Battle of Mu’tah
غزوة مؤتة

Arabic: غزوة مؤتة أو سرية مؤتة، جرت الغزوة في جمادي الأول من العام الثامن للهجرة (أغسطس 629 م) بسبب قتل الحارث بن عمير الأزدي رسول الرسول محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى ملك بصرى على يد شرحبيل بن عمرو بن جبلة الغساني والي البلقاء الواقع تحت الحماية الرومانية؛ إذ أوثقه رباطا، فقدمه، فضرب عنقه.

Decorative Lines

Part of the Arab
Byzantine Wars

The Battle of Mu’tah (Arabic: معركة مؤتة , غزوة مؤتة‎) was fought in 629 Jumada al-awwal 8 AH in the Islamic calendar), near the village of Mu’tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between the forces of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad and the forces of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

In Muslim histories, the battle is usually described as the Muslims’ attempt to take retribution against a Ghassanid chief for taking the life of an emissary; it ended in a draw and the safe retreat of both sides.

However according to Byzantine sources, the Muslims sent a force to attack the Arab pagan settlement of Mucheon during a pagan feast day. The local Byzantine Vicarius learns of their plans and collects the garrisons of the fortresses. The Muslims are routed after three of their leaders are killed.

Battle of Mu’tah (غزوة مؤتة)

The tomb of Ja`far ibn Abī Tālib, the second commander of the Muslim army.

  • Date: September 629
  • Location: Mu’tah in Kerak Governorate, Jordan
  • Result: Byzantine victory

Belligerents

  • Muslim Arabs: Byzantine Empire, Ghassanids

Commanders and leaders

  • Jafar bin Abi Talib KIA,
  • Zayd ibn Haritha KIA,
  • Abdullah ibn Rawahah KIA,
  • Khalid ibn al-Walid
  • Theodore,
  • Heraclius,
  • Shurahbil ibn Amr

Strength

3,000 – 100,000-200,000 according to Muslim sources

Modern historian Walter Kaegi says that the battle was “probably a very modest clash”.

Casualties and losses

  • 12 soldiers (Muslim sources)
  • Approx 3,000 soldiers (Muslim sources)

Background

The Treaty of Hudaybiyah initiated a truce between the Muslim forces in Medina and the Qurayshite forces in control of Mecca. Badhan, the Sassanid governor of Yemen, had converted to Islam and many of the southern Arabian tribes also joined the rising power in Medina. Muhammad was therefore free to focus on the Arab tribes in the Bilad al-Sham to the North.

Muslim historians say that the immediate impetus for a military march north was the mistreatment of emissaries. Muhammad is said to have sent emissaries to the nomadic Banu Sulaym and Dhat al Talh tribes of the north (tribes under the protection of the Byzantines).

The emissaries were killed.

The expedition sent for revenge was the largest Muslim army raised yet against a non-Meccan confederate force and would be the first to confront the Byzantines. According to F. Buhl, another possible reason “seems to have been that he wished to bring the Arabs living there under his control.”

Mobilization of the armies

According to later Muslim historians, Muhammad dispatched 3,000 of his troops to the area in Jumada al-awwal of the year 8 A.H., i.e., A.D. 629, for a quick expedition to attack and punish the tribes. The army was led by Zayd ibn Haritha; the second-in-command was Jafar ibn Abi Talib and the third-in-command was Abdullah ibn Rawahah.

The leader of the Ghassanids is said to have received word of the expedition and prepared his forces; he also sent to the Byzantines for aid. Muslim historians report that the Byzantine emperor Heraclius gathered an army and hurried to the aid of his Arab allies. Other sources say that the leader was the emperor’s brother, Theodorus. [citation needed] The combined force of Roman soldiers and Arab allies is usually reported to be approximately 200,000.

When the Muslim troops arrived at the area to the east of Jordan and learnt of the size of the Byzantine army, they wanted to wait and send for reinforcements from Medina. Abdullah ibn Rawahah reminded them about their desire for martyrdom and questioned the move to wait when what they desire was awaiting them, so they continued marching towards the waiting army.

The battle

The Muslims engaged the Byzantines at their camp by the village of Musharif and then withdrew towards Mu’tah. It was here that the two armies fought. Some Muslim sources report that the battle was fought in a valley between two heights, which negated the Byzantines their numerical superiority. During the battle, all three Muslim leaders fell one after the other as they took command of the force: first,

  • Zayd ibn Haritha, then
  • Jafar ibn Abi Talib, then
  • Abdullah ibn Rawahah.

Al-Bukhari reported that there were fifty stab wounds in Jafar’s body, none of them in the back. After the death of the latter, some of the Muslim soldiers began to rout.

Thabit ibn Al-Arqam, seeing the desperate state of the Muslim forces, took up the banner and rallied his comrades, and managed to save the army from complete destruction. After the battle the troops asked Thabit ibn Al-Arqam to assume command; however, he declined and asked Khalid ibn al-Walid to take the lead.

Khalid ibn Al-Walid reported that the fighting was so intense that he used nine swords which broke in the battle. Khalid, seeing that the situation was hopeless, prepared to withdraw. He continued to engage the Byzantines in skirmishes, but avoided pitched battle.

One night he completely changed his troop positions and brought forth a rearguard that he had equipped with new banners; all this was intended to give the impression that reinforcements had arrived from Medina. He also ordered his cavalry to retreat behind a hill during the night, hiding their movements, and then to return during daytime when the battle resumed, raising as much dust as they could.

This also was intended to create the impression that further reinforcements were arriving. The Byzantines believed in the fictitious reinforcements and withdrew, thus allowing the Muslim force to safely retreat to Medina.

Aftermath

It is reported that when the Muslim force arrived at Medina, they were berated for apparently withdrawing and accused of fleeing. Salamah ibn Hisham is reported to have prayed at home rather than going to the mosque to avoid having to explain himself. Muhammad ordered them to stop, saying that they would return to fight the Byzantines again and bestowed upon Khalid the title of ‘Saifullah’ meaning ‘The Sword of Allah’.

Today, Muslims who fell at the battle are considered martyrs (shahid). Some have claimed that this battle, far from being a defeat, was a strategic success; the Muslims had challenged the Byzantines and had made their presence felt amongst the Arab Bedouin tribes in the region. A mausoleum was later built at Mu’tah over their grave.

Non-Muslim accounts

Aside from the Muslim accounts, there may be a reference to the battle in the chronicle written by ninth century Byzantine monk and chronicler Theophanes.

According to Theophanes, the Muslim army intended to attack the local Arabs on a feast day (the word that Theophanes used most likely indicates a pagan rather than a Christian holiday). However, the vicarius Theodorus (who might be emperor’s brother, in this case vicarius augustus (emperor’s deputy) is meant, i.e. viceroy) learnt about their plans and gathered a force from the garrisons of local fortresses:

He determined from the Saracen the day and hour on which the emirs intended to attack, and attacked them at a place called Mothous. He killed three of them and most of their army, but one emir, Khalid (whom they call the sword of God), got away.

It has been argued by some scholars, such as Walter Kaegi, that this is a reference to the Battle of Mu’tah, but this is not certain.

Islamic primary sources

The event is referenced in many Sunni Hadith collections. The Sahih al-Bukhari hadith collection mentions that 9 swords of Khalid ibn Walid were broken:

Narrated Khalid bin Al-Walid:

”On the day of Mu’tah, nine swords were broken in my hand and only a Yemenite sword of mine remained in my hand.” [Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:565]

It also mentions that Jafar should take over as commander if Zaid ibn Haritha was killed:

‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar said, “Allah’s Apostle appointed Zaid bin Haritha as the commander of the army during the Ghazwa of Mu’tah and said, “If Zaid is martyred, Ja’far should take over his position, and if Ja’far is martyred, ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha should take over his position.’ ” ‘Abdulla-h bin ‘Umar further said, “I was present amongst them in that battle and we searched for Ja’far bin Abi Talib and found his body amongst the bodies of the martyred ones, and found over ninety wounds over his body, caused by stabs or shots (of arrows). [Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:565]

The event is also referenced in the Abu Dawud hadith collection as follows:

My foster-father said to me – he was one of Banu Murrah ibn Awf, and he was present in that battle, the battle of Mu’tah: By Allah, as if I am seeing Ja’far who jumped from his reddish horse and hamstrung it; he then fought with the people until he was killed. [Sunan Abu Dawood, 14:2567]

Notes

  • Jump up to: a b Kaegi, W. Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium. p. 231
  • Jump up to: a b c Gibb, H. A. R. (1993). “Muʾta”. In Nuhl, F. Encyclopaedia of Islam 7 (Second ed.). BRILL. pp. 756–757. ISBN 9789004094192. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  • Jump up ^ Gabriel, Richard A. (2007). Muhammad: Islam’s First Great General. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 164. ISBN 9780806138602.
  • Jump up ^ Peterson, Daniel C. (2007). Muhammad, Prophet of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 142. ISBN 9780802807540.
  • Jump up ^ Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya, Zad al-Ma’ad 2/155
  • Jump up ^ Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Fath al-Bari 7/511
  • Jump up to: a b c d e f Saif-ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri, ar-Raheeq al-Makhtoom, “The Sealed Nectar”, Islamic University of Medina, Dar-us-Salam publishers ISBN 1-59144-071-8
  • Jump up to: a b General A. I. Akram, The Sword of Allah: Khalid bin Al-Waleed, Chapter 6, p. 2
  • Jump up ^ Kaegi, W. Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium, Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-521-03698-4, p. 231.
  • Jump up ^ Muhammad Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad (Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him), Translated by Isma’il Razi A. al-Faruqi, 1976, American Trust Publications ISBN 0-89259-002-5
  • Jump up to: a b c Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy (1996), A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims, The Battle of Mootah, ISBN 0-9509879-1-3
  • Jump up to: a b “Muʾta”, F. Buhl, in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010. Accessed 2 October 2010 via Brill Online:
  • Jump up ^ p. 36, The Chronicle of Theophanes, tr. Harry Turtledove, University of Pennsylvania, 1982, ISBN 978-0-8122-1128-3.

References

Haykal, Muhammad Husayn (1995). The Life of Muhammad. Islamic Book Service. ISBN 1-57731-195-7

Online References

  • [2] Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (THE SEALED NECTAR)
  • [3] The Life of Muhammad
  • [4] Sword of Allah

The Battle of Mu’tahغزوة مؤتق

According to the scholars of Siyrah, the battle of Mu’tah was in the 8th year of Hijra. ‘Urwah Ibn A1- Zubair said that tte conger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent this expedition to Mu’ tah in Jumadah Al-Ula in the 8 year of Hijra and put Zaid Ibn Harithah in command and said,

“If Zaid were slain, then Ja’far Ibn Abi Talib was to take command, and if he were killed then ‘Abdullah Ibn Rawahah.”

People prepared themselves to set off. Their number was 3.000. When they were about to set off, they bade farewell to the Messenger’s chiefs and saluted them.

Then, the people marched forth, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) accompanied them until he said farewell and returned.

They went on their way as far as Ma’ an in Syria where they heard that Hereaclius had come down to Ma’ab in the Balqa’ with 100.000 Greeks joined by 100.000 men from Lakhm, Judham, Al-Qayn, Bahra and Bali. When the Muslims heard this they spent two nights at Ma’an pondering what to do.

‘Abdullah Ibn Rawahah encouraged the men saying, “Men, what you dislike is that whieh you have come out iu search of, viz, martyrdom. We are not fighting the enemy with numbers, or strength or multitude, but we are confronting them with this religion with which Allah has honored us. So come on! Both prospects are fine: yctory or martyrdom.” The men said, “By Allah Ibn Rawahah is right.”

The people went forward until When they were on the borders of the Balqa’ the Greek and the Arab forces of Heraelius met them in a village called Masharif. When the enemy approached, the Muslims withdrew to a village called Mu’tah. There the forces met and the Muslims made their dispositions: the right wing led by Qutbah Ibn Qatadah of Banu ‘Udhrah, and the left wing by an Ansari called ‘Ubaya Ibn Malik.

When fighting began Zaid Ibn Harithah fought holding the Messenger’s standard, until he died from loss of blood among the spears of the enemy. Then Ja’far took it and fought with it until he was martyred. ‘ Abdullhah Ibn Rwahah took the standard and fought until he died a martyr.

In this context, Al-Bukhari narrated the following narrations:

Nafi’ narrated that Ibn ‘Umar informed me that on the day (of Mu’tah) he stood beside Ja’ far who was dead (i.e., killed in the battle), and he counted fifty wounds in his body, caused by stabs or strokes, and none of those wounds was in his back.

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar said, “Allah’s Messenger appointed Zaid Ibn Harithah as the commander of the army during the Ghazwah of Mu’tah and said,

‘If Zaid is martyred, Ja’far should take over his position, and if Ja’far is martyred, ‘Abdullah Ibn Rawahah should take over his position.'”

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘ Umar (may Allah be pleased with them) further said, “I was present amongst them in that battle and we searched for Ja’far Ibn Abi Talib and found his body amongst the bodies of the martyred ones, and found over ninety wounds over his body, caused by stabs or shots (of arrows).”

Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had informed the people of the martyrdom of Zaid, Ja’far and Ibn Rawahah before the news of their death reached. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

‘Zaid took the flag (as the commander of the army) and was martyred, then Ja’far took it and was martyred, and then Ibn Rawahah took it and was martyred.’

At that time, the Pro؛toet’s eyes were shedding tears. He added,

“Then the flag was taken by a sword amongst the Swords of Allah (i.e., Khalid) and Allah made them (I.e., the Muslims) victorious.”

‘Amrah said, “I heard ‘Aishah saying, When the news of the martyrdom of Ibn Harithah, Ja’ far Ibn Abi Talib and ‘Abdullah ibn Rawahah reached, Allah’s Messenger sat with sorrow explicit on his face.” ‘Aishah added, “I was then peeping through a chink in the door. A man came to him and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! The women of Ja’far are crying.’

Thereupon the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told him to forbid them to do so. So the man went away and returned saying, ‘I forbade them but they did not listen to me.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered him again to go (and forbid them). He went again and came saying, ‘By Allah, they over powered me (i.e., did not listen to me).” ‘Aishah said, “Allah’s Messenger said (to him),

‘Go and throw dust into their mouths.’ ”

‘Aishah added, “I said, ‘May Allah put your nose in the dust! By Allah, neither have you done what you have been ordered, nor have you relieved Allah’s Messenger from trouble.'”

‘ Amir said that whenever Ibn ‘ Umar greeted the son of Ja’far, he used to say (to him), “Assalam Alaika (i.e., peace be on you), ‘O the son of two- winged person.”

Khalid Ibn Al-Walid (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “On the day (of the battle of) Mn’tah, nine swords were broken in my hand, and nothing was left in my hand except a Yemenite sword of mine”