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193.| And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah) and the religion (all and every kind of worship) is for Allah (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zalimin (the polytheists and wrongdoers).

The Command to fight Those Who fight Muslims and killing Them wherever They are found.

Allah commands;

And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors.

Abu Jafar Ar-Razi said that Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that Abu Al-Aliyah commented on what Allah said: (And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you), “This was the first Ayah about fighting that was revealed in Al-Madinah. Ever since it was revealed, Allah’s Messenger used to fight only those who fought him and avoid non-combatants.

Later, Surah Bara’h was revealed.”

Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said similarly, then he said that; this was later abrogated by the Ayah: (then kill them wherever you find them), (9:5).

However, this statement is not plausible, because Allah’s statement: (…those who fight you) applies only to fighting the enemies who are engaged in fighting Islam and its people. So the Ayah means, `Fight those who fight you’, just as Allah said in another Ayah: (…and fight against the Mushrikin collectively as they fight against you collectively), (9:36).

This is why Allah said later in the Ayah: (And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out), meaning, `Your energy should be spent on fighting them, just as their energy is spent on fighting you, and on expelling them from the areas from which they have expelled you, as a law of equality in punishment.’

The Prohibition of mutilating the Dead and stealing from the captured Goods.

Allah said:

… but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the ansgressors.

This Ayah means, `Fight for the sake of Allah and do not betransgressors,’ such as, by  committing prohibitions.

Al-Hasan Al-Basri stated that transgression (indicated by the Ayah), “includes mutilating the dead, theft (from the captured goods), killing women, children and old people who do not participate in warfare, killing priests and residents of houses of worship, burning down trees and killing animals without real benefit.”

This is also the opinion of Ibn Abbas, Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, Muqatil bin Hayyan and others.

Muslim recorded in his Sahih that Buraydah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: Fight for the sake of Allah and fight those who disbelieve in Allah. Fight, but do not steal (from the captured goods), commit treachery, mutilate (the dead), or kill a child, or those who reside in houses of worship.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Ibn Umar said, “A woman was found dead during one of the Prophet’s battles and the Prophet then forbade killing women and children.” There are many other Hadiths on this subject.

Shirk is worse than Killing.

Allah says;

And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing.

Since Jihad involves killing and shedding the blood of men, Allah indicated that these men are committing disbelief in Allah, associating with Him (in the worship) and hindering from His path, and this is a much greater evil and more disastrous than killing.

Abu Malik commented about what Allah said:  (And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing), “meaning what you (disbelievers) are committing is much worse than killing.”

Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that: what Allah said:

(And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing), “Shirk (polytheism) is worse than killing.”

Fighting in the Sacred Area is prohibited, except in Self-Defense.

Allah said:

And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (the sanctuary at Makkah).

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that the Prophet said: Allah has made this city a sanctuary since the day He created the heavens and the earth. So, it is a sanctuary by Allah’s decree till the Day of Resurrection.

Fighting in it was made legal for me only for an hour in the daytime. So, it (i.e., Makkah) is a sanctuary, by Allah’s decree, from now on until the Day of Resurrection.

Its trees should not be cut, and its grass should not be uprooted.

If anyone mentions the fighting in it that occurred by Allah’s Messenger, then say that Allah allowed His Messenger, but did not allow you.

In this Hadith, Allah’s Messenger mentions fighting the people of Makkah when he conquered it by force, leading to some deaths among the polytheists in the area of the Khandamah. This occurred after the Prophet proclaimed: Whoever closed his door is safe. Whoever entered the (Sacred) Mosque is safe. Whoever entered the house of Abu Sufyan is also safe.

Allah said:

…unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers.

Allah states:

`Do not fight them in the area of the Sacred Mosque unless they start fighting you in it. In this case, you are allowed to fight them and kill them to stop their aggression.’

Hence, Allah’s Messenger took the pledge from his Companions under the tree (in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah) to fight (the polytheists), after the tribes of Quraysh and their allies, Thaqif and other groups, collaborated against the Muslims (to stop them from entering Makkah to visit the Sacred House). Then, Allah stopped the fighting before it started between them and said:

And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them. (48:24)

Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills  if they (the believers and the disbelievers) had been apart, We verily, would have punished those of them who disbelieved with painful torment. (48:25)

Allah’s statement:

But if they cease, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

… which means, `If they (polytheists) cease fighting you in the Sacred Area, and come to Islam and repent, then Allah will forgive them their sins, even if they had before killed Muslims in Allah’s Sacred Area.’

Indeed, Allah’s forgiveness encompasses every sin, whatever its enormity, when the sinner repents it.

The Order to fight until there is no more Fitnah.

Allah then commanded fighting the disbelievers when He said:

”And fight them until there is no more Fitnah, meaning, Shirk”.

This is the opinion of Ibn Abbas, Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, As-Suddi and Zayd bin Aslam.

Allah’s statement:

…and the religion (all and every kind of worship) is for Allah (Alone). means, `So that the religion of Allah becomes dominant above all other religions.’

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Musa Al-Ashari said: “The Prophet was asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! A man fights out of bravery, and another fights to show off, which of them fights in the cause of Allah?’

The Prophet said:

”He who fights so that Allah’s Word is superior, then he fights in Allah’s cause”.

In addition, it is reported in the Two Sahihs:

I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight the people until they proclaim, `None has the right to be worshipped but Allah’. Whoever said it, then he will save his life and property from me, except for cases of the law, and their account will be with Allah.

Allah’s statement:

… But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against the wrongdoers.

indicates that, `If they stop their Shirk and fighting the believers, then cease warfare against them. Whoever fights them afterwards will be committing an injustice. Verily aggression can only be started against the unjust.’

This is the meaning of Mujahid’s statement that only combatants should be fought.

Or, the meaning of the Ayah indicates that, `If they abandon their injustice, which is Shirk in this case, then do not start aggression against them afterwards.’

The aggression here means retaliating and fighting them, just as Allah said: Then whoever transgresses against you, you transgress likewise against him. (2:194)

Similarly, Allah said:

”The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof. (42:40) and,”

”And if you punish them, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted”. (16:126)

Ikrimah and Qatadah stated, “The unjust person is he who refuses to proclaim, `There is no God worthy of worship except Allah’.”

Under Allah’s statement:

(And fight them until there is no more Fitnah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Nafi said that; two men came to Ibn Umar during the conflict of Ibn Az-Zubayr and said to him, “The people have fallen into shortcomings and you are the son of Umar and the Prophet’s Companion. Hence, what prevents you from going out?”

He said, “What prevents me is that Allah has for bidden shedding the blood of my (Muslim) brother.”

They said, “Did not Allah say: (And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah)!”

He said, “We did fight until there was no more Fitnah and the religion became for Allah Alone. You want to fight until there is Fitnah and the religion becomes for other than Allah!”

Uthman bin Salih added that; a man came to Ibn Umar and asked him, “O Abu Abdur-Rahman! What made you perform Hajj one year and Umrah another year and abandon Jihad in the cause of Allah, although you know how much He has encouraged performing it!”

He said, “O my nephew! Islam is built on five (pillars):

  • believing in Allah and His Messenger,
  • the five daily prayers,
  • fasting Ramadan,
  • paying the Zakah and
  • performing Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House.”

They said, “O Abu Abdur-Rahman! Did you not hear what Allah said in His Book:

And if two parties (or groups) among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that which outrages till it complies with the command of Allah. (49:9) and, (And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief).

He said, “That we did during the time of Allah’s Messenger when Islam was still weak and (the Muslim) man used to face trials in his religion, such as killing or torture. When Islam became stronger (and apparent), there was no more Fitnah.”

He asked, “What do you say about Ali and Uthman?”

He said, “As for Uthman, Allah has forgiven him.

However, you hated the fact that Allah had forgiven him!

As for Ali, he is the cousin of Allah’s Messenger and his son-in-law.”

He then pointed with his hand, saying, “This is where his house is located (meaning, `so close to the Prophet’s house just as Ali was so close to the Prophet himself’.”

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194.| The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of equality (Qisas). Then whoever transgresses against you, you transgress likewise against him. And fear Allah, and know that Allah is with Al-Muttaqin.

Fighting during the Sacred Months is prohibited, except in Self-Defense.

Allah says,

The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of equality (Qisas).

Ibn Abbas, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Qatadah, Miqsam, Ar- Rabi bin Anas and Ata said,

“Allah’s Messenger went for Umrah on the sixth year of Hijrah. Then, the idolators prevented him from entering the Sacred House (the Ka`bah in Makkah) along with the Muslims who came with him. This incident occurred during the sacred month of Dhul-Qadah. The idolators agreed to allow them to enter the House the next year.

Hence, the Prophet entered the House the following year, along with the Muslims who accompanied him, and Allah permitted him to avenge the idolators’ treatment of him, when He said:

(The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of equality (Qisas).

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said, “Allah’s Messenger would not engage in warfare during the Sacred Month unless he was first attacked, then he would march forth. He would otherwise remain idle until the end of the Sacred Months.”

This Hadith has an authentic chain of narrators.

Hence, when the Prophet was told that Uthman was killed (in Makkah) when he was camped at the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, after he had sent Uthman as his emissary to the polytheists, he accepted the pledge from his Companions under the tree to fight the polytheists.

They were one thousand and four hundred then. When the Prophet was informed that Uthman was not killed, he abandoned the fight and reverted to peace. When the Prophet finished fighting with (the tribes of) Hawazin during the battle of Hunayn and Hawazin took refuge in (the city of) At-Ta’if, he laid siege to that city.

Then, the (sacred) month of Dhul-Qadah started, while At-Ta’if was still under siege. The siege went on for the rest of the forty days (rather, from the day the battle of Hunayn started until the Prophet went back to Al- Madinah from Al-Jiranah, were forty days), as reported in the Two Sahihs and narrated by Anas.

When the Companions suffered mounting casualties (during the siege), the Prophet ended the siege before conquering At-Ta’if. He then went back to Makkah, performed Umrah from Al-Jiranah, where he divided the war booty of Hunayn. This Umrah occurred during Dhul-Qadah of the eighth year of Al-Hijrah.

Allah’s statement:

…whoever transgresses against you, you transgress likewise against him. ordains justice even with the polytheists.

Allah also said in another Ayah:

And if you punish, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. (16:126)

Allah’s statement:

… And fear Allah, and know that Allah is with Al-Muttaqin (the pious). commands that Allah be obeyed and feared out of Taqwa.

The Ayah informs us that Allah is with those who have Taqwa by His aid and support in this life and the Hereafter.

002 - 195

195.| And spend in the cause of Allah and do not throw yourselves into destruction, and do good. Truly, Allah loves Al-Muhsinin (those who do good).

The Command to spend in the Cause of Allah.

Allah says;

And spend in the cause of Allah and do not throw yourselves into destruction, Al-Bukhari recorded that Hudhayfah said: “It was revealed about spending.”

Ibn Abu Hatim reported him saying similarly.

He then commented, “Similar is reported from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ata, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan.”

Aslam Abu Imran said, “A man from among the Ansar broke enemy (Byzantine) lines in Constantinople (Istanbul).

Abu Ayub Al-Ansari was with us then. So some people said, `He is throwing himself to destruction.’

Abu Ayub said, `We know this Ayah (2:195) better, for it was revealed about us, the Companions of Allah’s Messenger who participated in Jihad with him and aided and supported him.

When Islam became strong, we, the Ansar, met and said to each other, `Allah has honored us by being the Companions of His Prophet and in supporting him until Islam became victorious and its following increased.

We had before ignored the needs of our families, estates and children. Warfare has ceased, so let us go back to our families and children and attend to them.’ So this Ayah was revealed about us:

(And spend in the cause of Allah and do not throw yourselves into destruction), the destruction refers to staying with our families and estates and abandoning Jihad.”

This was recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i, Abd bin Humayd in his Tafsir, Ibn Abu Hatim, Ibn Jarir, Ibn Marduwyah, Al-Hafiz Abu Ya`la in his Musnad, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim.

At-Tirmidhi said; “Hasan, Sahih, Gharib.”

Al-Hakim said, “It meets the criteria of the Two Sheikhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) but they did not record it.”

Abu Dawud’s version mentions that Aslam Abu Imran said, “We were at (the siege of) Constantinople. Then, Uqbah bin Amr was leading the Egyptian forces, while the Syrian forces were led by Fadalah bin Ubayd. Later on, a huge column of Roman (Byzantine) soldiers departed the city, and we stood in lines against them.

A Muslim man raided the Roman lines until he broke through them and came back to us. The people shouted, `All praise is due to Allah! He is sending himself to certain demise.’

Abu Ayub said, `O people! You explain this Ayah the wrong way. It was revealed about us, the Ansar when Allah gave victory to His religion and its following increased. We said to each other, `It would be better for us now if we return to our estates and attend to them.’ Then Allah revealed this Ayah (2:195)’.”

Abu Bakr bin Aiyash reported that Abu Ishaq As-Subai`y related that a man said to Al-Bara bin Azib, “If I raided the enemy lines alone and they kill me, would I be throwing myself to certain demise?”

He said,

“No. Allah said to His Messenger: (Then fight (O Muhammad) in the cause of Allah, you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself. (4:84) That Ayah (2:195) is about (refraining from) spending.”

Ibn Marduwyah reported this Hadith, as well as Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak who said; “It meets the criteria of the Two Sheikhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) but they did not record it.” Ath-Thawri and Qays bin Ar-Rabi related it from Al-Bara. but added:

(You are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself. (4:84)

“Destruction refers to the man who sins and refrains from repenting, thus throwing himself to destruction.”

Ibn Abbas said:

(And spend in the cause of Allah and do not throw yourselves into destruction), “This is not about fighting. But about refraining from spending for the sake of Allah, in which case, one will be throwing his self into destruction.”

The Ayah (2:195) includes the order to spend in Allah’s cause, in the various areas and ways that involve obedience and drawing closer to Allah. It especially applies to spending in fighting the enemies and on what strengthens the Muslims against the enemy.

Allah states that those who refrain from spending in this regard will face utter and certain demise and destruction, meaning those who acquire this habit.

Allah commands that one should acquire Ihsan (excellence in the religion), as it is the highest part of the acts of obedience.

Allah said:

… and do good. Truly, Allah loves Al-Muhsinin (those who do good).

002 - 196

196.| And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah. But if you are prevented, then sacrifice a Hady that you can afford, and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice. And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment on his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either fasting or giving Sadaqah or a sacrifice. Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, but if he cannot (afford it), he should fast for three days during Hajj and seven days after his return, making ten days in all. This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e., non-resident of Makkah). And fear Allah much and know that Allah is severe in punishment.

The Command to complete Hajj and Umrah.

Allah says;

… And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah.

After Allah mentioned the rulings for fasting and Jihad, he explained the rituals by commanding the Muslims to complete Hajj and Umrah, meaning, to finish the rituals of Hajj and Umrah after one starts them.

This is why Allah said afterwards:

… But if you are prevented, meaning, if your way to the House is obstructed, and you are prevented from finishing it. This is why the scholars agree that starting the acts of Hajj and Umrah requires one to finish them.

As for Makhul, he said, “Complete, means to start them from the Miqat (areas the Prophet designated to assume Ihram from).”

Abdur-Razzaq said that Az-Zuhri said: “We were told that Umar commented on:  (And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah),

“Complete Hajj and Umrah means performing each of them separately, and to perform Umrah outside of the months of Hajj, for Allah the Exalted says:

(The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months),” (2:197).

As-Suddi said,

(And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah) means, “Maintain the performance of Hajj and Umrah.”

Ibn Abbas was reported to have said, “Hajj is Arafat, while Umrah is Tawaf.”

Al-Amash related that Ibrahim said that Alqamah commented on Allah’s statement:

(And complete Hajj and Umrah for Allah), “Abdullah (Ibn Mas`ud) recited it this way: `Complete Hajj and Umrah to the House, so that one does not exceed the area of the House during the Umrah’.”

Ibrahim then said, “I mentioned this statement to Sa`id bin Jubayr and he said; `Ibn Abbas also said that.”’

Sufyan reported that Ibrahim said that Alqamah said regarding the Ayah, “Perform the Hajj and Umrah to the House.”

Ath-Thawri reported that Ibrahim read (the Ayah),

“Perform the Hajj and Umrah to the House.”

If One is prevented while in Route, He slaughters the Sacrifice, shaves his Head and ends Ihram.

Allah’s statement:

… But if you are prevented, sacrifice a Hady (animals for sacrifice) such as you can afford, was revealed in the sixth year of Hijrah, the year of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah when the polytheists prevented Allah’s Messenger from reaching the House.

Allah revealed Surah Al-Fath then, and allowed the Muslims to slaughter any Hady (animals for sacrifice) they had. They had seventy camels with them for that purpose.

They were also permitted to shave their heads and end their Ihram.

When the Prophet commanded them to shave their heads and end the state of Ihram, they did not obey him, as they were awaiting that order to be abrogated.

When they saw that the Prophet went out after shaving his head, they imitated him. Some of them did not shave, but only shortened their hair. This is why the Prophet said: May Allah award His mercy to those who shaved.

They said, “What about those who shortened the hair?” He said in the third time, “And to those who shortened.”

Every seven among them shared one camel for their sacrifice. They were one thousand and four hundred Companions and were camping in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, outside the Sacred Area. It was also reported that they were within the boundaries of the Sacred Area. Allah knows best.

Being prevented from the House (Hasr) includes more than just being sick, fearing an enemy or getting lost on the way to Makkah.

Imam Ahmad reported that Al-Hajjaj bin Amr Al-Ansari said that he heard Allah’s Messenger saying: Whoever suffered a broken bone or a limb, will have ended his Ihram and has to perform Hajj again.

He said, “I mentioned that to Ibn Abbas and Abu Hurayrah and they both said, `He (Al-Hajjaj) has said the truth’.”

This Hadith is also reported in the Four Collections.

In the version of Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah, the Prophet said, “Whoever limped, had a broken bone or became ill…”

Ibn Abu Hatim also recorded it and said, “It was reported that Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Az-Zubayr, Alqamah, Sa`id bin Musayyib, Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, Mujahid, An-Nakhai, Ata and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that; being prevented (Hasr) entails an enemy, an illness or a fracture.”

Ath-Thawri also said, “Being prevented entails everything that harms the person.”

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Aishah said that; Allah’s Messenger went to Dubaah bint Az-Zubayr bin Abdul-Muttalib who said, “O Messenger of Allah! I intend to perform Hajj but I am ill.”

He said, “Perform Hajj and make the condition: `My place is where You prevent (or halt) me.”

Muslim recorded similarly from Ibn Abbas.

So saying such a condition for Hajj is allowed is based on this Hadith.

Allah’s statement:

(…sacrifice a Hady such as you can afford), includes a sheep also, as Imam Malik reported that Ali bin Abu Talib used to say.

Ibn Abbas said, “The Hady includes eight types of animals:

  • camels,
  • cows,
  • goats and
  • sheep.”

Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ibn Abbas said about what Allah said:

(…sacrifice a Hady such as you can afford), “As much as one could afford.”

Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said, “If one can afford it, then camels, otherwise cows, or sheep.”

Hisham bin Urwah quoted his father:

(…sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e., a sheep, a cow, or a camel), such as you can afford, `Depending on the price.’

The proof that sacrificing only a sheep is allowed in the case of being prevented from continuing the rites, is that Allah has required sacrificing whatever is available as a Hady, and the Hady is any type of cattle; be it camels, cows or sheep. This is the opinion of Ibn Abbas the cousin of Allah’s Messenger and the scholar of Tafsir.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Aishah, the Mother of the believers, said,

“The Prophet once offered some sheep as Hady.”

Allah’s statement:

…and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice, is a continuation of His statement:

(And complete, the Hajj and Umrah for Allah.) and is not dependent upon:

(But if you are prevented, then sacrifice a Hady) as Ibn Jarir has erroneously claimed. When the Prophet and his Companions were prevented from entering the Sacred House during the Al-Hudaybiyyah year by the polytheists from Quraysh, they shaved their heads and sacrificed their Hady outside the Haram (Sacred) area.

In normal circumstances, and when one can safely reach the House, he is not allowed to shave his head until:

(.. .and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice), and then he ends the rituals of Hajj or Umrah, or both if he had assumed Ihram for both.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Hafsah said, “O Allah’s Messenger! What is wrong with the people, they have finished their Ihram for Umrah but you have not?”

The Prophet said,

‘’I matted my hair and I have garlanded my Hady (animals for sacrifice), so I will not finish my Ihram till I offer the sacrifice.’’

Whoever shaved his Head during Ihram, will have to pay the Fidyah.

Allah said:

And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment on his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah. Al-Bukhari reported that Abdur-Rahman bin Asbahani said that he heard Abdullah bin Ma`qil saying that; he sat with Ka`b bin Ujrah in the mosque of Kufah (in Iraq). He then asked him about the Fidyah of the fasting.

Ka`b said, “This was revealed concerning my case especially, but it is also for you in general. I was carried to Allah’s Messenger and the lice were falling in great numbers on my face.

The Prophet said:

I never thought that your ailment (or struggle) had reached to such an extent as I see. Can you afford a sheep (for sacrifice)?’

I replied in the negative.

He then said:

Fast for three days or feed six poor persons, each with half a Sa` of food (1 Sa` = 3 kilograms approx) and shave your head.

So this is a general judgment derived from a specific case.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ka`b bin Ujrah said, “Allah’s Messenger came by while I was igniting the fire under a pot and while the lice were falling down my head or my eyelids. He said:

Do these lice in your head bother you?

I said, `Yes.’

He said:

Shave it, then fast three days, or feed six poor people, or sacrifice an animal.

Ayub (one of the narrators of the Hadith) commented,

“I do not know which alternative was stated first.”

The wording of the Qur’an begins with the easiest then the more difficult options:

“Pay a Fidyah of fasting (three days), feeding (six poor persons) or sacrificing (an animal).”

Meanwhile, the Prophet advised Ka`b with the more rewarding option first, that is, sacrificing a sheep, then feeding six poor persons, then fasting three days.

Each Text is suitable in its place and context, all the thanks and praises are due to Allah.

Tamattu During Hajj.

Allah said:

Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, That is, when you are able to complete the rites, so whoever among you connects his Umrah with Hajj having the same Ihram for both, or, first assuming Ihram for Umrah, and then assuming Ihram for Hajj when finished the Umrah, this is the more specific type of Tamattu which is well-known among the discussion of the scholars whereas in general there are two types of Tamattu, as the authentic Hadiths prove, since among the narrators are those who said, “Allah’s Messenger performed Tamattu, and others who said, “Qarin” but there is no difference between them over the Hady.

So Allah said,

(Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj (i.e., Hajj At-Tamattu and Al-Qiran, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford), means let him sacrifice whatever Hady is available to him, the least of which is a sheep.

One is also allowed to sacrifice a cow because the Prophet slaughtered cows on behalf of his wives.

Al-Awzai reported that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah’s Messenger slaughtered cows on behalf of his wives when they were performing Tamattu.

This was reported by Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah.

This last Hadith proves that Tamattu is legislated.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Imran bin Husayn said,

“We performed Hajj At-Tamattu in the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger and then the Qur’an was revealed (regarding Hajj At-Tamattu). Nothing was revealed to forbid it, nor did he (the Prophet) forbid it until he died. And somebody said what he wished (regarding Hajj At-Tamattu) according to his own opinion.”

Al-Bukhari said that Imran was talking about Umar.

It is reported in an authentic narration that; Umar used to discourage the people from performing Tamattu.

He used to say, “If we refer to Allah’s Book, we should complete it,” meaning:

(…whosoever performs the Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford. However Umar did not say that Tamattu is unlawful. He only prevented them so that the people would increase their trips to the House for Hajj (during the months of Hajj) and Umrah (throughout the year), as he himself has stated.

Whoever performs Tamattu` should fast Ten Days if He does not have a Hady

Allah said:

…but if he cannot (afford it), he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home), making ten days in all.

This Ayah means:

“Those who do not find a Hady, let them fast three days during the Hajj season.”

Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said, “If one does not have a Hady, he should fast three days during Hajj, before Arafah day. If the day of Arafah was the third day, then his fast is complete. He should also fast seven days when he gets back home.”

Abu Ishaq reported from Wabarah from Ibn Umar who said,

“One fasts one day before the day of Tarwiyah, the day of Tarwiyah (eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah) and then Arafah day (the ninth day of the month of Dhul-Hijjah).”

The same statement was reported by Jafar bin Muhammad from his father from Ali.

If one did not fast these three days or at least some of them before `Id day (the tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah), he is allowed to fast during the Tashriq days (11-12-13th day of Dhul-Hijjah). `

Al-Bukhari has reported that Aishah and Ibn Umar said, “Fasting the days of Tashriq was only allowed for those who did not find the Hady,”

Sufyan related that Jafar bin Muhammad narrated that his father said that Ali said, “Whoever did not fast the three days during the Hajj, should fast them during the days of Tashriq.”

This is also the position taken by Ubayd bin Umayr Al-Laythi, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, referring to the general meaning of Allah’s statement:

(…fast three days during the Hajj…).

As for what Muslim reported that Qutaybah Al-Hudhali said that Allah’s Messenger said:

The days of Tashriq are days of eating and drinking and remembering Allah the Exalted.

This narration is general in meaning while what Aishah and Ibn Umar narrated is specific.

Allah said:

…and seven days after his return.

There are two opinions regarding the meaning of this Ayah.

  • First, it means `when you return to the camping areas’.
  • The second, upon going back home.

Abdur-Razzaq reported that Salim narrated that he heard Ibn Umar saying:

“(…but if he cannot (afford it), he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return), means when he goes back to his family.”

The same opinion was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Ata, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Imam Az-Zuhri and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Al-Bukhari reported that Salim bin Abdullah narrated that Ibn Umar said, “During the Farewell Hajj of Allah’s Messenger, he performed Tamattu with Umrah and Hajj. He drove a Hady along with him from Dhul-Hulayfah. Allah’s Messenger started by assuming Ihram for Umrah, and then for Hajj. And the people, too, performed the Umrah and Hajj along with the Prophet.

Some of them brought the Hady and drove it along with them, while the others did not. So, when the Prophet arrived at Makkah, he said to the people:

Whoever among you has driven the Hady, should not finish his Ihram till he completes his Hajj.

And whoever among you has not (driven) the Hady with him, he should perform Tawaf of the Ka`bah and between As-Safa and Al-Marwah.

Then, he should shave or cut his hair short and finish his Ihram, and should later assume Ihram for Hajj; (but he must offer a Hady (sacrifice)).

And if anyone cannot afford a Hady, he should fast for three days during the Hajj and seven days when he returns home.

He then mentioned the rest of the Hadith, which is reported in the Two Sahihs.

Allah said:

…making ten days in all. to emphasize the ruling we mentioned above.

This method is common in the Arabic language, for they would say, `I have seen with my eyes, heard with my ears and written with my hand,’ to emphasize such facts.

Similarly, Allah said:

…nor a bird that flies with its two wings. (6:38)

…nor did you write any book (whatsoever) with your right hand. (29:48)

And We appointed for Musa thirty nights and added (to the period) ten (more), and he completed the term, appointed by his Lord, of forty nights. (7:142)

It was also said that; the meaning of “ten days in all” emphasizes the order to fast for ten days, not less than that.

The Residents of Makkah do not perform Tamattu.

Allah said:

This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e., non-resident of Makkah).

This Ayah concerns the residents of the area of the Haram, for they do not perform Tamattu.

Abdur-Razzaq reported that Tawus said, “Tamattu is for the people, those whose families are not residing in the Haram area (Makkah), not for the residents of Makkah.

Hence Allah’s Statement:

(This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e., non-resident of Makkah).

Abdur-Razzaq then said, “I was also told that Ibn Abbas said similar to Tawus.”

Allah said:

…and fear Allah, meaning, in what He has commanded you and what He prohibited for you.

He then said:

…and know that Allah is severe in punishment. for those who defy His command and commit what He has prohibited.

002 - 197

197.| The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known months. So whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram), then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit  sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj. And whatever good you do, Allah knows it. And take provisions for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness). So fear Me, O men of understanding!

When does Ihram for Hajj start.

Allah said:

The Hajj is (in) the well-known months.

This Ayah indicates that Ihram for Hajj only occurs during the months of Hajj. This was reported from Ibn Abbas, Jabir, Ata, Tawus and Mujahid.

The proof for this is Allah’s statement that Hajj occurs during known, specific months, which indicates that Hajj is not allowed before that, just as the prayer has a fixed time (before which one’s prayer is not accepted).

Ash-Shafii recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “No person should assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj, for Allah said: (The Hajj is (in) the well-known months).

Ibn Khuzaymah reported that Ibn Abbas said, “No Ihram for Hajj should be assumed, except during the months of Hajj, for among the Sunnah of Hajj is that one assume Ihram for it during the Hajj months.”

This is an authentic narration and the Companion’s statement that such and such is among the Sunnah is considered as a Hadith of the Prophet, according to the majority of the scholars. This is especially the case when it is Ibn Abbas who issued this statement, as he is the Tarjuman (translator, interpreter, and explainer) of the Qur’an.

There is a Hadith about this subject too.

Ibn Marduwyah related that Jabir narrated that the Prophet said: No one should assume Ihram for Hajj, but during the months of Hajj.

The chain of narrators for this Hadith is reasonable.

Ash-Shafii and Al-Bayhaqi recorded this Hadith from Ibn Jurayj who related that Abu Az-Zubayr said that he heard Jabir bin Abdullah being asked, “Does one assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj?”

He said, “No.”

This narration is more reliable than the narration that we mentioned from the Prophet.

In short, this statement is the opinion of the Companion, supported by Ibn Abbas statement that it is a part of the Sunnah not to assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj. Allah knows best.

The Months of Hajj.

Allah said:

… …the well-known months.

Al-Bukhari said that Ibn Umar said that; these are Shawwal, Dhul-Qadah and the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah.

This narration for which Al-Bukhari did not mention the chain of narrators, was collected by a continuous chain of narrators that Ibn Jarir rendered authentic, leading to Ibn Umar, who said: (The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months), “which are Shawwal, Dhul-Qadah and the (first) ten days of Dhul-Hijjah.” Its chain is Sahih.

Al-Hakim also recorded it in his Mustadrak, and he said, “It meets the criteria of the Two Sheikhs.”

This statement is also reported from Umar, Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr, Ibn Abbas, Ata, Tawus, Mujahid, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Imam Ash-Sha`bi, Al-Hasan, Ibn Sirin, Makhul, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

This opinion was preferred by Ibn Jarir, who said, “It is a common practice to call two months and a part of the third month as `months’. This is similar to the Arab’s saying, `I visited such and such person this year or this day.’ He only visited him during a part of the year and a part of the day.

Allah said:

(But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him), (2:203).

In this case, one will only be hastening for one and a half days.”

Allah then said:

… So whosoever intends (Farada) to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram), meaning that one’s assuming the Ihram requires a Hajj, for the person is required to complete the rituals of Hajj after assuming Ihram.

Ibn Jarir said that Al-Awfi said, “The scholars agree that (Farada) `intends’ mentioned in the Ayah means it is a requirement and an obligation.”

Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said: (So whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram)), refers to those who assume Ihram for Hajj and Umrah.”

Ata said, “‘Intends’, means, assumes the Ihram.”

Similar statements were attributed to Ibrahim, Ad-Dahhak and others.

Prohibition of Rafath (Sexual Intercourse) during Hajj.

Allah said:

He should not have Rafath, This Ayah means that those who assume the Ihram for Hajj or Umrah are required to avoid the Rafath, meaning, sexual intercourse.

Allah’s statement here is similar to His statement:

It is made lawful for you to have Rafath (sexual relations) with your wives on the night of the fast. (2:187)

Whatever might lead to sexual intercourse, such as embracing, kissing and talking to women about similar subjects, is not allowed.

Ibn Jarir reported that Nafi narrated that Abdullah bin Umar said, Rafath means sexual intercourse or mentioning this subject with the tongue, by either men or women.”

Ata bin Abu Rabah said that, Rafath means sexual intercourse and foul speech.

This is also the opinion of Amr bin Dinar.

Ata also said that they used to even prevent talking (or hinting) about this subject.

Tawus said that Rafath includes one’s saying, “When I end the Ihram I will have sex with you.”

This is also the same explanation offered by Abu Al-Aliyah regarding Rafath.

Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said, “Rafath means having sex with the wife, kissing, fondling and saying foul words to her, and similar acts.”

Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar said that; Rafath means to have sex with women.

This is also the opinion of Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Mujahid, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Abu Al-Aliyah who narrated it from Ata and Makhul, Ata Al-Khurasani, Ata’ bin Yasar, Atiyah, Ibrahim, Ar-Rabi, Az-Zuhri, As-Suddi, Malik bin Anas, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Abdul-Karim bin Malik, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak, and others.

The Prohibition of Fusuq during Hajj.

Allah said:

…nor commit sin, Miqsam and several other scholars related that Ibn Abbas said, “It is disobedience.”

This is also the opinion of Ata, Mujahid, Tawus, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Az-Zuhri, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Ata bin Yasar, Ata Al-Khurasani and Muqatil bin Hayyan.

Ibn Wahb reported that Nafi` narrated that Abdullah bin Umar said,

“Fusuq (or sin mentioned in the Ayah (2:197)) refers to committing what Allah has forbidden in the Sacred Area.”

Several others said that; Fusuq means cursing others, they based this on the authentic Hadith:

Cursing the Muslim is Fusuq, while fighting him is Kufr.

Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said; Fusuq here means slaughtering animals for the idols, as Allah said:

…or impious (Fisq) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah. (6:145)

Ad-Dahhak said that; Fusuq is insulting one another with bad nicknames.

Those who said that the Fusuq means all types of disobedience are correct. Allah has also prohibited committing injustice during the months of Hajj in specific, although injustice is prohibited throughout the year.

This is why Allah said:

…of them four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein. (9:36)

Allah said about the Sacred Area:

…and whoever inclines to evil actions therein or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment. (22:25)

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: Whoever performed Hajj to this (Sacred) House and did not commit Rafath or Fusuq, will return sinless, just as the day his mother gave birth to him.

The Prohibition of arguing during Hajj.

Allah said:

… nor should there be Jidal during Hajj, meaning, disputes and arguments.

Ibn Jarir related that Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that; what Allah said: (…nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj) means to argue with your companion (or fellow) until you make him angry.

This is similar to the the opinion that Miqsam and Ad-Dahhak related to Ibn Abbas.

This is also the same meaning reported from Abu Al-Aliyah, Ata, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Jabir bin Zayd, Ata Al-Khurasani, Makhul, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Amr bin Dinar, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Ata bin Yasar, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Az-Zuhri.

The Encouragement for Righteous Deeds and to bring Provisions for Hajj.

Allah said:

And whatever good you do, Allah knows it.

After Allah prohibited evil in deed and tongue, He encouraged righteous, good deeds, stating that He is knowledgeable of the good that they do, and He will reward them with the best awards on the Day of Resurrection.

Allah said next:

… And take provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness).

Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud reported that Ibn Abbas said, “The people of Yemen used to go to Hajj without taking enough supplies with them. They used to say, `We are those who have Tawakkul (reliance on Allah).’

Allah revealed this Ayah:  (And take provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness)).

Ibn Jarir and Ibn Marduwyah narrated that Ibn Umar said, “When people assumed Ihram, they would throw away whatever provisions they had and would acquire other types of provisions. Allah revealed:

(And take a provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness)).

Allah forbade them from this practice and required them to take flour and Sawiq (a type of food usually eaten with dates) with them.”

The Provisions of the Hereafter.

Allah said:

…but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness).

When Allah required mankind to supply themselves with what sustains them for the journeys of this life, He directed them to the necessary provisions for the Hereafter: Taqwa.

Allah said in another Ayah:

…and as an adornment; and the raiment of Taqwa, that is better. (7:26)

Allah mentioned the material covering and then He mentioned the spiritual covering, which includes humbleness, obedience and Taqwa. He also stated that the latter provision is better and more beneficial than the former.

So fear Me, O men of understanding! meaning: `Fear My torment, punishment, and affliction for those who defy Me and do not adhere to My commands, O people of reason and understanding.’

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198.| There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading). Then when you leave Arafat, remember Allah (by glorifying His praises, i.e., prayers and invocations) at the Mash`ar-il-Haram. And remember Him (by invoking Allah for all good) as He has guided you, and verily you were before, of those who were astray.

Commercial Transactions during Hajj.

Allah says;

There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord.

Al-Bukhari reported that Ibn Abbas said, “Ukaz, Mijannah and Dhul-Majaz were trading posts during the time of Jahiliyyah. During that era, they did not like the idea of conducting business transactions during the Hajj season.

Later, this Ayah was revealed:

(There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord), during the Hajj season.”

Abu Dawud and others recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “They used to avoid conducting business transactions during the Hajj season, saying that these are the days of Dhikr. Allah revealed: (There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading)).”

This is also the explanation of Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Mansur bin Al-Mutamir, Qatadah, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and others.

Ibn Jarir reported that Abu Umaymah said that; when Ibn Umar was asked about conducting trade during the Hajj, he recited the Ayah: (There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading)).

This Hadith is related to Ibn Umar with a strong chain of narrators.

This Hadith is also related to the Prophet, as Ahmad reported that Abu Umamah At-Taymi said, “I asked Ibn Umar, `We buy (and sell during the Hajj), so do we still have a valid Hajj?’

He said, `Do you not perform Tawaf around the House, stand at Arafat, throw the pebbles and shave your heads?’

I said, `Yes.’

Ibn Umar said, `A man came to the Prophet and asked him about what you asked me, and the Prophet did not answer him until Jibril came down with this Ayah: (There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading)).

The Prophet summoned the man and said: You are pilgrims.”

Ibn Jarir narrated that Abu Salih said to Umar, “`O Leader of the faithful! Did you conduct trade transactions during the Hajj?”

He said, “Was their livelihood except during Hajj!”

Standing at Arafat.

Allah said:

Then when you leave Arafat, remember Allah (by glorifying His praises, i.e., prayers and invocations) at the Mash`ar-il-Haram.

Arafat is the place where one stands during the Hajj and it is a pillar of the rituals of Hajj.

Imam Ahmad and the Sunan compilers recorded that Abdur-Rahman bin Yamar Ad-Diyli said that he heard Allah’s Messenger saying:

Hajj is Arafat, (thrice). Hence, those who have stood at Arafat before dawn will have performed (the rituals of the Hajj). The days of Mina are three, and there is no sin for those who move on after two days, or for those who stay.

The time to stand on Arafat starts from noon on the day of Arafah until dawn the next day, which is the day of the Sacrifice (the tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah).

The Prophet stood at Arafat during the Farewell Hajj, after he had offered the Zuhr (noon) prayer, until sunset. He said, “Learn your rituals from me.”

In this Hadith (i.e., in the previous paragraph) he said, “Whoever stood at Arafat before dawn, will have performed (the rituals of Hajj).”

Urwah bin Mudarris bin Harithah bin Lam At-Ta’i said, “I came to Allah’s Messenger at Al-Muzdalifah when it was time to pray. I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I came from the two mountains of Tayy’, and my animal became tired and I became tired.

I have not left any mountain, but stood on it. Do I have a valid Hajj?’

Allah’s Messenger said:

Whoever performed this prayer with us, stood with us until we moved forth, and had stood at Arafat before that, day or night, will have performed the Hajj and completed its rituals.”

This Hadith was collected by Imam Ahmad and the compilers of the Sunan, and At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih.

It was reported that the mount was called Arafat because, as Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ali bin Abu Talib said, “Allah sent Jibril to Prophet Ibrahim and he performed Hajj for him (to teach him its rituals).

When Ibrahim reached Arafat he said, `I have Araftu (I know this place).’

He had come to that area before. Thereafter, it was called Arafat.”

Ibn Al-Mubarak said that Ata said, “It was called Arafat because Jibril used to teach Ibrahim the rituals of Hajj. Ibrahim would say, `I have Araftu, I have Araftu.’ It was thereafter called Arafat.”

Similar statements were attributed to Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar and Abu Mijlaz. Allah knows best.

Arafat is also called Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram, Al-Mash`ar Al-Aqsa and Ilal, while the mount that is in the middle of Arafat is called Jabal Ar-Rahmah (Mount of Mercy).

The Time to leave Arafat and Al-Muzdalifah Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Ibn Abbas said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people used to stand at Arafat. When the sun would be on top of the mountains, just as the turban is on top of a man’s head, they would move on. Allah’s Messenger delayed moving from Arafat until sunset.”

Ibn Marduwyah related this Hadith and added, “He then stood at Al-Muzdalifah and offered the Fajr (Dawn) prayer at an early time. When the light of dawn broke, he moved on.”

This Hadith has a Hasan chain of narrators.

The long Hadith that Jabir bin Abdullah narrated, which Muslim collected, stated, “The Prophet kept standing there (meaning at Arafat) until sunset, when the yellow light had somewhat gone and the disc of the sun had disappeared. Then, the Prophet made Usamah sit behind him, and in order to keep her under control, pulled the nose string of Al-Qaswa’ so hard, that its head touched the saddle. He gestured with his right hand and said, “Proceed calmly people, calmly!”

Whenever he happened to pass over an elevated tract of sand, he lightly loosened the nose string of his camel till she climbed up and this is how they reached Al-Muzdalifah.

There, he led the Maghrib (Evening) and Isha (Night) prayers with one Adhan and two Iqamah (which announces the imminent start of the acts of the prayer) and did not glorify Allah in between them (i.e., he did not perform voluntary Rak`ah).

Allah’s Messenger then laid down till dawn and offered the Fajr (Dawn) prayer with Adhan and Iqamah, when the morning light was clear.

He again mounted Al-Qaswa’, and when he came to Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram, he faced towards Qiblah, supplicated to Allah, glorifying Him and saying, La ilaha illallah, and he continued standing until the daylight was very clear. He then went quickly before the sun rose.”

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Usamah bin Zayd was asked, “How was the Prophet’s pace when he moved?”

He said, “Slow, unless he found space, then he would go a little faster.”

Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ibn Umar said that all of Al- Muzdalifah is Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram.

It was reported that Ibn Umar was asked about Allah’s statement: (…remember Allah (by glorifying His praises, i.e., prayers and invocations) at the Mash`ar-il-Haram), he said, “It is the Mount and the surrounding area.”

It was reported that; Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram is what is between the two Mounts (refer to the following Hadith), as Ibn Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Mujahid, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Al-Hasan and Qatadah have stated.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jubayr bin Mut`im narrated that the Prophet said:

  • All of Arafat is a place of standing, and keep away from Uranah.
  • All of Al-Muzdalifah is a place for standing, and keep away from the bottom of Muhassir.
  • All of the areas of Makkah are a place for sacrifice, and all of the days of Tashriq are days of sacrifice.

Allah then said:

And remember Him (by invoking Allah for all good) as He has guided you.

This Ayah reminds Muslims of Allah’s bounty on them that He has directed and taught them the rituals of Hajj according to the guidance of Prophet Ibrahim Al-Khalil.

This is why Allah said:

…and verily, you were, before, of those who were astray.

It was said that this Ayah refers to the condition before the guidance or the Qur’an or the Messenger, all of which are correct meanings.

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199.| Then depart from the place whence all the people depart and ask Allah for His forgiveness. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.

The Order to stand on Arafat and to depart from it.

Allah says;

Then depart from the place whence all the people depart, This Ayah contains Allah’s order to those who stand at Arafat to also move on to Al-Muzdalifah, so that they remember Allah at Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram.

Allah commands the Muslim to stand with the rest of the pilgrims at Arafat, unlike Quraysh who (before Islam) used to remain in the sanctuary, near Al-Muzdalifah, saying that they are the people of Allah’s Town and the servants of His House.

Al-Bukhari reported that Aishah said, “Quraysh and their allies, who used to be called Al-Hums, used to stay in Al-Muzdalifah while the rest of the Arabs would stand at Arafat.

When Islam came, Allah commanded His Prophet to stand at Arafat and then proceed from there.

Hence Allah’s statement:

(…from the place whence all the people depart).”

This was also said by Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ata, Qatadah and As-Suddi and others.

Ibn Jarir chose this opinion and said that there is Ijma (a consensus among the scholars) for it.

Imam Ahmad reported that Jubayr bin Mutim said, “My camel was lost and I went out in search of it on the day of Arafah, and I saw the Prophet standing in Arafat. I said to myself, `By Allah he is from the Hums. What has brought him here!”’

This Hadith is also reported in the Sahihayn.

Al-Bukhari reported that Ibn Abbas said that; `depart’ mentioned in the Ayah refers to proceeding from Al-Muzdalifah to Mina to stone the pillars. Allah knows best.

Asking Allah for His Forgiveness.

Allah said:

…and ask Allah for His forgiveness. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.

Allah frequently orders remembrance of Him after acts of worship are finished.

Muslim reported that; Allah’s Messenger used to ask Allah for His forgiveness thrice after the prayer is finished. It is reported in the Two Sahihs that; the Prophet encouraged Tasbih (saying Subhan Allah, i.e., Glorified is Allah), Tahmid (saying Al-Hamdu Lillah, i.e., praise be to Allah) and Takbir (saying Allahu Akbar, i.e., Allah is the Most Great) thirty-three times each (after prayer).

Ibn Marduwyah collected the Hadith that Al-Bukhari reported from Shaddad bin Aws, who stated that Allah’s Messenger said:

‘’The master of supplication for forgiveness is for the servant to say:

`O Allah! You are my Lord, there is no deity worthy of worship except You.

You have created me and I am Your servant. I am on Your covenant, as much as I can be, and awaiting Your promise.

I seek refuge with You from the evil that I have committed.

I admit Your favor on me and admit my faults. So forgive me, for none except You forgives the sins.’

Whoever said these words at night and died that same night will enter Paradise.

Whoever said it during the day and died will enter Paradise.

Furthermore, it is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abdullah bin `Amr said that Abu Bakr said, “O Messenger of Allah! Teach me an invocation so that I may invoke (Allah) with it in my prayer.

He told me to say:

O Allah! I have done great injustice to myself and none except You forgives sins, so please forgive me and be merciful to me as You are the Forgiver, the Merciful.

There are many other Hadiths on this subject.

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200.| So when you have accomplished your Manasik, remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with far more remembrance. But of mankind there are some who say: “Our Lord! Give us (Your bounties) in this world!” and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter.

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201.| And of them there are some who say: “Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!”

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202.| For them there will be allotted a share for what they have earned. And Allah is swift at reckoning.

The Order for Remembrance of Allah and seeking Good in this Life and the Hereafter upon completing the Rites of Hajj.

Allah says;

So when you have accomplished your Manasik, remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with far more remembrance.

Allah commands that He be remembered after the rituals are performed.

(…as you remember your forefathers), Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn Abbas said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, people used to stand during the (Hajj) season, and one of them would say, `My father used to feed (the poor), help others (end their disputes, with his money), pay the Diyah (i.e., blood money),’ and so forth.

The only Dhikr that they had was that they would remember the deeds of their fathers. Allah then revealed to Muhammad: (Remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with far more remembrance).”

Therefore, remembering Allah the Exalted and Ever High is always encouraged. We should mention that when Allah used “or” in the Ayah, He meant to encourage the people to remember Him more than they remember their forefathers, not that the word entails a doubt (as to which is larger or bigger). This statement is similar to the Ayat:

…as stones or even worse in hardness. (2:74)

…fear men as they fear Allah or even more, (4:77)

And We sent him to a hundred thousand (people) or even more. (37:147)

And was at a distance of two bows’ length or (even) nearer. (53:9)

Allah encourages calling Him in supplication after remembering Him, because this will make it more likely that the supplication will be accepted. Allah also criticizes those who only supplicate to Him about the affairs of this life, while ignoring the affairs of the Hereafter.

Allah said:

But of mankind there are some who say: “Our Lord! Give us (Your bounties) in this world!” and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter. meaning, they have no share in the Hereafter.

This criticism serves to discourage other people from imitating those mentioned.

Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn Abbas said, “Some Bedouins used to come to the standing area (Arafat) and supplicate saying, `O Allah! Make it a rainy year, a fertile year and a year of good child bearing.’ They would not mention any of the affairs of the Hereafter. Thus, Allah revealed about them:

But of mankind there are some who say: “Our Lord! Give us (Your bounties) in this world!” and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter.”

Next, Allah tells:

And of them there are some who say:

Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!”

Next, Allah revealed:

For them there will be allotted a share for what they have earned. And Allah is swift at reckoning.

Hence, Allah praised those who ask for the affairs of both this life and the Hereafter. He said:

And of them there are some who say: “Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!”

The supplication mentioned and praised in the Ayah includes all good aspects of this life and seeks refuge from all types of evil. The good of this life concerns every material request of well-being, spacious dwelling, pleasing mates, sufficient provision, beneficial knowledge, good profession or deeds, comfortable means of transportation and good praise, all of which the scholars of Tafsir have mentioned regarding this subject.

All of these are but a part of the good that is sought in this life. As for the good of the Hereafter, the best of this includes acquiring Paradise, which also means acquiring safety from the greatest horror at the gathering place. It also refers to being questioned lightly and the other favors in the Hereafter.

As for acquiring safety from the Fire, it includes being directed to what leads to this good end in this world, such as avoiding the prohibitions, sins of all kinds and doubtful matters.

Al-Qasim bin Abdur-Rahman said, “Whoever is gifted with a grateful heart, a remembering tongue and a patient body, will have been endowed with a good deed in this life, a good deed in the Hereafter and saved from the torment of the Fire.”

This is why the Sunnah encourages reciting this Du`a (i.e., in the Ayah about gaining a good deed in this life and the Hereafter).

Al-Bukhari reported that Anas bin Malik narrated that the Prophet used to say:

O Allah, our Lord! Give us that which is good in this life, that which is good in the Hereafter and save us from the torment of the Fire.

Imam Ahmad reported that Anas said, “Allah’s Messenger visited a Muslim man who had become as weak as a sick small bird. Allah’s Messenger said to him, `Were you asking or supplicating to Allah about something?’

He said, `Yes. I used to say: O Allah! Whatever punishment you saved for me in the Hereafter, give it to me in this life.’

Allah’s Messenger said:

All praise is due to Allah! You cannot bear it –or stand it-. You should have said:

Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire! The man began reciting this Du`a and he was cured.”

Muslim also recorded it.

Al-Hakim reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “A man came to Ibn Abbas and said, `I worked for some people and settled for a part of my compensation in return for their taking me to perform Hajj with them. Is this acceptable?’

Ibn Abbas said, `You are among those whom Allah described:

For them there will be allotted a share for what they have earned. And Allah is swift at reckoning.

Al-Hakim then commented; “This Hadith is authentic according to the criteria of the Two Sheikhs (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) although they did not record it.”

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203.| And remember Allah during the Appointed Days. But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him, if his aim is to do good and obey Allah (fear Him), and know that you will surely be gathered unto Him.

Remembering Allah during the Days of Tashriq – Days of Eating and Drinking.

Allah says;

And remember Allah during the Appointed Days.

Ibn Abbas said, `The Appointed Days are the Days of Tashriq (11-12-13th of Dhul-Hijjah) while the Known Days are the (first) ten (days of Dhul-Hijjah).”

Ikrimah said that: (And remember Allah during the Appointed Days), means reciting the Takbir — Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, during the days of Tashriq after the compulsory prayers.

Imam Ahmad reported that Uqbah bin Amr said that Allah’s Messenger said:

The day of Arafah (9th of Dhul-Hijjah), the day of the Sacrifice (10th) and the days of the Tashriq (11-12-13th) are our `Id (festival) for we people of Islam. These are days of eating and drinking.

Imam Ahmad reported that Nubayshah Al-Hudhali said that Allah’s Messenger said:

The days of Tashriq are days of eating, drinking and Dhikr (remembering) of Allah.)

Muslim also recorded this Hadith.

We also mentioned the Hadith of Jubayr bin Mut`im:

All of Arafat is a standing place and all of the days of Tashriq are days of Sacrifice.

We also mentioned the Hadith by Abdur-Rahman bin Ya`mar Ad-Diyli: The days of Mina (Tashriq) are three.

Those who hasten in two days then there is no sin in it, and those who delay (i.e., remain in Mina for a third day) then there is no sin in it.) Ibn Jarir reported that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

The days of Tashriq are days of eating and remembering Allah.

Ibn Jarir reported that Abu Hurayrah narrated that; Allah’s Messenger sent Abdullah bin Hudhayfah to Mina proclaiming:

Do not fast these days (i.e., Tashriq days), for they are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allah the Exalted and Most Honored.

The Appointed Days.

Miqsam said that Ibn Abbas said that; he Appointed Days are the days of Tashriq, four days: the day of the Sacrifice (10th of Dhul-Hijjah) and three days after that.

This opinion was also reported of Ibn Umar, Ibn Az-Zubayr, Abu Musa, Ata, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Malik, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Yahya bin Abu Kathir, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Az-Zuhri, Ar-Rabi  bin Anas, Ad-Dahhak, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Ata Al-Khurasani, Malik bin Anas, and others.

In addition, the apparent meaning of the following Ayah supports this opinion: (But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him).

So the Ayah hints to the three days after the day of Sacrifice.

Allah’s statement:

And remember Allah during the Appointed Days, directs remembering Allah upon slaughtering the animals, after the prayers, and by Dhikr (supplication) in general.

It also includes Takbir and remembering Allah while throwing the pebbles every day during the Tashriq days.

A Hadith that Abu Dawud and several others collected states:

Tawaf around the House, Sa`i between As-Safa and Al-Marwah and throwing the pebbles were legislated so that Allah is remembered in Dhikr.

… But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him, if his aim is to do good When mentioning the first procession (refer to 2:199) and the second procession of the people upon the end of the Hajj season, when they start to return to their areas, after they had gathered during the rituals and at the standing places,

Allah said,

… and obey Allah (fear Him), and know that you will surely be gathered unto Him.

Similarly, Allah said:

And it is He Who has created you on the earth, and to Him you shall be gathered back. (23:79)

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204.| And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Muhammad), in this worldly life, and he calls Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart, yet he is the most quarrelsome of the opponents.

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205.| And when he turns away (from you O Muhammad), his effort in the land is to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle, and Allah likes not mischief.

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206.| And when it is said to him, “Fear Allah”, he is led by arrogance to (more) crime. So enough for him is Hell, and worst indeed is that place to rest!

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207.| And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is full of kindness to (His) servants.

The Characteristics of the Hypocrites.

Allah says;

And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Muhammad), in this worldly life, and he calls Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart, As-Suddi said that; these Ayat were revealed about Al-Akhnas bin Shariq Ath-Thaqafi who came to Allah’s Messenger and announced his Islam although his heart concealed otherwise.

Ibn Abbas narrated that; these Ayat were revealed about some of the hypocrites who criticized Khubayb and his companions who were killed during the Raji` incident. Thereafter, Allah sent down His condemnation of the hypocrites and His praise for Khubayb and his companions:

And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the pleasure of Allah. (2:207)

It was also said that; they refer to the hypocrites and the believers in general.

This is the opinion of Qatadah, Mujahid, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and several others, and it is correct.

Ibn Jarir related that Al-Qurazi said that; Nawf Al-Bikali, who used to read (previous

Divine) Books said, “I find the description of some members of this Ummah in the previously revealed Books of Allah: they (hypocrites) are people who use the religion to gain material benefit. Their tongues are sweeter than honey, but their hearts are more bitter than Sabir (a bitter plant, aloe).

They show the people the appearance of sheep while their hearts hide the viciousness of wolves. Allah said, `They dare challenge Me, but they are deceived by Me. I swear by Myself that I will send a Fitnah (trial, calamity) on them that will make the wise man bewildered.’

I contemplated about these statements and found them in the Qur’an describing the hypocrites:

And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Muhammad), in this worldly life, and he calls Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart.

This statement by Al-Qurazi is Hasan Sahih.

Allah said:

…and he calls Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart, This Ayah indicates that such people pretend to be Muslims, but defy Allah by the disbelief and hypocrisy that their hearts conceal.

Similarly Allah said:

They may hide (their crimes) from men, but they cannot hide (them) from Allah. (4:108)

This Tafsir was reported from Ibn Abbas by Ibn Ishaq.

It was also said that; the Ayah means that when such people announce their Islam, they swear by Allah that what is in their hearts is the same of what their tongues are pronouncing.

This is also a correct meaning for the Ayah that was chosen by Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam.

It is also the choice of Ibn Jarir who related it to Ibn Abbas and Mujahid. Allah knows best.

Allah said:

Yet he is the most Aladd of the opponents. The Ayah used the word Aladd here, which literally means `wicked’ (here it means `quarrelsome’).

A variation of the word Ludda was also used in another Ayah: So that you (Muhammad) warn with it (the Qur’an) a Ludda people. (19:97)

Hence, a hypocrite lies, alters the truth when he quarrels and does not care for the truth. Rather, he deviates from the truth, deceives and becomes most quarrelsome.

It is reported in Sahih that Allah’s Messenger said:

The signs of a hypocrite are three:

  • Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.
  • Whenever he promises, he always breaks it (his promise).
  • If you have a dispute with him, he is most quarrelsome.

Imam Bukhari reported that Aishah narrated that the Prophet said:

The most hated person to Allah is he who is Aladd and Khasim (meaning most quarrelsome).

Allah then said:

And when he turns away (from you O Muhammad), he struggles in the land to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle,

This Ayah indicates that such persons are deviant in the tongue, evil in the deeds, their words are fabricated, their belief is wicked and their works are immoral.

The Ayah used the (Arabic word) Sa`a (literally, `tries’ or `intends’).

This word was also used to describe Pharaoh:

Then he turned his back, Yas`a (striving hard against Allah). Then he gathered (his people) and cried aloud saying, `I am your lord, most high.’

So Allah, seized him with a punishing example for his last and first transgression. Verily, in this is an instructive admonition for whosoever fears Allah. (79:22-26)

Sa`a was also used in the Ayah):

O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salah (prayer) on the day of Friday (Jumuah prayer), As`aw come to the remembrance of Allah. (62:9)

This Ayah means, `(when the call to the Friday prayer is announced) intend and then proceed to attend the Friday prayer.’

We should mention that hastening to the mosque is condemned by the Sunnah (as this is another meaning for the word Sa`a):

When you come to attend the prayer, do not come in a Sa`i (haste). Rather, come to it while walking at ease and in peace (or grace).

The hypocrite has no motive in this life but to cause mischief and to destroy the crops and the offspring, including what the animals produce and what the people depend on for their livelihood.

Mujahid said, “If the hypocrite strives for mischief in the land, Allah prevents the rain from falling and thus the crops and the offspring perish.”

The Ayah continues:

…and Allah likes not mischief. that is, Allah does not like those who possess these characteristics, or those who act like this.

Rejecting Advice is Characteristic of the Hypocrites.

Allah said:

… And when it is said to him, “Fear Allah”, he is led by arrogance to (more) crime.

This Ayah indicates that when the hypocrite, who deviates in his speech and deeds, is advised and commanded to fear Allah, refrain from his evil deeds and adhere to the truth, he refuses and becomes angry and outraged, as he is used to doing evil.

This Ayah is similar to what Allah said:

And when Our clear verses are recited to them, you will notice a denial on the faces of the disbelievers! They are nearly ready to attack with violence those who recite Our verses to them.

Say: “Shall I tell you of something worse than that The Fire (of Hell) which Allah has promised to those who disbelieved, and worst indeed is that destination! (22:72)

This is why in this Ayah, Allah said:

So enough for him is Hell, and worst indeed is that place to rest. meaning, the Fire is enough punishment for the hypocrite.

The Sincere Believer prefers pleasing Allah After Allah described the evil characteristics of the hypocrites, He mentioned the good qualities of the believers.

Allah said:

And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the pleasure of Allah.

Ibn Abbas, Anas, Sa`id bin Musayyib, Abu Uthman An-Nahdi, Ikrimah and several other scholars said that; this Ayah was revealed about Suhayb bin Sinan Ar-Rumi. When Suhayb became a Muslim in Makkah and intended to migrate (to Al-Madinah), the people (Quraysh) prevented him from migrating with his money.

They said that if he forfeits his property, he is free to migrate. He abandoned his money and preferred to migrate, and Allah revealed this Ayah about him.

Umar bin Khattab and several other Companions met Suhayb close to the outskirts of Al-Madinah at Al-Harrah (flat lands with black stones).

They said to him, “The trade has indeed been successful.”

He answered them, “You too, may Allah never allow your trade to fail. What is the matter?”

Umar told him that Allah has revealed this Ayah (2:207) about him.

It was also reported that Allah’s Messenger said, “The trade has been successful, O Suhayb!”

The meaning of the Ayah (2:207) includes every Mujahid in the way of Allah.

Allah said in another Ayah:

Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties for (the price) that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah’s cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Tawrah and the Injil and the Qur’an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success. (9:111)

When Hisham bin Amr penetrated the lines of the enemy, some people criticized him. Umar bin Al-Khattab and Abu Hurayrah refuted them and recited this Ayah:

And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is full of kindness to (His) servants.

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208.| O you who believe! Enter Silm perfectly, and follow not the footsteps of Shaytan (Satan). Verily, he is to you a plain enemy.

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209.| Then if you slide back after the clear signs (Prophet Muhammad, and this Qur’an and Islam) have come to you, then know that Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.

Entering Islam in its Entirety is obligated.

Allah says;

O you who believe! Enter Silm perfectly, Allah commands His servants who believe in Him and have faith in His Messenger to implement all of Islam’s legislation and law, to adhere to all of its commandments, as much as they can, and to refrain from all of its prohibitions.

Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said, and also Mujahid, Tawus, Ad-Dahhak, Ikrimah, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said that Allah’s statement:

(Enter Silm), means Islam.

Allah’s statement: (…perfectly) means, in its entirety.

This is the Tafsir of Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Abu Al-Aliyah, Ikrimah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak.

Mujahid said that the Ayah means, `Perform all the good works and the various pious deeds, this is especially addressed to those from among the People of the Scripture who embraced the faith.’

Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Ibn Abbas said that:  (O you who believe! Enter Silm perfectly), refers to the believers among the People of the Scripture. This is because they believed in Allah; some of them still followed some parts of the Tawrah and the previous revelations.

So Allah said:

(Enter Islam perfectly).

Allah thus commanded them to embrace the legislation of the religion of Muhammad in its entirety and to avoid abandoning any part of it.

They should no longer adhere to the Tawrah.

Allah then said:

…and follow not the footsteps of Shaytan, meaning, perform the acts of worship and avoid what Satan commands you to do. This is because:

He (Shaytan) commands you only what is evil and Fahishah (sinful), and that you should say about Allah what you know not. (2:169)

He only invites his Hizb (followers) that they may become the dwellers of the blazing Fire. (35:6)

Hence, Allah said:

‘’Verily, he is to you an open enemy.

Allah said:

Then if you slide back after the clear signs have come to you, meaning, if you deviate from the Truth after clear proofs have been established against you.

…then know that Allah is All-Mighty, in His punishment, and no one can escape His vengeance or defeat Him.

All-Wise.

‘’in His decisions, actions and rulings. Hence Abu Al-Aliyah, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas said, “He is Mighty in His vengeance, Wise in His decision.”

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210.| Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them over the shadows of the clouds and the angels (Then) the case would be already judged. And to Allah return all matters (for decision).

Do not delay embracing the Faith.

Allah says;

Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them over the shadows of the clouds and the angels, on the Day of Resurrection to judge the early and the latter creations.

Allah shall then reward each according to his or her deeds; and whoever does good shall see it, and whoever does evil shall see it.

This is why Allah said:

(Then) the case would be already judged. And to Allah return all matters (for decision).

Similarly, Allah said:

Nay! When the earth is ground to powder. And your Lord comes with the angels in rows. And Hell will be brought near that Day. On that Day will man remember, but how will that remembrance (then) avail him! (89:21-23) and,

Do they then wait for anything other than that the angels should come to them, or that your Lord (Allah) should come, or that some of the signs of your Lord should come (i. e., portents of the Hour, e.g., rising of the sun from the west)! (6:158)

Abu Jafar Razi reported that Abu Al-Aliyah narrated that:

(Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them over the shadows of the clouds and the angels) means, the angels will descend on the shadows of clouds, while Allah comes as He wills.

Some of the reciters read it, Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them and also the angels over the shadows of the clouds.

This is similar to Allah’s other statement:

And (remember) the Day when the heaven shall be rent asunder with clouds, and the angels will be sent down, with a grand descending. (25:25)

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211.| Ask the Children of Israel how many clear Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) We gave them. And whoever changes Allah’s favor after it has come to him, (e.g., renounces the religion of Allah (Islam) and accepts Kufr (disbelief)) then surely, Allah is severe in punishment.

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212.| Beautified is the life of this world for those who disbelieve, and they mock at those who believe. But those who have Taqwa, will be above them on the Day of Resurrection. And Allah gives (of His bounty, blessings, favors, and honors on the Day of Resurrection) to whom He wills without limit.

The Punishment for changing Allah’s Favor and mocking the Believers.

Allah says;

Ask the Children of Israel how many clear Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) We gave them.

Allah mentioned that the Children of Israel, were witnesses to many clear signs that attest to the truth of Moses regarding what he was sent with for them. They witnessed;

  • his hand (when it became lit with light),
  • his parting the sea,
  • his striking the rock (and water flowed from the rock),
  • the clouds that shaded them during the intense heat,
  • the manna and the quails, and so forth.

These signs attested to the existence of the Creator and the truth of Moses by whose hand these signs appeared. Yet, so many among them changed Allah’s favor, by preferring disbelief to faith and by ignoring Allah’s favors,

And whoever changes Allah’s favor after it had come to him, then surely, Allah is severe in punishment.

Similarly, Allah said about the disbelievers of Quraysh:

Have you not seen those who have changed the blessings of Allah into disbelief, and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction Hell, in which they will burn,  and what an evil place to settle in! (14:28-29)

Then Allah said;

Beautified is the life of this world for those who disbelieve, and they mock at those who believe. But those who have Taqwa, will be above them on the Day of Resurrection. And Allah gives (of His bounty, blessings, favors, and honors on the Day of Resurrection) to whom He wills without limit.

Allah states that He has made the life of this world beautiful for the disbelievers who are satisfied with it, who collect wealth, but refrain from spending it on what they have been commanded, which could earn them Allah’s pleasure.

Instead, they ridicule the believers who ignore this life and who spend whatever they earn on what pleases their Lord. The believers spend seeking Allah’s Face, and this is why they have gained the ultimate happiness and the best share on the Day of the Return. Therefore, they will be exalted above the disbelievers at the Gathering Place, when they are gathered, during the resurrection and in their final destination.

The believers will reside in the highest grades in the utmost highs, while the disbelievers will reside in the lowest of lows (in the Fire).

This is why Allah said:

And Allah gives to whom He wills without limit. This Ayah indicates that Allah gives sustenance to whomever He wills of His servants without count or limit in this and the Hereafter. A Hadith has stated (that Allah said):

‘O son of Adam! Spend (in Allah’s cause) and I (Allah) will spend on you.

The Prophet said:

O Bilal! Spend and do not fear deprivation from the Owner of the Throne.

Allah said:

…and whatsoever you spend of anything (in Allah’s cause), He will replace it. (34:39)

In addition, it is reported in the Sahih that the Prophet said: Every day two angels come down from heavens and one of them says, `O Allah! Compensate every person who spends in Your cause,’ and the other (angel) says, `O Allah! Destroy every miser.’

Also in the Sahih:

The son of Adam says, `My money, my money!’ Yet, what is your money except that which you eat and use up, wear and tear, and spend in charity and thus keep (in your record). Other than that, it will go away and will be left for the people (the inheritors).

In addition, Imam Ahmad reported that the Prophet said: The Dunya (life of this world) is the residence of those who have no residence, the wealth of those who have no wealth, and it is harvested by those who have no sense of reason.

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213.| Mankind was one community and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent down the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it, after clear proofs had come unto them, through hatred, one to another. Then Allah by His leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed. And Allah guides whom He wills to the straight path.

Disputing, after the Clear Signs have come, indicates Deviation.

Allah says;

Mankind was one community and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent down the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it, after clear proofs had come unto them, through hatred, one to another.

Ibn Jarir reported that Ibn Abbas said, “There were ten generations between Adam and Nuh, all of them on the religion of Truth. They later disputed so Allah sent the Prophets as warners and bringers of glad tidings.” He then said that this is how Abdullah read the Ayah:

The people were one Ummah and they then disputed.

Al-Hakim recorded this in his Mustadrak and said, “Its chain of narrators is Sahih, but they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.”

Abu Jafar Razi reported that Abu Al-Aliyah said that Ubayy bin Ka`b read the Ayah as:

The people were one Ummah and they then disputed and Allah sent the Prophets as warners and bringers of glad tidings.

Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said that; Allah’s statement:

(They disputed and Allah sent Prophets). The first to be sent was Nuh.”

Abdur-Razzaq reported that Abu Hurayrah commented on: (Then Allah by His leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed), saying that the Prophet said:

We are the last (nation), but the first (foremost) on the Day of Resurrection. We are the first people to enter Paradise, although they (Jews and Christians) have been given the Book before us and we after them. Allah has guided us to the truth wherever they disputed over it. This is the day (Friday) that they disputed about, Allah guided us to it. So, the people follow us, as tomorrow is for the Jews and the day after is for the Christians.

Ibn Wahb related that Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that his father said about the Ayah: (Then Allah by His leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed),

“They disputed about the day of Congregation (Friday).

The Jews made it Saturday while the Christians chose Sunday. Allah guided the Ummah of Muhammad to Friday.

  • They also disputed about the true Qiblah. The Christians faced the east while the Jews faced Bayt Al-Maqdis. Allah guided the Ummah of Muhammad to the true Qiblah (Ka`bah in Makkah).
  • They also disputed about the prayer, as some of them bow down, but do not prostrate, while others prostrate, but do not bow down. Some of them pray while talking and some while walking. Allah guided the Ummah of Muhammad to the truth.
  • They also disputed about the fast; some of them fast during a part of the day, while others fast from certain types of foods. Allah guided the Ummah of Muhammad to the truth.
  • They also disputed about Ibrahim. The Jews said, `He was a Jew,’ while the Christians considered him Christian. Allah has made him a Haniyfan Musliman. Allah has guided the Ummah of Muhammad to the truth.
  • They also disputed about `Isa. The Jews rejected him and accused his mother of a grave sin, while the Christians made him a god and the son of God. Allah made him by His Word and a spirit from (those He created) Him. Allah guided the Ummah of Muhammad to the truth.”

Allah then said:

…by His leave, According to Ibn Jarir meaning, `By His knowledge of them and by what He has directed and guided them to.’ Also:

… And Allah guides whom He wills, means from among His creation.

Allah said,

…to the straight way.

… meaning, He commands the decision and the clear proof.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim reported that Aishah narrated that; when Allah’s Messenger used to wake up at night to pray, he would say:

‘O Allah, the Lord of (angels) Jibril, Mikhail and Israfil, Creator of the heavens and earth and Knower of the seen and the unseen. You judge between Your servants regarding what they have disputed in, so guide me to what have been the subject of dispute of the truth by Your leave.

Indeed, You guide whom You will to the straight path.

A Du`a (supplication) reads: O Allah! Show us the truth as truth, and bestow adherence to it on us. Show us the evil as evil, and make us stay away from it, and do not confuse us regarding the reality of evil so that we will not be led astray by it, and make us leaders for the believers.

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214.| Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you! They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments and were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, “When (will come) the help of Allah?” Yes! Certainly, the help of Allah is near!)

Victory only comes after succeeding in the Trials.

Allah said:

Or think you that you will enter Paradise, before you are tested and tried just like the nations that came before you!

This is why Allah said:

…without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments, meaning, illnesses, pain, disasters and hardships.

Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Abbas, Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Murrah Al-Hamdani, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that; (Al-Ba’sa’) means poverty.

Ibn Abbas said that (…and Ad-Darra’) means ailments. and were so shaken, for fear of the enemy, and were tested, and put to a tremendous trial.

An authentic Hadith narrated that Khabbab bin Al-Aratt said,

“We said, `O Messenger of Allah! Why do you not invoke Allah to support us Why do you not supplicate to Allah for us’ He said:

The saw would be placed on the middle of the head of one of those who were before you (believers) and he would be sawn until his feet, and he would be combed with iron combs between his skin and bones, yet that would not make him change his religion.

He then said:

By Allah! This matter (religion) will spread (or expand) by Allah until the traveler leaves San`a’ to Hadramawt (both in Yemen, but at a great distance from each other) fearing only Allah and then the wolf for the sake of his sheep. You are just a hasty people.

And Allah said:

Alif-Lam-Mim. Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: “We believe,” and will not be tested And We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allah will certainly make (it) known (the truth of) those who are true, and will certainly make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who are liars. (29:1-3)

The Companions experienced tremendous trials during the battle of Al-Ahzab (the Confederates).

Allah said:

When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harboring doubts about Allah. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking. And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (of doubts) said: “Allah and His Messenger promised us nothing but delusion!” (33:10-12)

When Heraclius asked Abu Sufyan, “Did you fight him (Prophet Muhammad)?” He said, “Yes.”

Heraclius said, “What was the outcome of warfare between you?”

Abu Sufyan said, “Sometimes we lose and sometimes he loses.”

He said, “Such is the case with Prophets, they are tested, but the final victory is theirs.”

Allah’s statement:

…without (such) (trials) as came to those who passed away before you, meaning, their way of life.

Similarly, Allah said:

Then We destroyed men stronger (in power) than these  and the example of the ancients has passed away (before them)) (43: 8) and,

…were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, “When (will come) the help of Allah.”

They pleaded (to Allah) for victory against their enemies and invoked Him for aid and deliverance from their hardships and trials. Allah said:

Yes! Certainly, the help of Allah is near!

Allah said:

Verily, along with every hardship is relief. Verily, along with every hardship is relief. (94:5-6)

So just as there is hardship, its equal of relief will soon arrive.

This is why Allah said: (Yes! Certainly, the help of Allah is near)!

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215.| They ask you (O Muhammad) what they should spend. Say: “Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and Al-Masakin (the poor) and the wayfarer, and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allah knows it well.”

Who deserves the Nafaqah (Spending or Charity).

Allah says;

They ask you (O Muhammad) what they should spend. Muqatil bin Hayyan said that; this Ayah was revealed about the voluntary charity.

Ibn Abbas and Mujahid have stated that the Ayah means, `They ask you (O Muhammad) how they should spend.’ So, Allah explained it for them, saying:

Say: “Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and Al-Masakin and the wayfarer,” meaning, spend it on these categories or areas. Similarly, a Hadith states that; those who deserve one’s generosity the most, are:

Your mother, father, sister, brother, the closest and then the farthest (relatives).

Maymun bin Mihran once recited this Ayah and commented, “These are the areas of spending. Allah did not mention among them the drums, pipe, wooden pictures, or the curtains that cover the walls.”

Next, Allah said:

…and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allah knows it well.

meaning, whatever you perform of good works, Allah knows them and He will reward you for them in the best manner, no one will be dealt with unjustly, even the weight of an atom.

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216.| Fighting is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.

Jihad is made Obligatory.

Allah says;

Fighting is ordained for you (Muslims), In this Ayah, Allah made it obligatory for the Muslims to fight in Jihad against the evil of the enemy who transgress against Islam.

Az-Zuhri said, “Jihad is required from every person, whether he actually joins the fighting or remains behind. Whoever remains behind is required to give support, if support is warranted; to provide aid, if aid is needed; and to march forth, if he is commanded to do so. If he is not needed, then he remains behind.”

It is reported in the Sahih: Whoever dies but neither fought (i.e., in Allah’s cause), nor sincerely considered fighting, will die a death of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era of ignorance).

On the day of Al-Fath (when he conquered Makkah), the Prophet said: There is no Hijrah (migration from Makkah to Al-Madinah) after the victory, but only Jihad and good intention. If you were required to march forth, then march forth.

Allah’s statement:

…though you dislike it, means, `Fighting is difficult and heavy on your hearts.’

Indeed, fighting is as the Ayah describes it, as it includes being killed, wounded, striving against the enemies and enduring the hardship of travel.

Allah then said:

…and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you, meaning, fighting is followed by victory, dominance over the enemy, taking over their lands, money and offspring.

Allah continues:

…and that you like a thing which is bad for you.

This Ayah is general in meaning.

Hence, one might covet something, yet in reality it is not good or beneficial for him, such as refraining from joining the Jihad, for it might lead to the enemy taking over the land and the government.

Then, Allah said:

Allah knows, but you do not know.

… meaning, He has better knowledge than you of how things will turn out to be in the end, and of what benefits you in this earthly life and the Hereafter. Hence, obey Him and adhere to His commands, so that you may acquire the true guidance.

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217.| They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months. Say, “Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing.” And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islamic Monotheism) if they can. And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever.

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218.| Verily, those who have believed, and those who have emigrated (for Allah’s religion) and have striven hard in the way of Allah, all these hope for Allah’s mercy. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.

The Nakhlah Military Maneuvers, and the Ruling on Fighting during the Sacred Months.

Allah says;

They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months.

Say, “Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a reater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing.”

And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islamic Monotheism) if they can.

And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever.

Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Jundub bin Abdullah said: Allah’s Messenger assembled a group of men under the command of Abu Ubaydah bin Jarrah.

When he was about to march, he started crying for the thought of missing Allah’s Messenger.

Consequently, the Messenger relieved Abu Ubaydah from command, appointed Abdullah bin Jahsh instead, gave him some written instructions and commanded him not to read the instructions until he reached such and such area. He also said to Abdullah:

Do not compel any of your men to continue marching with you thereafter.

When Abdullah read the instructions, he recited Istirja` (saying, `Truly! to Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return’; (2:156)) and said, “I hear and obey Allah and His Messenger.”

He then told his companions the story and read the instructions to them, and two men went back while the rest remained.

Soon after, they found Ibn Hadrami (one of the disbelievers of Quraysh) and killed him not knowing that that day was in Rajab or Jumadi (where Rajab is the Sacred Month).

The polytheists said to the Muslims, “You have committed murder in the Sacred Month.”

Allah then revealed:

(They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months. Say, “Fighting therein is a great (transgression)…”).

Abdul-Malik bin Hisham, who compiled the Sirah (life story of the Prophet), related that Ziyad bin Abdullah Bakka’i said that Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar Al-Madani wrote in his book on the Sirah, “Allah’s Messenger sent Abdullah bin Jahsh bin Riyab Al-Asadi in Rajab, after he (the Prophet) came back from the first battle of Badr. The Prophet sent eight people with him, all from among the Muhajirun and none from the Ansar.

He also gave him some written instructions and ordered him not to read them until he marched for two days. Abdullah should then read the instructions and march to implement them, but should not force any of those who were with him to accompany him.

The companions of Abdullah bin Jahsh were all from the Muhajirun, o from the tribe of Banu Abd Shams bin Abd Manaf, there was Abu Hudhayfah bin Utbah bin Rabiah bin Abd Shams bin Abd Manaf.

  • From their allies, there was Abdullah bin Jahsh, who was the commander of the army unit,
  • and Ukkashah bin Mihsan from the tribe of Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah.
  • From the tribe of Banu Nawfal bin Abd Manaf, there was Utbah bin Ghazwan bin Jabir, one of their allies.
  • From the tribe of Banu Zuhrah bin Kilab, there was Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas.
  • From Banu Ka`b, there were their allies: Adi bin Amr bin Ar-Rabiah not from the tribe of Ibn Wa’il;
  • Waqid bin Abdullah bin Abd Manaf bin Arin bin Thalabah bin Yarbu from Banu Tamim;
  • and Khalid bin Bukair from the tribe of Banu Sa`d bin Layth,
  • Suhayl bin Bayda’ from Banu Al-Harith bin

Fihr was also among them.

When Abdullah bin Jahsh marched for two days, he opened and read the (Prophet’s) instructions, “When you read these instructions, march until you set camp at Nakhlah between Makkah and At-Ta’if. There, watch the movements of the caravan of Quraysh and collect news about them for us.”

When Abdullah bin Jahsh read the document, he said, “I hear and obey.”

He then said to his companions, “Allah’s Messenger has commanded me to march forth to Nakhlah to watch the movements of the caravan of Quraysh and to inform him about their news.

He has prohibited me from forcing any of you (to go with me). So, those who seek martyrdom, they should march with me. Those who dislike the idea of martyrdom, let them turn back. Surely, I will implement the command of Allah’s Messenger.”

He and his companions continued without any of them turning back.

Abdullah entered the Hijaz area (western Arabia) until he reached an area called Buhran, close to Furu. There, Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas and Utbah bin Ghazwan lost the camel that they were riding in turns, and they went back to search for it while Abdullah bin Jahsh and the rest of his companions continued until they reached Nakhlah.

Then, a caravan belonging to the Quraysh passed y carrying raisins, food stuff and some trade items for the Quraysh.

Amr bin Hadrami, whose name was Abdullah bin Abbad, was in the caravan, as well as Uthman bin Abdullah bin Al-Mughirah and his brother Nawfal bin Abdullah from the tribe of Makhzum, and Al-Hakam bin Kaysan, a freed slave of Hisham bin Al-Mughirah. When they saw the Companions they were frightened, but when they saw Ukkashah bin Mihsan their fears subsided, since his head was shaved.

They said, “These people seek the Umrah, so there is no need to fear them.”

The Companions conferred among themselves.

That day was the last day in the (sacred) month of Rajab. They said to each other, “By Allah! If you let them pass, they will soon enter the Sacred Area and take refuge in it from you. If you kill them, you will kill them during the Sacred Month.”

They at first hesitated and did not like to attack them. They then began encouraging themselves and decided to kill whomever they could among the disbelievers and to confiscate whatever they had.

Hence, Waqid bin Abdullah At-Tamimi shot an arrow at Amr bin Al-Hadrami and killed him.

Uthman bin Abdullah and Al-Hakam bin Kaysan gave themselves up, while Nawfal bin Abdullah was able to outrun them in flight.

Later on, Abdullah bin Jahsh and his companions went back to Allah’s Messenger in Al-Madinah with the caravan and the two prisoners.

Ibn Ishaq went on:

I was told that some members of the family of Abdullah bin Jahsh said that Abdullah said to his companions: “Allah’s Messenger will have onefifth of what we have confiscated.”

This occurred before Allah required one-fifth for His Messenger from the war booty. So, Abdullah designated one-fifth of the caravan for Allah’s Messenger and divided the rest among his companions.

Ibn Ishaq also stated that at first, when the Sariyah came back to Allah’s Messenger, he said to them:

I have not commanded you to conduct warfare during the Sacred Month.

He left the caravan and the two prisoners alone and did not take any share of the war booty.

When Allah’s Messenger did that, the soldiers from the attack were concerned and felt that they were destroyed, and their Muslim brethren criticized them for what they did.

The Quraysh said that Muhammad and his Companions violated the sanctity of the Sacred Month and shed blood, confiscated property and took prisoners during it. Those who refuted them among the Muslims who remained in Makkah replied that the Muslims had done that during the month of Shaban (which is not a sacred month).

Meanwhile, the Jews were pleased about what happened to Allah’s Messenger. They said, `Amr bin Hadrami was killed by Waqid bin Abdullah:

`Amr, means the war has started, Hadrami means the war has come, as for Waqid (bin Abdullah): the war has raged (using some of the literal meanings of these names to support their fortune-telling!).”

But, Allah made all that turn against them.

The people continued talking about this matter, then Allah revealed to His Messenger:

‘’They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months. Say, “Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing.’’

This Ayah means, `If you had killed during the Sacred Month, they (disbelievers of Quraysh) have hindered you from the path of Allah and disbelieved in it. They also prevented you from entering the Sacred Mosque, and expelled you from it, while you are its people, (…a greater (transgression) with Allah) than killing whom you killed among them. Also:

(…and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing) means, trying to force the Muslims to revert from their religion and re-embrace Kufr after they had believed, is worse with Allah than killing.’

Allah said:

… And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islamic Monotheism) if they can.

So, they will go on fighting you with unrelenting viciousness.

Ibn Ishaq went on:

When the Qur’an touched this subject and Allah brought relief to the Muslims instead of the sadness that had befallen them, Allah’s Messenger took possession of the caravan and the two prisoners.

The Quraysh offered to ransom the two prisoners, Uthman bin Abdullah and Hakam bin Kaysan.

Allah’s Messenger said:

‘’We will not accept your ransom until our two companions return safely.’’

meaning Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas and Utbah bin Ghazwan, “For we fear for their safety with you.

If you kill them, we will kill your people.”

Later on, Sa`d and Utbah returned safely and Allah’s Messenger accepted the Quraysh’s ransom for their prisoners.

As for Al-Hakam bin Kaysan, he became Muslim and his Islam strengthened. He remained with Allah’s Messenger until he was martyred during the incident at Bir Ma`unah (when the Prophet sent seventy Companions to Najd to teach them Islam, but Banu Sulaim killed them all except two).

As for Uthman bin Abdullah, he went back to Makkah and died there as a disbeliever.

Ibn Ishaq went on: When Abdullah bin Jahsh and his companions were relieved from their depressing thoughts after the Qur’an was revealed about this subject, they sought the reward of the fighters (in Allah’s way). They said, “O Messenger of Allah! We wish that this incident be considered a battle for us, so that we gain the rewards of the Mujahidin.”

Then, Allah revealed:

Verily, those who have believed, and those who have emigrated (for Allah’s religion) and have striven hard in the way of Allah, all these hope for Allah’s mercy. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Hence, Allah has greatly elevated their hopes of gaining what they had wished for.

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219.| They ask you (O Muhammad) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: “In them is a great sin, and (some) benefits for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.” And they ask you what they ought to spend. Say: “That which is (spare) beyond your needs.” Thus Allah makes clear to you His Laws in order that you may give thought.

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220.| In (to) this worldly life and in the Hereafter. And they ask you concerning orphans. Say: “The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers. And Allah knows (the one) who means mischief (e.g., to swallow their property) from (the one) who means good (e.g., to save their property). And if Allah had wished, He could have put you into difficulties. Truly, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.”

The Gradual Prohibition of Khamr (Alcoholic Drink).

Allah says;

They ask you (O Muhammad) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling.

Say: “In them is a great sin, and (some) benefits for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Maysarah said that; Umar once said, “O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr!” Allah sent down the Ayah of Surah Al-Baqarah: (They ask you (O Muhammad) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: “In them is a great sin…). Umar was then summoned and the Ayah was recited to him.

Yet, he still said, “O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr.”

Then, this Ayah that is in Surah An-Nisa’ was revealed: (O you who believe! Approach not As-Salah (the prayer) when you are in a drunken state), (4:43).

Then, when the prayer was called for, a person used to herald on behalf of Allah’s Messenger, “No drunk person should attend the prayer.”

Umar was summoned again and the Ayah was recited to him. Yet, he still said, “O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr.”

Then, the Ayah (5:91) that is in Surah Al-Ma’idah was revealed, Umar was again summoned and the Ayah was recited to him.

When he reached: (So, will you not then abstain) (5:91) he said, “We did abstain, we did abstain.”

This is also the narration that Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i collected in their books.

Ali bin Al-Madini and At-Tirmidhi said that the chain of narrators for this Hadith is sound and authentic. We will mention this Hadith again along with what Imam Ahmad collected by Abu Hurayrah Allah’s saying in Surah Al-Ma’idah:

Intoxicants and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful. (5:90)

Allah said:

They ask you (O Muhammad) concerning alcoholic drinks and gambling.

As for Al-Khamr, Umar bin Khattab, the Leader of the faithful, used to say, “It includes all what intoxicates the mind.”

We will also mention this statement in the explanation of Surah Al-Ma’idah, along with the topic of gambling.

Allah said:

‘’Say: In them is a great sin, and (some) benefits for men.’’

As for the harm that the Khamr and gambling cause, it effects the religion.

As for their benefit, it is material, including benefit for the body, digesting the food, getting rid of the excrements, sharpening the mind, bringing about a joyous sensation and financially benefiting from their sale.

Also, (their benefit includes) earnings through gambling that one uses to spend on his family and on himself. Yet, these benefits are outweighed by the clear harm that they cause which affects the mind and the religion.

This is why Allah said:

‘’…but the sin of them is greater than their benefit. This Ayah was the beginning of the process of prohibiting Khamr, not explicitly, but it only implied this meaning. So when this Ayah was recited to Umar, he still said, “O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr.”

Soon after, Allah sent down a clear prohibition of Khamr in Surah Al-Ma’idah:

‘O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Shaytan’s handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful. Shaytan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from As-Salah (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain! (5:90-91)

We will mention this subject, by the will of Allah, when we explain Surah Al-Ma’idah.

Ibn Umar, Ash-Sha`bi, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Abdur-Rahman bin Aslam stated that the first Ayah revealed about Khamr was:

They ask you about Khamr and gambling. Say: “In them there is great sin.”

Then, the Ayah in Surah An-Nisa was revealed (on this subject) and then the Ayah in Surah Al-Ma’idah which prohibited Khamr.

Spending whatever One could spare of his Money on Charity.

Allah said:

… And they ask you what they ought to spend.

Say: “That which is (spare) beyond your needs.”

Al-Hakam said that Miqsam said that Ibn Abbas said that this Ayah means, whatever you can spare above the needs of your family.

This is also the opinion of Ibn Umar, Mujahid, Ata, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Al-Qasim, Salim, Ata Al-Khurasani and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

Ibn Jarir related that Abu Hurayrah said that a man said, “O Messenger of Allah! I have a Dinar (a currency).”

The Prophet said: Spend it you on yourself.

He said, “I have another Dinar.”

He said:

Spend it on your wife.

He said, “I have another Dinar.”

He said:

Spend it on your offspring.

He said, “I have another Dinar.”

He said:

You have better knowledge (meaning how and where to spend it in charity).

Muslim also recorded this Hadith in his Sahih.

Muslim recorded that Jabir said that Allah’s Messenger said to a man:

Start with yourself and grant it some charity. If anything remains, then spend it on your family. If anything remains, then spend it on your relatives. If anything remains, then spend it like this and like that (i.e., on various charitable purposes).

A Hadith states: ‘O son of Adam! If you spend whatever you can spare, it would be better for you; but if you keep it, it would be worse for you. You shall not be blamed for whatever is barely sufficient.

Allah said:

Thus Allah makes clear to you His Ayat in order that you may give thought. In (to) this worldly life and in the Hereafter.

… meaning, just as He stated and explained these commandments for you, He also explains the rest of His Ayat regarding the commandments and His promises and warnings, so that you might give thought in this life and the Hereafter.

Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn Abbas commented, “Meaning about the imminent demise and the brevity of this life, and the imminent commencement of the Hereafter and its continuity.”

Maintaining the Orphan’s Property.

Allah said:

‘’And they ask you concerning orphans. Say: “The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers. And Allah knows him who means mischief (e.g., to swallow their property) from him who means good (e.g., to save their property). And if Allah had wished, He could have put you into difficulties.’’

Ibn Jarir reported that Ibn Abbas said, “When the Ayat:

(And come not near to the orphan’s property, except to improve it), (6:152) and (Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire!) (4:10) were revealed, those who took care of some orphans, separated their food and drink from the orphans’ food and drink. When some of the orphans’ food and drink remained, they would keep it for them until they eat it or otherwise get spoiled.

This situation was difficult for them and they mentioned this subject to Allah’s Messenger.

And they ask you concerning orphans. Say: “The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers.

Hence, they joined their food and drink with the food and drink of the orphans.”

This Hadith was also collected by Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak.

Several others said similarly about the circumstances surrounding the revelation of the Ayah (2:220), including Mujahid, Ata, Ash-Sha`bi, Ibn Abu Layla, Qatadah and others among the Salaf and those after them.

Ibn Jarir reported that Aishah said, “I dislike that an orphan’s money be under my care, unless I mix my food with his food and my drink with his drink.”

Allah said:

Say: The best thing is to work honestly in their property. meaning, on the one hand (i.e., this is required in any case).

Allah then said:

…and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers.

meaning, there is no harm if you mix your food and drink with their food and drink, since they are your brothers in the religion.

This is why Allah said afterwards:

And Allah knows (the one) who means mischief (e.g., to swallow their property) from (the one) who means good (e.g., to save their property). meaning, He knows those whose intent is to cause mischief or righteousness.

He also said:

And if Allah had wished, He could have put you into difficulties. Truly, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. meaning, if Allah wills, He will make this matter difficult for you. But, He made it easy for you, and allowed you to mix your affairs with the orphans’ affairs in a way that is better.

Similarly, Allah said:

And come not near to the orphan’s property, except to improve it. (6:152)

Allah has thus allowed spending from the orphan’s estate by its executor, in reasonable proportions, on the condition that he has the intention to compensate the orphan later on, when he can afford it. We will mention about it in detail in Surah An-Nisa by Allah’s will.

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221.| And do not marry Al-Mushrikat (idolatresses) till they believe (worship Allah Alone). And indeed a slave woman who believes is better than a (free) Mushrikah (idolatress), even though she pleases you. And give not (your daughters) in marriage to Al-Mushrikin till they believe (in Allah Alone) and verily, a believing servant is better than a (free) Mushrik (idolator), even though he pleases you. Those (Mushrikin) invite you to the Fire, but Allah invites (you) to Paradise and forgiveness by His  leave, and makes His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to mankind that they may remember.

The Prohibition of marrying Mushrik Men and Women.

Allah says;

‘’And do not marry Al-Mushrikat (idolatresses) till they believe (worship Allah Alone).’’

Allah prohibited the believers from marrying Mushrik women who worship idols.

Although the meaning is general and includes everyMushrik woman from among the idol worshippers and the People of the Scripture, Allah excluded the People of the Scripture from this ruling.

Allah stated:

‘’(Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before your time when you have given their due dowry, desiring chastity (i.e., taking them in legal wedlock) not committing illegal sexual intercourse.’’ (5:5)

Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said about what Allah said:

(And do not marry Al-Mushrikat (female idolators) till they believe (worship Allah Alone).

“Allah has excluded the women of the People of the Scripture.”

This is also the explanation of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Makhul, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Zayd bin Aslam and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and others.

Some scholars said that;the Ayah is exclusively talking about idolworshippers and not the People of the Scripture, and this meaning is similar to the first meaning we mentioned. Allah knows best.

Abu Jafar bin Jarir (At-Tabari) said, after mentioning that there is Ijma that marrying women from the People of the Scripture is allowed, “Umar disliked this practice so that the Muslims do not refrain from marrying Muslim women, or for similar reasons.”

An authentic chain of narrators stated that Shaqiq said: Once Hudhayfah married a Jewish woman and Umar wrote to him, “Divorce her.”

He wrote back, “Do you claim that she is not allowed for me so that I divorce her?”

He said, “No. But, I fear that you might marry the whores from among them.”

Ibn Jarir related that Zayd bin Wahb said that; Umar bin Khattab said, “The Muslim man marries the Christian woman, but the Christian man does not marry the Muslim woman.”

This Hadith has a stronger, authentic chain of narrators than the previous Hadith.

Ibn Abu Hatim said that; Ibn Umar disliked marrying the women from the People of the Scripture. He relied on his own explanation for the Ayah: (And do not marry Al-Mushrikat (female idolators) till they believe (worship Allah Alone).

Al-Bukhari also reported that Ibn Umar said, “I do not know of a bigger Shirk than her sayingthat Jesus is her Lord!”

Allah said:

‘’And indeed a slave woman who believes is better than a (free) Mushrikah (female idolators), even though she pleases you.’’

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said:

A woman is chosen for marriage for four reasons:

  • her wealth,
  • social status,
  • beauty, and
  • religion.

So, marry the religious woman, may your hands be filled with sand (a statement of encouragement).

Muslim reported this Hadith from Jabir.

Muslim also reported that Ibn Amr said that Allah’s Messenger said: The life of this world is but a delight, and the best of the delights of this earthly life is the righteous wife.

Allah then said:

And give not (your daughters) in marriage to Al-Mushrikin till they believe (in Allah Alone). meaning, do not marry Mushrik men to believing women.

This statement is similar to Allah’s statement:

They are not lawful (wives) for them, nor are they lawful (husbands) for them. (60:10)

Next, Allah said:

…and verily, a believing servant is better than a (free) Mushrik (idolator), even though he pleases you.

This Ayah indicates that a believing man, even an Abyssinian servant, is better than a Mushrik man, even if he was a rich master.

Those (Al-Mushrikun) invite you to the Fire, meaning, associating and mingling with the disbelievers makes one love this life and prefer it over the Hereafter, leading to the severest repercussions.

Allah said:

…but Allah invites (you) to Paradise and forgiveness by His leave, meaning, by His Law, commandments and prohibitions.

Allah said:

…and makes His Ayat clear to mankind that they may remember.

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222.| They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: “That is an Adha, therefore, keep away fromwomen during menses and go not in unto them tillthey are purified.” And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allah has ordained for you.

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223.| Your wives are a tilth for you, so go to yourtilth, when or how you will, and send (good deeds,or ask Allah to bestow upon you pious offspring) for your own selves beforehand. And fear Allah, and know that you are to meet Him(in the Hereafter), and give good tidings to the believers (O Muhammad).

Sexual Intercourse with Menstruating Women is prohibited.

Allah says;

‘’They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: “That is an Adha, therefore, keep away from women during menses and go not in unto them till they are purified.”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that; the Jews used to avoid their menstruating women, they would not eat, or even mingle with them in the house. The Companions of the Prophet asked about this matter and Allah revealed:

(They ask youconcerning menstruation.  Say: “That is an Adha, therefore, keep away from women during mensesand go not in unto them till they are purified).

Allah’s Messenger said:

‘’Do everything you wish, except having sexual intercourse. When the Jews were told about the Prophet’sstatement, they said, “What is the matter with this man He would not hear of any of our practices, but would defy it.”

Then, Usayd bin Hudayr and Abbad bin Bishr came and said, “O Messenger of Allah! The Jewssaid this and that, should we have sex with ourwomen (meaning, during the menstruation period)”

The face of Allah’s Messenger changed color, untilthe Companions thought that he was angry with them. They left.

Soon after, some milk was brought to Allah’s Messenger as a gift, and he sent some of it forthem to drink. They knew then that Allah’s Messenger was not angry with them.

Muslim also reported this Hadith.

Allah said:

‘’…therefore, keep away from women during menses, meaning, avoid the sexual organ.’’

The Prophet said: Do anything you wish except having sexual intercourse.)

This is why most of the scholars said that it is allowed to fondle the wife, except for having sexual intercourse (when she is having her menses).

Abu Dawud reported that Ikrimah related to one of the Prophet’s wives that she said that; whenever the Prophet wanted to fondle (one of his wives) during her menses, he would cover her sexual organ with something.

Abu Jafar bin Jarir related that; Masruq went to Aishah and greeted her, and Aishah greeted him in return. Masruq said, “I wish to ask you about a matter, but I am shy.”

She replied, “I am your mother and you are myson.”

He said, “What can the man enjoy of his wifewhen she is having her menses?”

She said, “Everything except her sexual organ.”

This is also the opinion of Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and Ikrimah.

One is Allowed to Sleep next to his Wife and to Eat with Her (when she is having her menses)

Aishah said,“Allah’s Messenger used to ask me to wash his hair while I was having the menses. He would lay on my lap and read the Qur’an while I was having the period.”

It is also reported in the Sahih that Aishah said, “While having the menses, I used to eat from a piece of meat and give it to the Prophet who would eat from the same place I ate from. I used to have sips of a drink and would then give the cup to the Prophet who would place his mouth where I placed my mouth.”

It is also reported in the Two Sahihs that Maymunah bint Al-Harith Al-Hilaliyah said, “Whenever the Prophet wanted to fondle any of his wives during the periods (menses), he used to ask her to wear an Izar (a sheet covering the lower-half of the body).”

These are the wordings collected by Al-Bukhari.

Similar was reported from Aishah.

In addition, Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah reported that; Abdullah bin Sa`d Al-Ansari asked Allah’s Messenger, “What am I allowed of my wife while she is having her menses?”

He said, “What is above the Izar (a sheet covering the lower-half of the body).”

Hence, Allah’s statement:

(…and go not in unto them till they are purified) explains His statement: (…therefore, keep away from women during menses).

Allah prohibited having sexual intercourse with the wife  during menstruation, indicating that sexual intercourse is allowed otherwise.

Allah’s statement:

‘’And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allah has ordained for you.’’

Indicates that men should have sexual intercourse with their wives after they take a bath.

The scholars agree that the woman is obliged to take a bath, or to perform Tayammum with sand, if she is unable to use water, before she is allowed to have sexual intercourse with her husband, after the monthly period ends.

Ibn Abbas said: “(till they are purified) means from blood, and, (And when they have purified themselves) means with water.”

This is also the Tafsir of Mujahid, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Al-Layth bin Sa`d and others.

Anal Sex is prohibited.

Allah said:

…as Allah has ordained for you.

Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and other scholars have stated that; this refers to Al-Farj (the vagina) Therefore, anal sex is prohibited, as we will further emphasize afterwards, Allah willing.

Abu Razin, Ikrimah and Ad-Dahhak and others said that: (…then go in unto them as Allah has ordained for you) means, when they are pure, and not during the menses.

Allah said afterwards:

Truly, Allah loves those who turn unto Him in repentance, from the sin even if it was repeated.

… and loves those who purify themselves. meaning, those who purify themselves from the impurity and the filth that include having sexual intercourse with the wife during the menses and anal sex.

The Reason behind revealing Allah’s Statement: “Your Wives are a Tilth for You.

Allah said:

‘’Your wives are a tilth for you, Ibn Abbas commented, “Meaning the place of pregnancy.”

Allah then said:

…so go to your tilth, when or how you will, meaning, wherever you wish from the front or from behind, as long as sex takes place in one valve (the female sexual organ), as the authentic Hadiths have indicated.

For instance, Al-Bukhari recorded that; Ibn Al-Munkadir said that he heard Jabir say that the Jews used to claim that if one has sex with his wife from behind (in the vagina) the offspring would become cross-eyed.

Then, this Ayah was revealed: (Your wives are a tilth for you, so go to your tilth, when or how you will).

Muslim and Abu Dawud also reported this Hadith.

Ibn Abu Hatim said that Muhammad bin Al-Munkadir narrated that Jabir bin Abdullah told him that; the Jews claimed to the Muslims that if one has sex with their wife from behind (in the vagina) their offspring will become cross-eyed.

Allah revealed afterwards:

‘’Your wives are a tilth for you, so go to your tilth, when or how you will.’’

Ibn Jurayj (one of the reporters of the Hadith) said that Allah’s Messenger said: From the front or from behind, as long as that occurs in the Farj (vagina).

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

“The Ayah, ­ (Your wives are a tilth for you) was revealed about some people from the Ansar who came to the Prophet and asked him (about having sex with the wife from behind).

He said to them:

Have sex with her as you like as long as that occurs in the vagina.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Sabit said: I went to Hafsah bint Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr and said, “I wish to ask you about something, but I am shy.”

She said, “Do not be shy, O my nephew.”

He said, “About having sex from behind with women.”

She said, “Umm Salamah told me that the Ansar used to refrain from having sex from behind (in the vagina). The Jews claimed that those who have sex with their women from behind would have offspring with crossed-eyes. When the Muhajirun came to Al-Madinah, they married Ansar women and had sex with them from behind. One of these women would not obey her husband and said, `You will not do that until I go to Allah’s Messenger (and ask him about this matter).’

She went to Umm Salamah and told her the story.

Umm Salamah said, `Wait until Allah’s Messenger comes.’ When Allah’s Messenger came, the Ansari woman was shy to ask him about this matter, so she left.

Umm Salamah told Allah’s Messenger the story and he said:

Summon the Ansari woman.

She was summoned and he recited this Ayah to her:

Your wives are a tilth for you, so go to your tilth, when or how you will.

He added:

Only in one valve (the vagina).”

This Hadith was also collected by At-Tirmidhi who said, “Hasan.”

An-Nasa’i reported that Ka`b bin Alqamah said that Abu An-Nadr said that; he asked Nafi, “The people are repeating the statement that you relate from Ibn Umar that he allowed sex with women in their rear (anus).”

He said, “They have said a lie about me. But let me tell you what really happened.

Ibn Umar was once reciting the Qur’an while I was with him and he reached the Ayah:  (Your wives are a tilth for you, so go to your tilth, when or how you will), he then said, `O Nafi`! Do you know the story behind this Ayah?’

I said, `No.’

He said, `We, the people of Quraysh, used to have sexual intercourse with our wives from the back (in the vagina). When we migrated to Al-Madinah and married some Ansari women, we wanted to do the same with them. They disliked it and made a big issue out of it. The Ansari women had followed the practice of the Jews who have sex with their women while they lay on their sides. Then, Allah revealed: (Your wives are a tilth for you, so go to your tilth, when or how you will).”

This has an authentic chain of narrators.

Imam Ahmad reported that Khuzaymah bin Thabit Al-Khatami narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: Allah does not shy from the truth – he said it thrice-, do not have anal sex with  omen.

This Hadith was collected by An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah.

Abu Isa At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i reported that Ibn Abbas narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

Allah does not look at a man who had anal sex with another man or a woman.

At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Gharib.”

This is also the narration that Ibn Hibban collected in his Sahih, while Ibn Hazm stated that this is an authentic Hadith.

In addition, Imam Ahmad reported that Ali bin Talaq said, “Allah’s Messenger forbade anal sex with women, for Allah does not shy away from truth.”

Abu Isa At-Tirmidhi also reported this Hadith and said, “Hasan”.

Abu Muhammad Abdullah bin Abdur-Rahman Darimi reported in his Musnad that; Sa`id bin Yasar Abu Hubab said: I said to Ibn Umar,

“What do you say about having sex with women in the rear?”

He said, “What does it mean?”

I said, “Anal sex.”

He said, “Does a Muslim do that?”

This Hadith has an authentic chain of narrators and is an explicit rejection of anal sex from Ibn Umar.

Abu Bakr bin Ziyad Naysaburi reported that Ismail bin Ruh said that; he asked Malik bin Anas, “What do you say about having sex with women in the anus.?”

He said, “You are not an Arab. Does sex occur but in the place of pregnancy? Do it only in the Farj (vagina).”

I said, “O Abu Abdullah! They say that you allow that practice.”

He said, “They utter a lie about me, they lie about me.”

This is Malik’s firm stance on this subject.

It is also the view of Sa`id bin Musayyib, Abu Salamah, Ikrimah, Tawus, Ata, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, Mujahid bin Jabr, Al-Hasan and other scholars of the Salaf (the Companions and the following two generations after them).

They all, along with the majority of the scholars, harshly rebuked the practice of anal sex and many of them called this practice a Kufr.

Allah said:

…and send for your own selves beforehand. meaning, by performing the acts of worship while refraining from whatever Allah has prohibited for you.

This is why Allah said afterwards:

And fear Allah, and know that you are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), meaning, He will hold you accountable for all of your deeds.

…and give good tidings to the believers (O Muhammad). meaning, those who obey what Allah has commanded and refrain from what He has prohibited.

Ibn Jarir reported that Ata said, or related it to Ibn Abbas, (…and send for your own selves beforehand) means, mention Allah’s Name, by saying, `Bismillah’, before having sexual intercourse.”

Al-Bukhari also reported that Ibn Abbas narrated that Allah’s Messenger said: If anyone of you on having sexual relations with his wife said:

`In the Name of Allah. ‘O Allah! Protect us from Satan and also protect what you bestow upon us (i.e., the coming offspring) from Satan,’ and if it is destined that they should have a child then, Satan will never be able to harm him.

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224.| And make not Allah’s (Name) an excuse in your oaths against doing good and acting piously, and making peace among mankind. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower (i.e., do not swear much and if you have sworn against doing something good then give an expiation for the oath and do good).

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225.| Allah will not call you to account for that which is unintentional in your oaths, but He will call you to account for that which your hearts have earned. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Forbearing.

The Prohibition of swearing to abandon a Good Deed.

Allah commands,

‘’And make not Allah’s (Name) an excuse in your oaths against doing good and acting piously, and making peace among mankind. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower (i.e., do not swear much and if you have sworn against doing something good then give an expiation for the oath and do good).

Allah commands, `You should not implement your vows in Allah’s Name to refrain from pious acts and severing the relations with the relatives, if you swear to abandon such causes.’

Allah said in another Ayah:

(And let not those among you who are blessed with graces and wealth swear not to give (any sort of help) to their kinsmen, Al-Masakin (the poor), and those who left their homes for Allah’s cause. Let them pardon and forgive. Do you not love that Allah should forgive you! (24:22)

Continuity in a sinful vow is more sinful than breaking it by expiation.

Allah’s Messenger said:

By Allah! It is more sinful to Allah that one of you implements his vow regarding (severing the relations with) his relatives than (breaking his promise and) paying the Kaffarah that Allah has required in such cases.

This is how Muslim reported this Hadith and also Imam Ahmad.

Ali bin Abu Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said that what Allah said: (And make not Allah’s (Name) an excuse in your oaths) means, “Do not vow to refrain from doing good works. (If you make such vow then) break it, pay the Kaffarah and do the good work.”

This was also said by Masruq, Ash-Sha`bi, Ibrahim An-Nakhai, Mujahid, Tawus, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ata, Ikrimah, Makhul, Az-Zuhri, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Ad-Dahhak, Ata Al-Khurasani and As-Suddi.

Supporting this view, which is the majority view, is what is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Musa Al-Ashari narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

By Allah! Allah willing, I will not vow to do a thing and then see a better act, but I would do what is better and break my vow.

Muslim reported that Abu Hurayrah said that Allah’s Messenger said:

Whoever makes a vow and then finds what is better than his vow (should break his vow) pay the Kaffarah and perform the better deed.

The Laghw (Unintentional) Vows.

Allah said:

Allah will not call you to account for that which is unintentional in your oaths, This Ayah means, `Allah does not punish or hold you accountable for the Laghw (unintentional) vows that you make.’

The Laghw vows are unintentional and are just like the habitual statements that the tongue repeats, without really intending them. For instance, it is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:

Whoever swore and (unintentionally) mentioned Al-Lat and Al-Uzza (two idols) in his vow, should then say, `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah’.

The Messenger said this statement to some new Muslims whose tongues were, before Islam, used to vowing by their idol Al-Lat. Therefore, the Prophet ordered them to intentionally recite the slogan of Ikhlas, just as they mentioned these words by mistake, so that it (the word of Ikhlas) may eradicate the word (of Shirk).

This is why Allah said:

…but He will call you to account for that which your hearts have earned.

… and in another Ayah,

…for your deliberate oaths. (5:89)

Abu Dawud reported under Chapter: `The Laghw Vows’ that Ata said that Aishah said that Allah’s Messenger said: The Laghw in the vows includes what the man says in his house, such as, `No, by Allah,’ and, `Yes, by Allah’.

Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Ibn Abbas said, “The Laghw vow includes vowing while angry.”

He also reported that Ibn Abbas said, “The Laghw vow includes vowing to prohibit what Allah has allowed, and this type does not require a Kaffarah (expiation).”

Similar was said by Sa`id bin Jubayr.

In addition, Abu Dawud related under Chapter: `Vowing while Angry’ that; Sa`id bin Musayyib said that two Ansari brothers both received inheritance and one of them asked that the inheritance be divided. His brother said, “If you ask me about dividing the inheritance again, then all of what I have will be spent on the Ka`bah’s door.”

Umar said to him, “The Ka`bah does not need your money. So break your vow, pay the Kaffarah and come to terms with your brother. I heard Allah’s Messenger saying:

Do not make a vow against yourself, nor to disobey the Lord, cut the relations of the womb or dispose of what you do not own.”

Allah said:

…but He will call you to account for that which your hearts have earned, Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and several others said that; this Ayah means swearing about a matter while knowing that he is lying.

Mujahid and others said this Ayah is similar to what Allah said:

…but He will punish you for your deliberate oaths. (5:89)

Allah said,

And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Forbearing. meaning, He is Oft-Forgiving to His servants and Most Forbearing with them.

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226.| Those who take an oath not to have sexual relation with their wives must wait for four months, then if they return, verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

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227.| And if they decide upon divorce, then Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.

The Ila’ and its Rulings.

Allah says;

Those who take an oath not to have sexual relation with their wives must wait for four months, then if they return, verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Ila’ is a type of vow where a man swears not to sleep with his wife for a certain period, whether less or more than four months. If the vow of Ila’ was for less than four months, the man has to wait for the vow’s period to end and then is allowed to have sexual intercourse with his wife. She has to be patient and she cannot ask her husband, in this case, to end his vow before the end of its term.

It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Aishah said that; Allah’s Messenger swore he would stay away from with his wives for a month. He then came down after twenty-nine days saying: The (lunar) month is twenty-nine days.

Similar was narrated by Umar bin Al-Khattab and reported in the Two Sahihs. If the period of Ila’ is for more than four months, the wife is allowed in this case to ask her husband, upon the end of the four months, to end the Ila’ and have sexual relations with her.

Otherwise, he should divorce her, by being forced to do so by the authorities if necessary, so that the wife is not harmed.

Allah said:

Those who take an oath not to have sexual relations with their wives, meaning, swear not to have sexual relations with the wife.

This Ayah indicates that the Ila’ involves the wife and not a slave-women, as the majority of the scholars have agreed,

…must wait for four months, meaning, the husband waits for four months from the time of the vow and then ends the Ila’ (if the vow was for four or more months) and is required to either return to his wife or divorce her.

This is why Allah said next:

…then if they return, meaning, to a normal relationship, having sexual intercourse with the wife. This is the Tafsir of Ibn Abbas, Masruq, Ash-Sha`bi, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Ibn Jarir.

…verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. with any shortcomings that occurred in the rights of the wife because of the vow of Ila’.

Allah said:

‘’And if they decide upon divorce, then Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.’’

(And if they decide upon divorce), indicating that divorce does not occur by merely passing the four month mark (during the Ila’).

Malik reported from Nafi` that Abdullah bin Umar said, “If the man swears to Ila’ from his wife, then divorce does not occur automatically even after the four months have passed. When he stops at the four months mark, he should either divorce or return.” Al-Bukhari also reported this Hadith.

Ibn Jarir reported that Suhayl bin Abu Salih said that his father said,

“I asked twelve Companions about the man who does Ila’ with his wife. They all stated that he does not have to do anything until the four months have passed and then has to either retain or divorce her.”

Ad-Daraqutni also reported this from Suhayl.

It is also reported from Umar, Uthman, Ali, Abu Ad-Darda, Aishah, Ibn Umar and Ibn Abbas.

This is also the opinion of Sa`id bin Musayyib, Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, Mujahid, Tawus, Muhammad bin Ka`b and Al-Qasim.

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228.| And divorced women shall wait (as regards their marriage) for three menstrual periods, and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs, if they believe in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.

The Iddah (Waiting Period) of the Divorced Woman.

Allah says;

And divorced women shall wait (as regards their marriage) for three menstrual periods, This Ayah contains a command from Allah that the divorced woman, whose marriage was consummated and who still has menstruation periods, should wait for three (menstrual) periods (Quru) after the divorce and then remarry if she wishes.

The Meaning of Al-Quru.

Ibn Jarir related that Alqamah said:

We were with Umar bin Al-Khattab when a woman came and said, “My husband divorced me one or two periods ago. He then came back to me while I had prepared my water (for taking a bath), took off my clothes and closed my door.”

Umar asked Abdullah bin Mas`ud, “What do you think?”

He said, “I think that she is still his wife, as long as she is not allowed to resume praying (i.e., until the third period ends before he takes her back).”

Umar said, “This is my opinion too.”

This is also the opinion of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Abu Ad-Darda, Ubadah bin As-Samit, Anas bin Malik, Ibn Mas`ud, Mu`adh, Ubayy bin Ka`b, Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari and Ibn Abbas.

Furthermore, this is the opinion of Sa`id bin Musayyib, Alqamah, Aswad, Ibrahim, Mujahid, Ata, Tawus, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Muhammad bin Sirin, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ash-Sha`bi, Ar-Rabi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, As-Suddi, Makhul, Ad-Dahhak and Ata Al-Khurasani.

They all stated that the Quru is the menstruation period.

What testifies to this is the Hadith that Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i reported that Fatimah bint Abu Hubaiysh said that Allah’s Messenger said to her:

Do not pray during your Aqra (pl. for Quru, the menstruation period).

If this Hadith was authentic, it would have been a clear proof that the Quru is the menstruation period.

However, one of the narrators of this Hadith, Al-Mundhir, is an unknown person (in Hadith terminology), as Abu Hatim has stated, although Ibn Hibban has mentioned Al-Mundhir in his book Ath-Thiqat.

A Woman’s Statement about Menses and Purity is to be accepted

Allah said:

…and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs,

… meaning, of pregnancy or menstruation periods.

This is the Tafsir of Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Al-Hakam bin Utaybah, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Ad-Dahhak and others.

Allah then said:

…if they believe in Allah and the Last Day.

This Ayah warns women against hiding the truth (if they were pregnant or on their menses), indicating that they are the authority in such matters as they alone know such facts about themselves. Since verifying such matters is difficult, Allah left this decision with them. Yet, women were warned not to hide the truth in case they wish to end the Iddah sooner, or later, according to their desires. Women were thus commanded to say the truth (if they were pregnant or on their menses), no more and no less.

The Husband has the Right to take back his Divorced Wife during the Iddah (Waiting Period)

Allah said:

And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation.

Hence, the husband who divorces his wife can take her back, providing she is still in her Iddah (time spent before a divorced woman or a widow can remarry) and that his aim, by taking her back, is righteous and for the purpose of bringing things back to normal. However, this ruling applies where the husband is eligible to take his divorced wife back.

We should mention that (when this Ayah 2:228 was revealed), the ruling that made the divorce thrice and specified when the husband is ineligible to take his divorced wife back, had not been revealed yet. Previously, the man used to divorce his wife and then take her back even if he had divorced her a hundred separate times.

Thereafter, Allah revealed the following Ayah (2:229) that made the divorce only thrice. So there was now a reversible divorce and an irreversible final divorce.

The Rights the Spouses have over Each Other.

Allah said:

‘’And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable, This Ayah indicates that the wife has certain rights on her husband, just as he has certain rights on her, and each is obliged to give the other spouse his due rights.’’

Muslim reported that Jabir said that Allah’s Messenger said: Fear Allah regarding your women, for you have taken them by Allah’s covenant and were allowed to enjoy with them sexually by Allah’s Words.

You have the right on them that they do not allow anyone you dislike to sit on your mat. If they do that, then discipline them leniently.

They have the right to be spent on and to be bought clothes in what is reasonable.

Bahz bin Hakim said that Muawiyah bin Haydah Al-Qushayri related that his grandfather said, “O Messenger of Allah! What is the right the wife of one of us has?”

The Prophet said:

To feed her when you eat, buy her clothes when you buy for yourself and to refrain from striking her on the face, cursing her or staying away from her except in the house.

Waki related that Ibn Abbas said, “I like to take care of my appearance for my wife just as I like for her to take care of her appearance for me.

This is because Allah says:

(And they (women) have rights similar (to those of their husbands) over them to what is reasonable).”

This statement is reported by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abu Hatim.

The Virtue Men have over Women.

Allah said:

‘’But men have a degree (of responsibility) over them.

This Ayah indicates that men are in a more advantageous position than women physically as well as in their mannerism, status, obedience (of women to them), spending, taking care of the affairs and in general, in this life and in the Hereafter.

Allah said (in another Ayah),

Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend (to support them) from their means. (4:34)

Allah’s statement:

And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.

… means, He is Mighty in His punishment of those who disobey and defy His commands. He is Wise in what He commands, destines and legislates.