The Conquest of Makkah
فح مكة

The Seerah of:
Prophet Muhammad
(peace be upon him)

غزوات الرسول 
The Battles of Prophet Muhammad

(peace be upon him)

Decorative Lines

Fath Makkah
The Conquist of Makkah

”The conquest of Makkah, according to the scholars of Siyrah, took place in Ramadan in the 8th year of Hijra.”

In the Glorious Qur’an, Allah, Most High, says,

Surat Al-Hadid 10

‘’Not equal among you are these who spent (freely) and fought, before the victory (with those who did later). Those higher in rank than those who spent (freely) and fought afterwards. But to all Allah promised a goodly (reward). And Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do.’’ [Surah: Al-Hadid, 10]

Surat Al-Nasr

1): ‘’A When comes the Help of Allah, and victory,
2): And thou dost see the people enter Allah’s Religion in crowds,
3): Celebrate the Praises of thy Lord, and pray for }{is forgiveness: for He is Oft-Returning (in forgiveness)
.’’ [Surah: An-Nasr, 1-3]

The Occasion of the Conquest of Makkah

Despite the improved relations between Makkah and Madinah after the signing of the Treaty of Al- Hudaybiyah, the ten-year peace was to be broken by Quraish who, with their allies, the tribe of Bakr, attacked the tribe of Khuza’ah. Now Khuza’ah were allies of the Muslims and when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) heard of the attack, he immediately ordered his men to prepare for war.

Later, the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) informed the men that he was going to Makkah and ordered them to make careful preparations. He said,

“O Allah, take the eyes and earsfrom Quraish so that we may take them by surprise in their land. ” Consequently, the men got themselves ready.

The Affair of Hatib Ibn Abi Balta’ah

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of ‘ Ubaid Allah Ibn Abi Rafi’ that the later said, “I heard ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) say, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent me, Abu Marthad and Az-Zubair, and all of us were riding horses, and said, ‘Go until you reach Raudat-Khakh where there is a pagan woman carrying a letter from Hatib Ibn Abi Balta’ah to the pagans of Makka.

’So we found her riding her camel at the place which Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had mentioned. We said (to her), ‘(Give us) the letter.’ She said, ‘I have no letter.’ Then we made her camel kneel down and we searched her, but we found no letter. Then we said, ‘Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had not told us a lie, certainly.

Take out the letter, otherwise we will strip you naked.’ When she saw that we were determined, she put her hand below her waist belt, for she had tied her cloak round her waist, and she took out the letter, and we brought her to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Then ‘ Umar said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! (This Hatib) has betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the believers! Let me cut off his neck!’

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked Hatib, ‘What made you do this?’ Hatib said, ‘By Allah, I did not intend to give up my belief in Allah and His Messenger but I wanted to have some influence among the (Makkah) people so that through it, Allah might protect my family and property. There is tone of your Companions but has some of his relatives there through whom Allah protects his family and property.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

‘He has spoken the truth; do no say to him but good. ’

‘ Umar said, ‘He has betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the faithful believers. Let me cut off his neck!’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

‘Is he not one of the Badr warriors..? May be Allah looked at the Badr warriors and said, ’Do whatever you tike, as I have granted Paradise to you, or said, ‘I have forgiven you.’

On hearing this, tears came out of’Umar’s eyes, and he said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’”

Therefore, Allah, Most High, has revealed the Surah that begins with,

‘‘O ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors), offering them (your) love, even though they have rejected the Truth that has come to you, and have (on the contrary) driven out the Messenger and yourselves (from your homes), (simply) because ye believe in Allah, you Lord! If you have came out to strive in My way and to seek My good pleasure, showing friendship into them in secret: for I know full well all that ye conceal and all that ye reveal. And any of you that does this has strayed from the straight path.’’ [Surah: Al-Mumtahinah]

Muslims Goes out to Makkah

On the 10th of Ramadan, 8 AH, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went on his journey and put over Madinah Abu Ruhm Kulthum Ibn Hussayn. In this context, Al- Bukhari narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them) that the latter said, “Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) traveled in the month of Ramadan and he fasted until he reached (a place called) ‘Usfan, then he asked for a tumbler of water and drank it by the daytime so that the people might see him. He broke his fast until he reached Makkah.”

Ibn ‘Abbas used to say, “Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fasted and sometimes did not fast while traveling, so one may fast or may not (on journeys).”

However, it should be noted that the Muslims’ number was 10.000 men.

Abu Sufiyan Embraces Islam

Hisham’s father, according to Al-Bukhari, narrated that when Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) set out (towards Makkah) during the year of the Conquest (of Makkah) and this news reached (the infidels of Quraish), Abu Sufyan, Hakim Ibn Hizam and Budail Ibn Warqa came out to gather information about Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

They proceeded on their wa they reached a place called Marr-az-Zahran (which is near Makkah). There they saw many fires as if they were the fires of ‘Arafat. Abu Sufyan said, “What is this? It looked like tire fires of ‘Arafat.” Budail Ibn Warqa said, “Banu ‘Amr are less in number than that.”

Some of the guards of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) saw them and took them over, caught them and brought them to Allah’s Messenger. Abu Sufyan embraced Islam.

When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) proceeded, he said to Al-‘Abbas,

“Keep Abu Sufyan standing at the top of the mountain so that he would look at the Muslims. ”

So Al-‘Abbas kept him standing (at that place) and the tribes with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) started passing in front of Abu Sufyan in military batehes.

A batch passed and Abu Sufyan said, ‘O ‘Abbas, who are these..?”

‘Abbas said, “They are (Banu) Ghifar.”

Abu Sufyan said, “I have gotten nothing to do with Ghifar.”

Then a batch of the tribe of Juhaina passed by and he said similarly as above. Then (a batch of the tribe of) Sa’d Ibn Huzaim passed by and he said similarly as above.

Then Banu Sulaim passed by and he said similarly as above.

Then came a batch, the like of which Abu Sufyan had not seen.

He said, “Who are these..?”

‘Abbas said, “They are the Ansar headed by Sa’d Ibn ‘Ubadah, the one holding the flag.”

Sa’d Ibn ‘Ubadah said, “’O Abu Sufyan! Today is the day of a great battle and today (what is prohibited in) the Ka’ bah will be permissible.”

Abu Sufyan said, “O ‘Abbas..! How excellent the day of destruction is!” Then came another batch (of warriors) which was the smallest of all the batches, and in it there was Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and his Companions and the flag of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was carried by Az-Zubair Ibn Al-‘Awwam.

When Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) passed by Abu Sufyan, the latter said, (to the Prophet),

“Do you know what Sa’d Ibn ‘Ubadah said..?”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

“What did he say?”

Abu Sufyan said, “He said such-and-such.”

On that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

“Sa’d told a lie, but today Allah will give superiority to the Ka’bah and today the Kabbah will be covered with a (cloth) covering. ”

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered that his flag be fixed at Al-Hajun.

Al-Bukhari also narrated that ‘Urwah said that Nafi’ Ibn Jubair Ibn Mut’im said, “I heard Al-‘Abbas saying to Az-Zubair Ibn Al-‘Awwam, ‘O Abu ‘Abdullah! Did Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) order you to fix the flag here..?'”

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered Khalid Ibn Al-Walid to enter Makkah from its upper part from Ka’bal while the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) himself entered from Kuda. Two men from the cavalry of Khalid Ibn Al-Wahd named Hubaish Ibn Al-Ash’ar and Kurz Ibn Jabir Al-Fihri were martyred on that day.

The Deseription of the Prophet’s Entry into Makkah

‘Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said, “During the year of toe inquest (of Makkah), the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Makkah through Kada which was at the upper part of Makkah.”

Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated on the authority of Anas Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased ‘with him) that the latter said that on the day of the Conquest, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Makkah, wearing a helmet on his head. When he took it off, a man came and said, “Ibn Khatal is clinging to the curtain of the Ka’bak.”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “Kill him.”

Al-Bukhari, moreover, narrated on the authority of ‘ Abudullah Ibn Mughaffal that the latter said that I saw Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on the day of toe Conquest of Makkah over his she-camel, reciting Surat-al-Fath in a vibrant quivering tone.

Mu’awiyah commented on this, saying, “Were I not afraid that the people may gather around me, I would recite in vibrant quivering tone as he (i.e., ‘Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal) did, imitating Allah’s Messenger.”

Muslims had been ordered by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) not to cause any harm unless anyone tried to stop them entering. However, according to Ibn Ishaq, Safwan Ibn Umayyah, ‘Ikrimah Ibn Abi Jahl and Suhail Ibn ‘Amr had collected some men in Al-Khandama to fight. Himas Ibn Qays Ibn Khalid, brother of Ibn Bakr was sharpening his sword before the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Makkah, and his wife asked him why he was doing so.

When he told her it was for Muhammad and his Companions she said that she did not think that it would do them any harm. He answered that he hoped to give her one of them as a slave.

Then he went to Al-Khandama with Safwan, Suhail, and ‘Ikrimah and when the Muslims under Khalid arrived a skirmish followed in which Kurz Ibn Jabir, one of the tribe of Muharib Ibn fihr, and Hubaish Ibn Khalid Ibn Rabi’ah Ibn Asram, an ally of the tribe of Munqidh, who were in Khalid’s cavalry, were killed. They had taken a road of their own apart fiom Khalid and were killed together.

Salamah Ibn Al-Mayla, one of Khalid’s horsemen, was killed. and the polytheists lost about 12 or 13 men; then they took to flight.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had instructed his Commanders when they entered Makkah only to fight those who resisted them, except a small number who were to be killed even if they found beneath the curtains of the Ka’bah. Among them were ‘ Abdullah Ibn Sa’d Ibn Abi Sarh, ‘Abdullah Ibn Khadl and Al-Huwairth Ibn Naqid Ibn Wahb Ibn ‘Abd Qasa.

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah that, “When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Makkah on the Day of the Conquest, there were 360 idols around the Ka’bah. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying,

‘A Truth has come and falsehood will neither start nor will it reappear. ’

Moreover, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of ‘ Abdullah Ibn ‘ Umar (may Allah be pleased with them) who said, “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) arrived (at Makkah) in the year of the Conquest (of Makkah) while Usamah was riding behind him on (his she-camel). Al-Qaswa, Bilal and ‘ Uthman Ibn Talha were accompanying him. When he made his she-camel kneel down near the Ka’bah, he said to ‘Uthman,

‘Get us the key (of the Ka’bah). ’

He brought the key to him and opened the gate of the Ka’bah, for him. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), Usamah, Bilal and ‘ Uthman (Ibn Talhah) entered the Ka’bah and then closed the gate behind them (from inside).

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed there for a long period and then came out. The people rushed to get in, but I went in before them and found Bilal standing behind the gate, and I said to him, ‘Where did the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) pray..?’ He said, ‘He prayed between those two front pillars.’

The Ka’bah was built on six pillars, arranged in two rows, and he prayed between the two pillars of the front row leaving the gate of the Ka’ bah at his back and facing (in Prayer) the wall which faces one when one enters the Ka’ bah.

Between him and that wall (was the distance of about three cubits). But I forgot to ask Bilal about the number of rak’at (units in Prayer) the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had prayed. There was a red piece of marble at the place where he (i.e., the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had offered the Prayer.”

Mujahid, according to Al-Bukhri, also reported that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up on the day of the Conquest of Makkah and said,

Allah has made Makkah a sanctuary since the day He created the Heavens and the Earth, and it will remain a sanctuary by virtue of the sanctity..! Allah has bestowed on it until the Day of Resurrection. It (i.e., fighting in it) was not made lawful to anyone before me., nor will it be made lawful to anyone after me, and it was not made lawful for me except for a short period time. Its animals (that can be hunted) should not be chased, nor should its trees be cut, nor its vegetation or grass uprooted, not its Luqata (i.e., lost things) picked up except by one who makes a public announcement about it.”

Al-‘Abbas Ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib said, “Except the Idhkhir, ‘O Allah’s Messenger, as it is indispensable for blacksmiths and houses.” On that, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) kept quiet and then said,

“Except the Idhkhir as it is lawful to cut.”

Abu Shuraih narrated that he said to’Amr Ibn Sa’id while the latter was sending troops in batches to Makkah, ‘O chief..! Allow me to tell you a statement which Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said on the second day of the Conquest of Makkah. My two ears heard it and my heart remembered it and my two eyes saw him when he said it. He (i.e., the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) praised Allah and then said.

Makkah has been made a sanctuary by Allah and not by the people, so it is not lawful for a person, who believes in Allah and the Last Day to shed blood in it, or to cut its trees and if someone asks the permission to fight in Makkah because Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was allowed to fight in it, say to him, ‘Allah permitted His Messenger and did not allow you, and even he (i.e., the Messenger) was allowed for a short period of the day, and today its (Makkah’s) sanctity has become the same as it was before (of old) so those who are present should inform those who are absent (this Hadith).

Then Abu Shuraih, was asked, “What did ‘Amr say to you?”

Abu Shuraih said, “He said, ،I knew that better than you, ‘O Abu Shuraih..!

The Haram (i.e., Makkah) does not give refuge to a sinner or a fleeing murderer or a person running away after causing destruction.’”

According to Al-Bukhari, Salim’s father narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent Khalid Ibn Al-Walid to the tribe of Jadhimah and Khalid invited them to Islam but they could not express themselves by saying, “Aslamna (i.e., we have embraced Islam),” but they started saying “Saba’na! Saba’na (i.e., we have come out of one religion to another).”

Khalid kept on killing (some of) them and taking (some of them as captives and gave every one of us his Captive. When there came the day then Khalid ordered that each man (i.e., Muslim soldier) should kill his captive,

I said, “By Allah, I will not kill my captive, and none of my companions will kill his captive.”

When we reached the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), we mentioned to him the whole story. On that, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) raised both his hands and said twice:

“O Allah! I am free from what Khalid has done.”

“O Allah! I am free from what Khalid has done.”

The Prophet’s stay in Makkah

The scholars of Siyrah are unanimously agreed that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed the remaining days of Ramadan in Makkah shortening the Prayers and not fasting.

In this context, Al-Bukhari narrated that Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “We stayed (in Makkah) for ten days along with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and used to offer shortened Prayers (i.e., journey prayers).”

Also, Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed in Makkah for 19 days during which he prayed 2 Rak’at in each Prayer (that consists of 4 Rak’at, namely, Zuhr, ‘Asr and Maghrib Prayers).

The Prophet’s Judgments during His stay in Makkah

In his  Sahih, Al-Bukhari reported some of the Prophet’s judgements during his stay in Makkah, following are some of his narrations:

‘Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said that ‘ Utbah Ibn Abi Waqqas authorized his brother Sa’d to take the son of the slave-girl of Zam’ah into his custody.

‘Utbah said (to him), “He is my son.

“When Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) arrived in Makkah during the Conquest (of Makkah), Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas took the son of the slave-girl of Zam’ah and took him to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

‘Abd Ibn Zam’ ah too came along with him. Sa’d said, “This is the son of my brother and the latter has informed me that he is his son.” ‘Abd Ibn Zam’ah said, “O Allah’s Messenger! This is my brother who is the son of the slave-girl of Zam’ ah and was born on his (i.e., Zam’ah’s) bed.”

Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) looked at the son of the slave-girl of Zam’ ah and noticed that he, of all the people had the greatest resemblance to ‘Utbah Ibn Abi Waqqas.

Allah’s Messenger (peace and plessings of Allah be upon him) then said (to ‘ Abd),

“He is yours; he is your brother, O ‘Abd Ibn Zam’ah, he was born on the bed (of your father).”

(At the same time) Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said (to his wife Sawdah), “Veil yourself before him (i.e., the son of the slave-girl) ‘O Sawdah,” because of the resemblance he noticed between him and ‘Utbah Ibn Abi Waqqas. Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) added,

“The boy is for the bed (i.e., for the owner of the bed where he was born), and stone is for the adulterer.”

‘Urwah Ibn Az-Zubair reported that a lady committed theft during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in the Ghazwah of Al-Fath, (i.e., Conquest of Makkah). Her folk went to Usamah Ibn Zaid to intercede for her (with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). When Usamah interceded for her with Allah’s Messenger, the color of the face of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) changed and he said,

“Do you intercede with me in a matter involving one of the legal punishments prescribed by Allah..?”

Usamah said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Ask Allah’s Forgiveness for me.” So in the afternoon, Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up and addressed the people. He praised Allah as He deserved and then said,

“… The nations prior to you were destroyed because if a noble amongst them stole, they used to excuse him, and if a poor person amongst them stole, they would apply (Allah ‘s) Legal Punishment to him. By Him in Whose Hand Muhammad’s soul is, if Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad stole, I would cut her hand.”

Then Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gave his order in the case of that woman and her hand was cut off. Afterwards her repentanee proved sincere and she got married. ‘Aishah said, “That lady used to visit me and I used to convey her demands to Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).”

On the day of the Conquest of Makkah, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) took the pledge of both men and women to testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and to embrace Islam. According to Ahmad, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) took the pledge of people to believe in Allah and to testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

[T. Tn the Glorious Qur’an, we read,

Surah Al-Mumtahinah 12

‘’ ‘O Prophet! When believing women come to thee to take the oath fealty to thee؛, that they will not associate in worship any other thing whatever with Allah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit adultery (or fornication), that they will not kill their children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood, and that they will not disobey thee in any just matter, then do thou receive their fealty, and pray to Allah for the forgiveness (of their sins): for Allah is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful.)’’ [Surah: Al-Mumtahinah, 12]

Majashi, according to Al-Bukhari, said, “I took my brother to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) after the Conquest (of Makkah) and said, ’O Allah’s Messenger! I have come to you with my brother so that you may take a pledge of allegiance from him for migration.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

‘The people of migration (i.e., those who migrated to Madinah before the Conquest) enjoyed the privileges of migration (i.e., there is no need for migration anymore). ’

I said to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), ‘For what will you take his pledge of allegiance..?’

‘’The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, I will take his pledge of allegiance for Islam, Belief, and for Jihad (i.e., fighting in Allah’s Cause).”’

Mujahid, likewise, said, “I said to Ibn ‘ Umar, ‘I want to migrate to Syria.’ He said, ‘There is no migration, but Jihad (for Allah’s Cause). Go and offer yourself for Jihad, and if you find an opportunity for Jihad (stay there) otherwise, come back.”

In another narration, Ibn ‘Umar said, “There is no migration today or after Allah’s Messenger.” Then, he completed his statement as above.

Ibn ‘Abbas said, “’Umar used to admit me (into his house) along with the old men who had fought in the Badr battle. Some of them said (to ‘Umar), ‘Why do you allow this young man to enter with us, while we have sons of his own age..?’ ‘Umar said, ‘You know what person he is.’ One day ‘Umar called them and called me along with them, I had thought he called me on that day to show them something about me (i.e., my knowledge). ‘Umar asked them, ‘What do you say about (the Surah) that reads,

When comes the Help of Allah and the Victory, and thou dost see people enter Allah ’s Religion in crowds. Celebrate the Praises of thy Lord and pray for His forgiveness: for He is Oft-Returning (in forgiveness).’’ [Surah: An-Nasr: 1-3]

Some of them replied, ‘We are ordered to praise Allah and repent to Him if we are helped and granted victory.’ Some said, ‘We do not know.’ Others kept quiet.

‘Umar then said to me, ‘Do you say similarly?’

I said, ‘No.’

‘Umar said ‘What do you say then..?’

I said, ‘This Qur’anic verse indicates the approaching of the death of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) of which Allah informed him.

When comes the help of Allah and the Conquest, i.e., the Conquest of Makkah, that will be the sign of your Prophet’s approaching death, so testify the uniqueness of your Lord (i.e., Allah) and praise Him and repent to Him as He is ready to forgive.’ On that, ‘ Umar said, ،I do not know about it anything other than what you know.’

‘Amr Ibn Salamah said, “We were at a place which was a thoroughfare for the people, and the caravans used to pass by us and we would ask them,

‘What is wrong with the people..?

What is wrong with the people..?

Who is that man..?’

They would say, ‘That man claims that Allah has sent him (as a Messenger), that he has been divinely inspired, and that Allah has revealed to him such-and-such.’ I used to memorize that (Divine) Talk, and feel as if it was inculcated in my chest (i.e., mind) and the Arabs (other than Quraish) delayed their conversion to Islam until the Conquer (of Makkah).

They used to say, ‘Leave him (i.e., Muhammad) and his people Quraish: if he overpowers them then he is a true Prophet. So, when Makkah was conquered, then every tribe rushed to embrace Islam, and my father hurried to embrace Islam before (the other members of) my tribe. When my father returned (from the Prophet) to his tribe, he said, ‘By Allah, I have come to you from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for sure!’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) afterwards said to them.

‘Offer such-and-such Prayer at such-and- such time, and when the time for the Prayer becomes due, then one of you should pronounce the Adhan (the call to prayer), and let the one amongst you who knows Qur’an most should, lead the Prayer. ’

So they looked for such a person and found none who knew more Quran than I because of the Quranic material which I used to learn from the caravans. They therefore made me their Imam (to lead the prayer) and at that time I was a boy of six or seven years, wearing a (i.e., a black square garment) proved to be very short for me (and my body became partly naked). A lady from the tribe said, ‘Won’t you cover the anus of your reciter for us..?’ So they bought (a piece of cloth) and made a shirt for me. I had never been so happy with anything before as I was with that shirt.”

The Conquest of Makkah | Preparations

When Islam was well established in the hearts of the Muslims, Allah decided that the time had come for His Messenger (peace be upon him) and his community to enter Makkah. They would purify the Ka’bah so that it would be a blessed place of guidance for the whole world. They would restore Makkah to its previous status and the sacred city would offer security for all people once again.

A Broken Treaty

In the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyyah it was laid down that anyone who wanted to enter into a treaty and alliance with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him)  should be able to do so; and anyone who wanted to enter into a treaty and alliance with the Quraysh should also be allowed to do so. The Banu Bakr entered into an alliance with the Quraysh while the Banu Khuza’ah entered into one with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).

Long-standing hostility existed between the Banu Bakr and Banu Khuza’ah. The coming of Islam had put a barrier between the people as they had become engrossed in its affairs. The Peace Treaty enabled the Banu Bakr to settle an old score against the Banu Khuza’ah. One night the Banu Bakr attacked the Banu Khuza’ah by night when they were camped by a spring and killed some of their men. A skirmish developed and the Quraysh helped the Banu Bakr by providing weapons.

Some Quraysh leaders also fought with the Banu Bakr secretly by night, and the Khuza’ah were driven into the Haram. Some of the Quraysh said, |’We have entered the Haram. Mind your gods!’ Others replied thoughtlessly, ‘There is no god today, men of Banu Bakr. Take your revenge! You may never have another chance!

Seeking help

Amr ibn Salim al-Khuza’i went to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) in Madinah and recited some verses to him about the alliance between the Muslims and the Khuza’ah. He asked for help, saying that the Quraysh had violated the agreement. His tribe had been attacked at night, he maintained, and men had been killed in ruku and sajdah, while performing prayers.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) assured him, ‘You will be helped, Amr ibn Salim!’ He then sent a man to Makkah to get confirmation of the attack and to offer the Quraysh the chance to redress their offence. Their reply was impulsive and they ignored the likely consequences.

The Quraysh Attempt to Renew the Treaty

When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) heard their answer, he said, ‘I think you will see Abu Sufyan coming to strengthen the treaty and to ask for more time.’

That happened. The Quraysh were so concerned about what they had done that they charged Abu Sufyan with the task of getting the treaty ratified.

Abu Sufyan came to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) in Madinah and also went to visit his daughter, Umm Habibah, the wife of the Prophet. However, when he went to sit on the Messenger (peace be upon him) of Allah’s carpet, she rolled it up from under him.

Puzzled, he said to her, ‘My daughter, I do not know whether you think the carpet is too good for me or whether I am too good for the carpet.’

She replied, ‘This is the Messenger (peace be upon him) of Allah’s carpet and you are an unclean idol-worshipper. I do not want you to sit on his carpet.’

‘By Allah, ‘ Abu Sufyan retorted. ‘You have been spoiled since you left me.’

Abu Suftan Fails

Abu Sufyan went to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), but he did not receive any answer. Then he went to Abu Bakr and asked him to speak to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) for him but he refused. He tried to win over Umar, Ali and Fatimah but they all said that the matter was too serious for them to get involved. Abu Sufyan became confused about what to do.

Making Ready

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) asked the Muslims to start preparing for an expedition but he asked them to keep it a secret. Later he announced that he was going to Makkah and ordered them to get ready.

He said, ‘O Allah! Impede the informers of the Quraysh so that we can take Makkah by surprise.’ He left Madinah with ten thousand men in Ramadan 8 A.H. and advanced as far as Marr az-Zahran where they set up camp. Allah concealed this information from the Quraysh, so they waited in uncertainty.

A Pardoning

On the way, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) happened to meet his cousin, Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith ibn Abdul-Muttalib. He ignored him because he had suffered insults and persecution from Abu Sufyan.

The cousin complained to Ali that he had been ignored. Ali said to him, ‘Go to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and say to him what the brothers said to Yusuf, “By Allah, Allah has preferred you to us and we were indeed sinful. “(1 2: 91 ) The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) never Likes anyone to show more mercy than he.

Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith did as ‘Ail advised and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) replied, ‘Have no fear this day. Allah will forgive you. He is the Most merciful of the merciful.

Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith accepted Islam and was known for his piety. He did not raise his head ever again in front of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) because he felt so ashamed of his past behaviour.

Abu Sufyan Ibn Harb Accepts Islam

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was commanding the army and he ordered the campfires to be lit. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, who was spying out the ground for the Quraysh, said: ‘I have never seen so many fires or such an army.

Al-Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib had already left Makkah with his wife and children as a Muslim Muhajir and had joined the Muslim army. He recognised Abu Sufyan’s voice and called to him, ‘See, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) is here with his army. What a terrible morning the Quraysh will have!’

He made Abu Sufyan ride on the back of his mule, fearing that if a Muslim saw him, he would kill him. Al-Abbas took him to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) who said, ‘Woe to you, Abu Sufyan! Has not the time come for you to acknowledge that there is no god but Allah’

Abu Sufyan replied, ‘How kind and gentle you are! By Allah, I think that if there had been another god besides Allah, he would have helped me today.’

‘Woe to you, Abu Sufyan! Is it not time that you recognised that I am the Messenger(peace be upon him) of Allah!’

Abu Sufyan replied, ‘May my father and mother be your ransom! How kind and generous you are! But by Allah, I still have some doubt as to that.’

Al-Abbas intervened, ‘Woe to you, Abu Sufyan! Become a Muslim and testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) before you lose your head.’ Then Abu Sufyan recited the articles of faith and became a Muslim.

The Amnesty

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was generous in granting amnesty to everyone so that no one in Makkah need be killed that morning. Only those who courted danger ran any risk of losing their life.

He declared, ‘Whoever enters the house of Abu Sufyan is safe. Whoever locks his door is safe. Whoever enters the mosque is safe.’ The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) told his army not to use arms against anyone when they entered Makkah unless they met opposition or resistance. He directed the army not to touch property or possessions belonging to the people of Makkah and nothing should be destroyed .

Abu Sufyan’s Influence

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) decided to demonstrate the power of Islam to Abu Sufyan. He asked Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib to take Abu Sufyan to where the marching squadrons would pass by.

The Muslim squadrons passed by like a surging sea with the different tribes bearing their standards. Whenever a tribe passed by, Abu Sufyan would ask Abbas about it and, when he heard the name of the tribe, he would mumble gloomily, ‘What have I got to do with them?’ Finally the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) passed by with his squadron in full, gleaming green armour. It was the regiment of the Muhajirun and the Ansar. Only their eyes were visible because of their armour.

Abu Sufyan said, ‘Glory be to Allah! Abbas, who are these?’

‘This is the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) with the Muhajirun and Ansar, ‘ he answered.

‘No one has any power or resistance against them, ‘ said Abu Sufyan. ‘By Allah, Abul-Fadl, the authority of your brother’s son has certainly increased.’

Abu Sufyan, ‘Abbas said, ‘This is not a kingdom, it is prophethood.’

Abu Sufyan replied, ‘Then it is wonderful.’

He stood up and shouted at the top of his voice, ‘O men of the Quraysh! This is Muhammad with a force you cannot resist. He has ten thousand men of steel. He says that whoever enters my house will be safe.’

The men shouted back, ‘Allah slay you! What good is your house to us?’

Abu Sufyan added, ‘And whoever locks himself indoors is safe and whoever enters the mosque is safe.’ So the people dispersed and went into their homes or into the mosque.

A Haumble Victory

On the morning of Friday, 20 Ramadan, 8 A.H., the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) entered Makkah with his head bowed. When he realised the honour of the conquest Allah had bestowed. upon him, he felt so humble before Allah that his chin almost touched the back of his camel.

He was reciting Surat al-Fath as he rode into Makkah in victory. He raised the standard of justice, equality, and humility. Behind him rode Usamah ibn Zayd, the son of his freed slave, rather than any sons of the Banu Hashim or of the Quraysh leaders, even though they were present.

One man, trembling with awe on the Day of the Conquest, was told, ‘Be at ease. Do not be afraid. I am not a king. I am only the son of a woman of the Quraysh who used to eat meat dried in the sun.’

Mercy not Slaughter

When Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah in the squadron of the Ansar passed by Abu Sufyan he called out, ‘Today is a day of slaughter. Today there is no more sanctuary. Today Allah has humbled the Quraysh.’

When the Messenger of Allah’s (peace be upon him) squadron came near Abu Sufyan, he complained;, ‘Messenger of Allah, did you not hear what Sa’d said..?’

‘What was that!’ said the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), and Abu Sufyan repeated what Sa’d had called out.

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) disliked Sa’d’s comments and replied, ‘Today is a day of mercy and forgiveness when Allah will exalt the Quraysh and raise honour for the Ka’bah.’

He then sent for Sa’d, took the standard from him and gave it to his son Qays. This meant that the standard did not really leave Sa’d because it only went to his son. But Abu Sufyan was satisfied and Sa’d was not too upset.

Small skirmishes

A small skirmish broke out between Safwan ibn Umayyah, ‘Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl and Suhayl ibn Amr, who came up against the companions of Khalid ibn al-Walid. Twelve of the idol-worshippers were killed when they tried to stop the advance of the Muslim forces. The rest gave in without further bloodshed. The Messenger of Allah  (peace be upon him) had told his men when they entered Makkah, ‘Do not fight anyone unless they attack you.’

Purifying the Haram

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) got down from his camel when everything had calmed down. He went to the Ka’bah first and performed tawaf. Around the Ka’bah were three hundred and sixty idols. With a stick he was carrying he began to push them over, saying,

The truth has come and falsehood has vanished away. Falsehood is ever vanishing.’’ (17: 81)

The truth has come and falsehood originates not nor brings again.’ (34: 49)

The idols collapsed one by one, falling onto their faces. Pictures and statues were found in the Ka’bah and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) ordered that they should also be destroyed.

A day of Piety

Having performed tawaf, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) called Uthman ibn Talhah who had the key of the Ka’bah. The doors were unlocked and he went in. He had asked Uthman for the key before the hijrah to Madinah but he had received a rude answer and insults. He had shown tolerance by answering, Uthman, one day you will see this key in my hand. I will then put it where I wish.

Uthman had retorted, ‘The Quraysh will be destroyed and humiliated on that day.’

‘No, ‘ said the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), ‘Rather it will be a day of prosperity and security for the Quraysh.’ His words made such an impression on Uthman ibn Talhah that he came to believe the prediction would eventually take place.

When the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) came out of the Ka’bah, Ali ibn Abi Talib stood up holding the key of the Ka’bah in his hand. He said to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), Grant us the guardianship of the Ka’bah along with providing water for the pilgrims.’

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) asked,

‘Where is Uthman ibn Talhah?

Uthman was summoned and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said to him, ‘Here is your key, Uthman. Today is a day of piety and good faith. Keep it forever as an inheritance. Only a tyrant would take it from you.’

Islam: Tawhid and Unity

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) opened the door of the Ka’bah. The Quraysh had filled the mosque, and were waiting in rows to see what he would do.

Holding the door frame, he said,

There is no god but Allah alone. He has no partner. He has made good His promise. He has helped His servant and He alone has put all allies to flight. Every claim of privilege, property or bloodline are abolished by me today except for the custody of the Ka’bah and providing water for the pilgrims.

‘O people of the Quraysh..! Allah has abolished the haughtiness of the Jahiliyyah and its veneration of ancestors. People all spring from Adam, and Adam came from dust.’

Then he recited this verse:

‘’O mankind, We have created you male and female, and appointed you races and tribes, that you may know one another. Surely the noblest among you in the sight of Allah is the most God-fearing of you. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.’’ (49: 13)

No discrimination

In the meantime, Fatimah, a woman of the Banu Makhzum had been apprehended for theft. Her community went to Usamah ibn Zayd, hoping that he could persuade the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) to intercede on her behalf. When he spoke to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) about it, however, he was put to shame.

‘Do you dare to speak to me about one of the hudud, the limits laid down by Allah !’ the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) asked him. Usamah beseeched him, ‘Pray for my forgiveness, Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him)’

That evening the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) made a speech. After praising Allah, he said, ‘The people before you were destroyed because when one of their noblemen stole, they ignored the offence but when one of the poor people stole, they administered the hadd (prescribed punishment).

By the One who holds my life in His hand, if Fatimah bint Muhammad, were to steal, I would have her hand cut off. Then he ordered that the woman’s right hand be cut off. She genuinely repented of her sin and went on to marry and lead a normal life.

Paying homage in Islam

A large crowd gathered in Makkah to accept Islam and to pay homage to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). He received them on Mount Safa where they took the oath of allegiance. They promised to obey Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) to the best of their ability.

When the men had pledged their faith, the women took the oath, including Hind bint Utbah, the wife of Abu Sufyan. She was veiled and tried to disguise herself because of what she had done to Hamzah, but the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) recognised her bold talk.

‘Forgive what is past and Allah will forgive you,

‘ she said to him.

My life is with you and my death will be among you’

When Allah opened up Makkah to His Messenger(peace be upon him), and he was back in his own homeland and city of birth once more, the Ansar said among themselves, ‘Allah has given him power over his homeland and city so he will probably stay here and not return to Madinah.’

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) asked them what they were talking about. No one else knew about the conversation. At first they were too shy to tell him but eventually they confessed what they had said.

He assured them, ‘I seek refuge with Allah! I will live with you and I will die among you.’

Removing all vestiges of Idolworship

The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) sent groups of his Companions to destroy the idols standing round the Ka’bah. All of the idols were broken including al-Lat, al-Uzza, and Manat. He sent a crier to announce in Makkah, ‘Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should destroy any idol in his house.’ He also sent representatives to the surrounding tribes telling them to destroy their idols.

Then the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) assembled the Muslims in Makkah and declared that the city would be a sanctuary forever. He said, ‘It is not lawful for anyone who believes in Allah and the Hereafter to spill blood in the city nor to cut down a tree. It was not lawful for anyone before me nor shall it be lawful for anyone after me.’ The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then returned to Madinah.

Outcome of the conquest of Makkah

The conquest of Makkah had a tremendous impact on the Arabs. It showed that Islam was the religion of Allah and paved the way for the whole of Arabia to accept the faith. From far and wide people came to pay their respects to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) and to accept Islam at his hands. Allah spoke the truth:

When comes the help of Allah and victory and you see people entering the religion of Allah in throngs (Surah al-Nasr 110: 1-2).

THE CONQUEST OF MAKKAH

In accordance with the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the Muslims were permitted to perform the ‘Umrah; the following year. Therefore in Zul Qadah 7 A.H. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) gathered all the Sahaba (R.A.) who had been deprived of the opportunity to perform the ‘Umrah’ the previous year, to prepare for the journey to Makkah. Other Sahaba (R.A.) also joined the group.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) led this group of 2000 Muslims towards Makkah. As a precautionary measure, the Muslims took a few weapons and a hundred horses because the Quraish were unpredictable where a ‘treaty’ was concerned.

Reaching the border of Makkah The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) left the horses and weapons at Batan Ya Hooj in the care of 200 Muslims. The Muslims then entered Makkah and went into the ‘Haram’ (Holy courtyard of the Ka’bah). The 200 Muslims left outside Makkah were able to complete their Umrah at a later stage.

When The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) reached the Ka’bah he wrapped his Ihram (mantle) under his right arm, bearing his shoulder and praying:

‘O Allah have mercy on anyone performing this Umrah today’.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) then stopped near the Hajre Aswad (Black Stone) to begin the Tawaaf (circumambulation) of the Ka’bah. The first three circuits were made with a swift march pace (called ‘Ramal), with view of proving the fine state of health of the believers to the kuffaar looking on.

The kuffaar shook their heads gloomily saying to each other:

‘So these are the men described to us as weakened by the heat and fever of Al-Madinah’.

Deep down in their heart, the Kuffaar were forced to confess that such men as these, their mental well-being surpassing even their bodily health were unconquerable.

The Muslims ran between Safaa and Maarwah; they sacrificed animals and shaved their heads bare. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) was aware of the time limit of three days allowed to the Muslims to stay in Makkah and he had no intention of breaking his promise. At the end of the third day, the leaders of the Quraish lost no time in creating a commotion and fuss to remind the Muslims to leave Makkah. During the short stay in Makkah, The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) married widowed Maymoonah binte Harith (R.A.).

In due course, Islam spread far and wide. The younger generation of the Quraish were being drawn towards Islam. But the older people would not leave their ideology of pagan worship.

The Treaty of Hudaybiyah prescribed that any non-Makkan wishing to join the camp of The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) or that of the Quraish may do so without obstructions. On the basis of this agreement the tribe Khuza’ah joined the ranks of The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) and that of the Banu Bakr joined the Quraish.

Between Khuza’ah and Banu Bakr a number of old unsettled blood feuds had to be suspended on account of the treaty. It was not long before the idolaters of Makkah violated the ten years truce (peace) signed at Hudaybiyah.

The Banu ak Dil, a clan of Banu Nakr encouraged by the Quraish, especially by Ikramah ibn Abu Jahl and others who furnished them with arms and equipment launched an attack on the Khuza’ah tribesman camping near a well of theirs called ‘Al-Watir’. The Khuza’ah party fled to Makkah and took refuge in the house of Budayl ibn Warqa. They complained to him that the Quraish and their Banu Bakr allies violated their treaty with The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him).

After running in full haste towards Madinah, Amr ibn Salim al Khuza’i related to The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) and the Muslims in  Masjid-e-Nabawi what had happened and asked for assistance. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) answered:

‘Certainly ,O, Amr ibn Salim, we shall come to your rescue’.

Another group of Khuza’ah tribesman together with their Makkan host, Budayl ibn Warqa followed him and confirmed their predecessor’s report.

The region of inequity and oppression had lasted too long at Makkah, and this flagrant violation by the Quraish of the Treaty was forcing his hand to conquer Makkah, The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) sent word to the Muslims all over Arabian Peninsula to get together at once. The reason for this call, however, he kept as a secret.

The wise elders of the Quraish realized the danger to which Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl and his youthful companions had exposed Makkah, for their action was a clear violation of the Hudaybiyah Treaty. Should Muhammed (peace and blessing be upon him) decide to avenge his Khuza’ah allies against the Makkans, the holy city would be exposed to the strongest danger. What should they do? it occurred to them to send Abu Sufyan ibn Harb to Madinah to reaffirm the Treaty. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, chief statesman and leader of Makkah proceeded to Madinah to conduct negotiations.

On his arrival to Madinah he decided that he had better see his daughter, Umme Habiba (R.A.), the wife of The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him), rather than Muhammed (peace and blessing be upon him) himself.

After the treacherous violation of the Treaty of Hubaybiyah by the Makkans, Umme Habiba (R.A.) knew well The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him)’s feelings regarding the Quraish, though she did not know of his plans for Makkah.

Entering into his daughters house, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was about to sit upon the mattress of The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) when Umme Habiba (R.A.) moved it away. When he asked her whether she had done so in order to save her father from the mattress or the mattress from her father , she replied:

‘This is the mattress of the Rasool of Allah. You are an idolater and hence impure. You may not therefore be allowed to sit on The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him)’s mattress’.

Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was angered by this reply and left the house saying to his daughter:

‘By God after you left my house, you must have become utterly mad’.

His strategy exposed, he proceeded to see The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him). The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him), however, refused to give him an audience. Thereafter he approached Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A.), Umar ibn Khattab (R.A.) and Ali ibn Abu Talib (R.A.) to intervene on his behalf and reaffirm the treaty

The common reply was that nobody could change the mind of The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) once it was made up.

Finally, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb went to Masjid-e-Nabawi and there proclaimed on behalf of his tribe, the Banu Kinanah, his willingness to make peace with the people. He then mounted his horse and returned to Makkah. His heart was full of sorrow and his pride badly wounded partly by his own daughter and partly by the rejection of those, who prior to their emigration from Makkah, had longed for the least bit of consideration or compassion from the Kuffar leader.

Abu Sufyan ibn Harb returned to Makkah and reported to his people the frustration of his effort to reaffirm the peace treaty. He informed them of his proclamation in Masjid-e-Nabawi and The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him)’s refusal to come to any new term; the Kuffar had boken the treaty.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) was now fully convinced that the time had eventually arrived to free the sacred land of the Ka’ba from intrigue and sedition of the kuffaar. It was The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him)’s  plan not to give the Quraish the time to prepare for war.

Having confidence in Allah’s assistance, The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) sought to suprise the enemy before they could build up their defense. His aim was to conquer without bloodshed. He therefore first commanded the people to get ready and inform them of his plans for Makkah later.

He asked the Muslims to hurry and made dua that the Quraish would not find out his plans before it was too late. While the Muslim army prepared to leave Madinah, Hatib ibn Abu Balta’ah (R.A.) rote a letter informing the Quraish about the Muslim move.

He gave it to a women called Sarah, a client of some members of the house of Banu ‘Abd al Muttalib. He commanded her to take it to Makkah and hand it over to the Quraish leaders. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) came to know by Divine inspiration of Hatib ibn Abu Balta’ah (R.A.) attempt and sent Ali ibn Abu Talib (R.A.) and Zubayr` ibn Al Awwam to intercept the messenger. She was arrested and her horse and saddle searched, but no letter was found.

Ali (R.A.) threatened her that unless she produce the letter voluntarily, he would be forced to search her own person and to unveil her body in the process. When the women realized how serious Ali (R.A.) was she unloosened the plaits of her hair, brought out the letter and handed it over. The women was returned to Madinah and Hatib ibn Abu Balta’ah (R.A.) was called to give an explanation of his action.

In his own defense Hatib ibn Abu Balta’ah (R.A.) said:

‘O Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him), by Allah I swear, that I am still a believer in Allah and his Messenger (peace and blessing be upon him) My Imaan (faith) has not changed by one jot or bit. But I am a man here in the Muslim camp having no relations, family or clan, Whereas in Makkah, I have children. family and relatives whom I want no evil to befall’.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) forgave him for his ill action.

On the 10th Ramadhaan 8 A.H. the Muslim army proceeded from Madinah to Makkah determined to conquer that city and taking the holy Haram which Allah declared for all mankind. This army had more men than Madinah had ever seen before. The tribe of Sulaym, Muzaynah, Ghatafaan and others joined the Muhajireen and Ansaars in such numbers and with such weapons that the wide expanse of the desert was filled with them.

They moved fast, and at every station many more tribes joined their ranks and added to their weaponry and equipment. Every soul was filled with the faith of Islam and had no doubt that Allah’s help will bring victory. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) led this army at the forefront. His greatest concern was to seize the holy Ka’bah without shedding any unnecessary Blood. By the time the army arrived at Zahraan, 8 kilometers from Makkah, its number had  reached 10,000. Until then the kuffaar of Makkah knew nothing about the advancing army.

In the mean time, the kuffaar leaders continued to consult with one another regarding the measures to be taken by them to meet the Muslim anger.  Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib (R.A.) the uncle of The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) withdrew from the discussion, took all the members of his family and went to the direction of Madinah. At Juhfa he met The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) and embraced Islam.

The Quraish felt gravely scared ever since the Muslims arrived at Zahraan. They sent Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, Budayl ibn Warqa and Hakim ibn Hazzam, the relatives of  Khadija binte Khuwaylid (R.A.) to survey the field and assess the danger. While riding in the area of The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him)’s white mule, Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib (R.A.) overheard a conversation between Abu Sufyan and Budayl ibn Warqa. Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib (R.A.) recognized the voice of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and called out to him:

‘Watch out O Abu Sufyan! what you see is the Rasul (peace and blessing be upon him) of Allah leading his people. Misfortune will befall the Quraish tomorrow morning, when his army storms the city’.

Abu Sufyan ibn Harb exclaimed:

‘What shall we do..?

Abbas (R.A.) invited him to mount his mule, send his companions back to Makkah and returned with him to the Muslim camp. Before reaching the Muslim camp Ummar ibn Khattab (R.A.) recognized Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. He hurried to the tent of The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) and asked for permission to strike the neck of Abu Sufyan. Abbas (R.A.) entered the tent saying:

‘O Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him), I have extended my protection to this man’.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) said:

‘O Abbas, take your guest to your tent and bring him over in the morning’. The following morning Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was brought before The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) and he accepted Islam. Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib (R.A.) said:

‘O Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) Abu Sufyan is a proud man. Would you not grant him some privilege?’

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) declared:

‘Any person who takes refuge in Abu Sufyan ibn Harab’s house shall find security; any person who shuts himself up in his own house shall find security and any person who enters Haram (courtyard) of the Ka’ba shall be considered safe’.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) prepared to enter Makkah. Each of the Muslim commanders proudly displayed the banner of Islam and cries of ‘Allahu Akbar’ (Allah is great) echoed in unison around Makkah. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb (R.A.) was given an elevated position on a hilltop to review the columns of the Muslim army entering Makkah.

He repeated The Messenger of Allah’s (peace and blessing be upon him) promise of safety to those who took shelter in his house or in the courtyard of the Ka’ba. The Messenger of Allah’s (peace and blessing be upon him) greatest desire at the time was to avoid any bloodshed if possible.

The spectacle of The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) astride his famous camel ‘al Qaswa’, entering the city from the upper end of Makkah and all the while reciting Surah Fatah, was a sight the Sahaba (R.A.) would never forget. Khalid ibn Walid (R.A.) enterd Makkah from the lower end of the city with his army where he had to put down some resistance from Safwan ibn Ummayyah, Suhail ibn Umr, Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl and their men.

Khalid ibn Walid (R.A.) and his men quickly dispersed them, with Sawan ibn Umayyah, Suhayil ibn Amr and Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl taking flight as soon as they realised the hopelessness of their resistance.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) and the Muhajireen were overwhelmed at the thought of their Hijrat and now their triumphant return with such splendor and glory of Islam for which they had sacrificed so much for the pleasure of Allah. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) , moved by the sight of Makkah and by the remembrance of Allah’s wahi (revelation), let tears fall from his eyes as he thanked Allah, praised Him, and witnessed that there is no truth and no power except in Allah.

So emotional were all these feelings that The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) rode towards the Ka’ba where he performed the ‘tawaf (circumambulation) seven times while he was still astride his mount. He then dismounted and called upon Uthman ibn Abu Talhah to open the Ka’ba for him.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) ordered the destruction of the idols while reciting:

“Truth has come and Falsehood vanished and no more shall falsehood return” (Sahih al-Bukhari.)

The idols where then torn down and broken, and the House of Allah was purified. That which The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) had called for during the last twenty years was now accomplished. That which Makkah had opposed most strongly was now a fact of history.

The destruction of the idols and the wiping put of Paganism in the holy sanctuary was  now completed before the very eyes of the Quraish. The Makkan idols, the objects of reverence and worship inherited from the ancestors, crumbled to bits under the hammering blows.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) then delivered his historical Khutbah (sermon) from the doorway of the Ka’ba:

‘Allah is one and He has no partner. He has fulfilled His promise to his believers and defeated those who do not believe. It will not be permissible for anyone who believes in Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessing be upon him) to kill any one in Makkah. Nor shall any one destroy the greenery of Makkah.

I have forbidden the practice of all custom of the age of illiteracy; but the care of the Ka’ba and the supply of Zam Zam water shall be continued as before.

‘O people of Quraish, Allah forbids you to display your pride and arrogance and glorify your ancestory.

All men were created from Adam and Adam (A.S.) had been created from dust. O men of Quraish what do you think I am about to do with you?’ Everything good’, they answered, ‘for you are a noble brother and a noble nephew of ours’. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) said:

‘ Well I am telling you now what Yusuf (A.S.) said to his brothers:

‘Today there is no reproach against you. Go, you are all free’.

With these words The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) gave a general amnesty to all the Quraish and all the Makkans. No unfriendliness, antagonism or hostility could find permanent abode in the heart of Muhammed (peace and blessing be upon him).

His heart was absolutely free of injustice, of malice, of tyranny or false pride. In the most decisive moment, Allah gave him power over his enemy. However, The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) chose to forgive, therby giving all mankind and all the generations the most perfect example of goodness, truthfulness, nobility and magnanimity.

After the Khutbah The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) sat on top of Mount Safa and the Muslims took the pledge of loyalty to Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessing be upon him). He then asked Umar ibn Khattab (R.A.) to accept the pledge of the womenfolk while he made dua to Allah for their forgiveness.

Bilal (R.A.) was asked to call the first Adhaan in Makkah. His rich beautiful voice echoed throughout Makkah.

The destruction of the idols in and around Ka’ba meant the eventual disappearance of the idols in Arabia. The attention of the people of Arabia was on the Quraish whether they were going to accept Islam. Most of them became Muslims but there were others however, who continued their own form of worship.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) did not impose any conditions upon them but he persisted on peace and harmony among all the people, regardless of their religious beliefs. The concession so impressed the non believers that in due course nearly all the people of Makkah became Muslims.

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) then issued a proclamation prohibiting any idol in a Muslim home. He ordered the destruction of all idols in and around Makkah. Khalid ibn Walid (R.A.) was sent with a cavalry of 30,000 to an oasis where they laid waste the great idol ‘Uzza’ to the ground. Su’a’, the idol of Bani Hazeel and the famous ‘Manat’ at Qadeed were razed to the ground.

After the conquest of Makkah The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) spent 15 days in the city, during which he organized the affairs of Makkah and instructed its people in Islam. During this period, he sent forth delegations to call men peacefully to Islam without shedding blood and to destroy the idols.

Certain arch enemies of Islam were pardoned by The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) and they embraced Islam. Hinda the wife of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb who had disemboweled the martyred body of Hamza (R.A.) The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) inspite of the detestable mutilation of the body of Hamza (R.A.) forgave her. Hinda when she returned to her house, lavished insults on her private family idol:

‘O powerless idol! How mad we all were to rely on thy assistance and help’! And she smashed it to pieces. Ikrimah the son of Abu Jahl, who had organized the ambush that nearly entrapped Khaild ibn Walid (R.A.) and his cavalry, had fled to the sea coast. Umme Hakim, daughter of al Harith ibn Hisham and the wife of Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl converted to Islam and sought pardon for her husband directly from The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him).

She was granted it. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) also forgave Safwan ibn Umayyah who accompanied Ikrimah on his escape towards the sea and thence to Yaman.

Habbar bin Aswad had maltreated Zainab binte Muhammed (R.A.)  when she was leaving Makkah for Madinah. She was far advance in pregnancy and as she was mounting her camel, Habbar ibn Aswad drove the butt end of his lance against her, throwing her to the ground, and eventually causing her death.

Fearing deserved punishment, he fled. After hiding for some time he presented himself before The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) and embraced Islam in all sincerity. The wrong was great; the crime was atrocious- but the injury was personal. Pardon was unconditionally granted.

Wahshi al Habashi (R.A.), the slayer of Hamza (R.A.) was pardoned after embracing Islam.

As the Ansar of Madinah witnessed all this, and as they saw The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) on the top of Mount Safa inviting the Makkans to embrace Islam, they feared he might now give up Madinah and settle in his native city Makkah. It was quite likely that The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) would now make Makkah his capital. The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) inquired concerning their fears and said:

‘Never by Allah! I have pledged to join you in life and death. I shall remain true to my promise’.

Evidently, neither relative, nor native city, nor even the Holy Ka’ba itself could change The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing be upon him) from not honoring his pledge he once gave to those who stood by him in his hour of need. His word given at the conclusion of the ‘Covenant of Aqabah’ was to be honored in exemplary faithfulness and loyalty.