Surah ‘Al-Imran
سورة آل عمران

Tafsir : Al-Quranul Kareem
Surah ‘Al-Imran| The Family of Imran
Chapter 3: Part Four
Revealed in: Madinah

Part One Part Two | Part Three | Part Four

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Surah ‘Al-Imran
The Family of Imran

Chapter |003 – Part Four

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3:149.| O you who believe! If you obey those who disbelieve, they will send you back on your heels, and you will turn back as losers.

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3:150.| Nay, Allah is your protector, and He is the best of helpers.

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3:151.| We shall cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve, because they joined others in worship with Allah, for which He sent no authority; their abode will be the Fire and how evil is the abode of the wrongdoers.

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3:152.| And Allah did indeed fulfill His promise to you when you were killing them (your enemy) with His permission; until Fashiltum and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed after He showed you what you love. Among you are some that desire this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then He made you flee from them, that He might test you. But surely, He forgave you, and Allah is Most Gracious to the believers.

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3:153.| (And remember) when you ran away without even casting a side glance at anyone, and the Messenger was in your rear calling you back. There did Allah give you one distress after another by way of requital, to teach you not to grieve for that which had escaped you, nor for what struck you. And Allah is Well-Aware of all that you do.

The Prohibition of Obeying the Disbelievers; the Cause of Defeat at Uhud

Allah warns His believing servants against obeying the disbelievers and hypocrites, because such obedience leads to utter destruction in this life and the Hereafter.

This is why Allah said,

(‘’O you who believe! If you obey those who disbelieve, they will send you back on your heels, and you will turn back (from faith) as losers…)

Allah also commands the believers to obey Him, take Him as their protector, seek His aid and trust in Him.

Allah said,

(‘’Nay, Allah is your protector, and He is the best of helpers…)

Allah next conveys the good news that He will put fear of the Muslims, and feelings of subordination to the Muslims in the hearts of their disbelieving enemies, because of their Kufr and Shirk. And Allah has prepared torment and punishment for them in the Hereafter.

Allah said,

(‘’We shall cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve, because they joined others in worship with Allah, for which He sent no authority; their abode will be the Fire and how evil is the abode of the wrongdoers…)

In addition, the Two Sahihs recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

‘’I was given five things that no other Prophet before me was given.’’

  • I was aided with fear the distance of one month,
  • the earth was made a Masjid and clean place for me,
  • I was allowed war booty,
  • I was given the Intercession,
  • and Prophets used to be sent to their people, but I was sent to all mankind particularly.

Allah said,

(‘’And Allah did indeed fulfill His promise to you, in the beginning of the day of Uhud…)

(… when you were killing them, slaying your enemies,

(… with His permission, for He allowed you to do that against them,

(… until when you Fashiltum.

Ibn Jurayj said that Ibn Abbas said that; Fashiltum means, `lost courage’.

(… and fell to disputing about the order, and disobeyed, such as the mistake made by the archers.

( … after He showed you what you love, that is, victory over the disbelievers.

Among you are some that desire this world, referring to those who sought to collect the booty when they saw the enemy being defeated.

(… and some that desire the Hereafter. Then He made you flee from them, that He might test you.

This Ayah means, Allah gave them the upper hand to try and test you, O believers.

(… but surely, He forgave you,

He forgave the error you committed, because, and Allah knows best, the idolators were many and well supplied, while Muslims had few men and few supplies.

(… and Allah is Most Gracious to the believers.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ said, “We met the idolators on that day (Uhud) and the Prophet appointed Abdullah bin Jubayr as the commander of the archers.

He instructed them, `Retain your position, and if you see that we have defeated them, do not abandon your positions. If you see that they defeated us, do not rush to help us.’

The disbelievers gave flight when we met them, and we saw their women fleeing up the mountain while lifting up their clothes revealing their anklets and their legs. So, the companions (of Abdullah bin Jubayr) said, `The booty, the booty!’

Abdullah bin Jubayr said, `Allah’s Messenger commanded me not to allow you to abandon your position.’

They refused to listen, and when they left their position, Muslims were defeated and seventy of them were killed.

Abu Sufyan shouted, `Is Muhammad present among these people..?’

The Prophet said, `Do not answer him.’

Then he asked, `Is the son of Abu Quhafah (Abu Bakr) present among these people?’

The Prophet said, `Do not answer him.’

He asked again, `Is the son of Al-Khattab (Umar) present among these people As for these (men), they have been killed, for had they been alive, they would have answered me.’

Umar could not control himself and said (to Abu Sufyan), `You lie, O enemy of Allah! The cause of your misery is still present.’

Abu Sufyan said, `O Hubal, be high!’

On that the Prophet said (to his Companions),

`Answer him back.’

They said, `What shall we say?’

He said, `Say, Allah is Higher and more Sublime.’

Abu Sufyan said, `We have the (idol) Al-Uzza, and you have no Uzza.’

The Prophet said, `Answer him back.’

They asked, `What shall we say?’

He said, `Say, Allah is our protector and you have no protector.’

Abu Sufyan said, `Our victory today is vengeance for yours in the battle of Badr, and in war (the victory) is always undecided and is shared in turns by the belligerents. You will find some of your killed men mutilated, but I did not urge my men to do so, yet I do not feel sorry for their deed.”’

Only Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith using this chain of narration.

Muhammad bin Ishaq said that, Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr narrated that Az-Zubayr bin Al-Awwam said, “By Allah! I saw the female servants and female companions of Hind (Abu Sufyan’s wife) when they uncovered their legs and gave flight. At that time, there was no big or small effort separating us from capturing them. However, the archers went down the mount when the enemy gave flight from the battlefield, seeking to collect the booty. They uncovered our back lines to the horsemen of the disbelievers, who took the chance and attacked us from behind.

Then a person shouted, `Muhammad has been killed.’

So we pulled back, and the disbelievers followed us, after we had killed those who carried their flag, and none of them dared to come close the flag, until then.”’

Muhammad bin Ishaq said next, “The flag of the disbelievers was left on the ground until Amrah bint Alqamah Al-Harithiyyah picked it up and gave it to the Quraysh who held it.”

Allah said,

(Then He made you flee from them, that He might test you),

Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “My uncle Anas bin An-Nadr was absent from the battle of Badr. He said, `I was absent from the first battle the Prophet fought (against the pagans). (By Allah) if Allah gives me a chance to fight along with the Messenger of Allah, then Allah will see how (bravely) I will fight.’

On the day of Uhud when the Muslims turned their backs and fled, he said, `O Allah! I apologize to You for what these (meaning the Muslims) have done, and I denounce what these pagans have done.’

Then he advanced lifting his sword, and when Sa`d bin Mu`adh met him, he said to him, `O Sa`d bin Mu`adh! Where are you! Paradise! I am smelling its aroma coming from before (Mount) Uhud,’ and he went forth, fought and was killed.

We found more than eighty stab wounds, sword blows or arrow holes on his body, which was mutilated so badly that none except his sister could recognize him, and she could only do so by his fingers or by a mole.”

This is the narration reported by Al-Bukhari, Muslim also collected a similar narration from Thabit from Anas.

The Defeat that the Muslims Suffered During the Battle of Uhud.

Allah said,

(And remember) when you (Tus`iduna) ran away dreadfully without casting even a side glance at anyone, and Allah made the disbelievers leave you after you went up the mount, escaping your enemy.

Al-Hasan and Qatadah said that, Tus`iduna, means, `go up the mountain’.

(… without even casting a side glance at anyone, meaning, you did not glance at anyone else due to shock, fear and fright.

(… and the Messenger was in your rear calling you back, for you left him behind you, while he was calling you to stop fleeing from the enemy and to return and fight.

As-Suddi said, “When the disbelievers attacked Muslim lines during the battle of Uhud and defeated them, some Muslims ran away to Al-Madinah, while some of them went up Mount Uhud, to a rock and stood on it.

On that, the Messenger of Allah kept heralding, `Come to me, O servants of Allah! Come to me, O servants of Allah!’

Allah mentioned that the Muslims went up the Mount and that the Prophet called them to come back, and said,

((And remember) when you ran away without even casting a side glance at anyone, and the Messenger was in your rear calling you back).”

Similar was said by Ibn Abbas, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi and Ibn Zayd.

The Ansar and Muhajirin Defended the Messenger Al-Bukhari recorded that Qays bin Abi Hazim said, “I saw Talhah’s hand, it was paralyzed, because he shielded the Prophet with it.” meaning on the day of Uhud.

It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Uthman An-Nahdi said, “On that day (Uhud) during which the Prophet fought, only Talhah bin Ubaydullah and Sa`d remained with the Prophet.”

Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said, “I heard Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas saying, `The Messenger of Allah gave me arrows from his quiver on the day of Uhud and said, `Shoot, may I sacrifice my father and mother for you.”’

Al-Bukhari also collected this Hadith.

The Two Sahihs recorded that Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas said, “On the day of Uhud, I saw two men wearing white clothes, one to the right of the Prophet and one to his left, who were defending the Prophet fiercely. I have never seen these men before or after that day.”

Meaning angels Jibril and Mika’il, peace be upon them.

Abu Al-Aswad said that, Urwah bin Az-Zubayr said, “Ubayy bin Khalaf of Bani Jumah swore in Makkah that he would kill the Messenger of Allah.

When the Messenger was told of his vow, he said, `Rather, I shall kill him, Allah willing.’

On the day of Uhud, Ubayy came while wearing iron shields and proclaiming, `May I not be saved, if Muhammad is saved.’ He then headed to the direction of the Messenger of Allah intending to kill him, but Mus`ab bin Umayr, from Bani Abd Ad-Dar, intercepted him and shielded the Prophet with his body, and Mus`ab bin Umayr was killed.

The Messenger of Allah saw Ubayy’s neck exposed between the shields and helmet, stabbed him with his spear, and Ubayy fell from his horse to the ground.

However, no blood spilled from his wound. His people came and carried him away while he was moaning like an ox.

They said to him, `Why are you so anxious, it is only a flesh wound!’

Ubayy mentioned to them the Prophet’s vow, `Rather, I shall kill Ubayy’, then commented, `By He in Whose Hand is my soul! If what hit me hits the people of Dhul-Majaz (a popular pre-Islamic marketplace), they would all have perished.’ He then died and went to the Fire,

(‘’So, away with the dwellers of the blazing Fire..!’’) (67:11)”

This was collected by Musa bin Uqbah from Az-Zuhri from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib.

It is recorded in the Two Sahih that; when he was asked about the injuries the Messenger sustained (in Uhud), Sahl bin Sa`d said, “The face of Allah’s Messenger was injured, his front tooth was broken and his helmet was smashed on his head.

Therefore, Fatimah, the daughter of Allah’s Messenger washed off the blood while Ali was pouring water on her hand. When Fatimah saw that the bleeding increased more by the water, she took a mat, burnt it, and placed the ashes in the wound of the Prophet and the blood stopped oozing out.”

Allah said next,

There did Allah give you one distress after another, He gave you grief over your grief.

Ibn Abbas said,

  • The first grief was because of the defeat, especially when it was rumored that Muhammad was killed.
  • The second grief was when the idolators went up the mount and The Messenger of Allah said, “O Allah! It is not for them to rise above us.”

Abdur-Rahman bin Awf said, “The first distress was because of the defeat and the second when a rumor started that Muhammad was killed, which to them, was worse than defeat.”

Ibn Marduwyah recorded both of these.

Mujahid and Qatadah said, “The first distress was when they heard that Muhammad was killed and the second when they suffered casualties and injury.”

It has also been reported that Qatadah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas said that;

it was the opposite (order).

As-Suddi said that; the first distress was because of the victory and booty that they missed and the second because of the enemy rising above them (on the mount).

Allah said,

(‑… by way of requital to teach you not to grieve for that which had escaped you, for that you missed the booty and triumph over your enemy.

(…nor for what struck you,

Ibn Abbas, Abdur-Rahman bin Awf, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and As-Suddi stated, of injury and fatalities.

Allah said next,

‘’And Allah is Well-Aware of all that you do.  all praise is due to Him, and thanks, there is no deity worthy of worship except Him, the Most High, Most Honored…”

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3:154. Then after the distress, He sent down security for you. Slumber overtook a party of you, while another party was thinking about themselves and thought wrongly of Allah — the thought of ignorance. They said, “Have we any part in the affair!” Say: “Indeed the affair belongs wholly to Allah.” They hide within themselves what they dare not reveal to you, saying: “If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here.” Say: “Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death,” (… but that Allah might test what is in your breasts; and to purify that which was in your hearts (sins), and Allah is All-Knower of what is in the breasts.

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3:155.| Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met, Shaytan only caused them to err because of some of what they had earned. But Allah, indeed, has forgiven them. Surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.

Slumber Overcame the Believers; the Fear that the Hypocrites Suffered.

Allah says;

”Then after the distress, He sent down security for you.”

Slumber overtook a party of you, Allah reminds His servants of His favor when He sent down on them tranquility and slumber that overcame them while they were carrying their weapons and feeling distress and grief. In this case, slumber is a favor and carries meanings of calmness and safety. For instance, Allah said in Surah Al-Anfal about the battle of Badr,

(Remember) when He covered you with a slumber as a security from Him. (8:11)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said that, Abu Talhah said,

“I was among those who were overcome by slumber during the battle of Uhud. My sword fell from my hand several times and I would pick it up, then it would fall and I would pick it up again.”

Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith in the stories of the battles without a chain of narration, and in the book of Tafsir with a chain of narrators.

At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Al-Hakim recorded from Anas that Abu Talhah said,

“On the day of Uhud, I raised my head and looked around and found that everyone’s head was nodding from slumber.”

This is the wording of At-Tirmidhi, who said, “Hasan Sahih”.

An-Nasa’i also recorded this Hadith from Anas who said that Abu Talhah said, “I was among those who were overcome by slumber.”

The second group mentioned in the Ayah were the hypocrites who only thought about themselves, for they are the most cowardly people and those least likely to support the truth,

(and thought wrongly of Allah – the thought of ignorance) for they are liars and people who have doubts and evil thoughts about Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.

Allah said,

Then after the distress, He sent down security for you.”

Slumber overtook a party of you, the people of faith, certainty, firmness and reliance (on Allah) who are certain that Allah shall give victory to His Messenger and fulfill his objective.

While another party was thinking about themselves, and they were not overcome by slumber because of their worry, fright and fear.

(… and thought wrongly of Allah — the thought of ignorance.

Similarly, Allah said in another statement,

Nay, but you thought that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families. (48:12)

This group thought that the idolators achieved ultimate victory, when their forces took the upper hand in battle, and that Islam and its people would perish. This is typical of people of doubt and hesitation, in the event of a hardship, they fall into such evil thoughts.

Allah then described them that, ”… they said, in this situation,

“Have we any part in the affair..?”

Allah replied,

Say: “Indeed the affair belongs wholly to Allah.” They hide within themselves what they dare not reveal to you. Allah exposed their secrets, that is,

(… saying: “If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here.” although they tried to conceal this thought from the Messenger of Allah.

Ibn Ishaq recorded that Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr said that Az-Zubayr said,

“I was with the Messenger of Allah when fear intensified and Allah sent sleep to us (during the battle of Uhud).

At that time, every man among us (except the hypocrites) was nodding off. By Allah! As if in a dream, I heard the words of Mu`attib bin Qushayr, `If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here.’

I memorized these words of his, which Allah mentioned later on,

(saying: “If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here.)” Ibn Abi Hatim collected this Hadith.

Allah the Exalted said,

Say: “Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death,” meaning, this is Allah’s appointed destiny and a decision that will certainly come to pass, and there is no escaping it.

Allah’s statement,

(… that Allah might test what is in your breasts; and to purify that which was in your hearts,..)

(… means, so that He tests you with whatever befell you, to distinguish good from evil and the deeds and statements of the believers from those of the hypocrites.

(… and Allah is All-Knower of what is in the breasts, and what the hearts conceal.

Some of the Believers Give Flight on the Day of Uhud.

Allah then said,

”Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met, Shaytan only caused them to err because of some of what they had earned. because of some of their previous errors.”

Indeed, some of the Salaf said, “The reward of the good deed includes being directed to another good deed that follows it, while the retribution of sin includes committing another sin that follows it.”

Allah then said,

(… but Allah, indeed, has forgiven them, their giving flight.

”… surely, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.”

He forgives sins, pardons and exonerates His creatures.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Shaqiq said, “Abdur-Rahman bin Awf met Al-Walid bin Uqbah, who said to him, `Why did you desert Uthman, the Leader of the Faithful?’

Abdur-Rahman said, `Tell him that I did not run away during Uhud, remain behind during Badr, nor abandon the Sunnah of Umar.’

Al-Walid told Uthman what Abdur-Rahman said.

Uthman replied, `As for his statement, `I did not run away during Uhud,’ how can he blame me for an error that Allah has already forgiven. Allah said,

Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met, Shaytan only caused them to err because of some of what they had earned. But Allah, indeed, has forgiven them.

As for his statement that I remained behind from participating in Badr, I was nursing Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, until she passed away. The Messenger of Allah gave me a share in the booty of Badr, and whoever gets a share in the booty from the Messenger of Allah will have participated in battle.

As for his statement that I abandoned the Sunnah of Umar, neither I nor he are able to endure it. Go and convey this answer to him.”’

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3:156.| O you who believe! Be not like those who disbelieve and who say to their brethren when they travel through the earth or go out to fight: “If they had stayed with us, they would not have died or been killed,” so that Allah may make it a cause of regret in their hearts. It is Allah that gives life and causes death. And Allah is All-Seer of what you do.

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3:157.| And if you are killed or die in the way of Allah, forgiveness and mercy from Allah are far better than all that they amass.

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3:158.| And whether you die or are killed, verily, unto Allah you shall be gathered.

Prohibiting the Ideas of the Disbeleivers about Death and Predestination.

Allah forbids His believing servants from the disbelievers’ false creed, seen in their statement about those who died in battle and during travel; “Had they abandoned these trips, they would not have met their demise.”

Allah said,

”O you who believe! Be not like those who disbelieve (hypocrites) and who say to their brethren, about their dead brethren,”

(… when they travel through the earth, for the purpose of trading and otherwise,

(… or go out to fight, participating in battles,

“If they had stayed with us,” in our area,

 (… “they would not have died or been killed,” they would not have died while traveling or been killed in battle.

Allah’s statement,

”… so that Allah may make it a cause of regret in their hearts.”

(… means, Allah creates this evil thought in their hearts so that their sadness and the grief they feel for their loss would increase.

Allah refuted them by saying,

It is Allah that gives life and causes death. for the creation is under Allah’s power, and the decision is His Alone. No one lives or dies except by Allah’s leave, and no one’s life is increased or decreased except by His decree.

And Allah is All-Seer of what you do. for His knowledge and vision encompasses all His creation and none of their affairs ever escapes Him.

Allah’s statement,

”And if you are killed or die in the way of Allah, forgiveness and mercy from Allah are far better than all that they amass.”

indicating that death and martyrdom in Allah’s cause are a means of earning Allah’s mercy, forgiveness and pleasure.

This, indeed, is better than remaining in this life with its short lived delights. Furthermore, whoever dies or is killed will return to Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, and He will reward him if he has done good deeds, or will punish him for his evil deeds.

Allah said,

”And whether you die or are killed, verily, unto Allah you shall be gathered.”

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3:159.| And by the mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently. And had you been severe and harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about you; so pardon them, and ask forgiveness for them; and consult them in the affairs. Then when you have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah, certainly, Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him).

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3:160.| If Allah helps you, none can overcome you; and if He forsakes you, who is there after Him that can help you! And in Allah (Alone) let believers put their trust.

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3:161.| It is not for any Prophet to illegally take a part of the booty, and whosoever deceives his companions over the booty, he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took. Then every person shall be paid in full what he has earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.

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3:162.| Is then one who follows (seeks) the pleasure of Allah like the one who draws on himself the wrath of Allah! His abode is Hell, and worse indeed is that destination!

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3:163.| They are in varying grades with Allah, and Allah is All-Seer of what they do.

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3:164.| Indeed, Allah conferred a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from among themselves, reciting unto them His verses (the Qur’an), and purifying them, and instructing them (in) the Book (the Qur’an) and Al-Hikmah (the wisdom and the Sunnah), while before that they had been in manifest error.

Among the Qualities of Our Prophet Muhammad are Mercy and Kindness.

Allah addresses His Messenger and reminds him and the believers of the favor that He has made his heart and words soft for his Ummah, those who follow his command and refrain from what he prohibits.

”And by the mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently,..”

(… meaning, who would have made you this kind, if it was not Allah’s mercy for you and them.

Qatadah said that,

(And by the mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently) means, “With Allah’s mercy you became this kind.”

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that; this, indeed, is the description of the behavior that Allah sent Muhammad with.

This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,

’Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger from among yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He is anxious over you (to be rightly guided, to repent to Allah); for the believers (he is) full of pity, kind, and merciful.’’ (9:128)

Allah said next,

”And had you been severe and harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about you; The severe person is he who utters harsh words, and, (harsh-hearted) is the person whose heart is hard.

Had this been the Prophet’s behavior, “They would have scattered from around you. However, Allah gathered them and made you kind and soft with them, so that their hearts congregate around you.”

Abdullah bin Amr said that he read the description of the Messenger of Allah in previous Books, “He is not severe, harsh, obscene in the marketplace or dealing evil for evil. Rather, he forgives and pardons.”

The Order for Consultation and to Abide by it.

Allah said,

”So pardon them, and ask (Allah’s) forgiveness for them; and consult them in the affairs.”

The Messenger of Allah used to ask his Companions for advice about various matters, to comfort their hearts, and so they actively implement the decision they reach.

For instance, before the battle of Badr, the Prophet asked his Companions for if Muslims should intercept the caravan (led by Abu Sufyan). They said, “O Messenger of Allah! If you wish to cross the sea, we would follow you in it, and if you march forth to Barkul-Ghimad we would march with you. We would never say what the Children of Israel said to Musa, `So go, you and your Lord, and fight you two, we are sitting right here.’ Rather, we say march forth and we shall march forth with you; and before you, and to your right and left shall we fight.”

The Prophet also asked them for their opinion about where they should set up camp at Badr. Al-Mundhir bin `Amr suggested to camp close to the enemy, for he wished to acquire martyrdom.

Concerning the battle of Uhud, the Messenger asked the Companions if they should fortify themselves in Al-Madinah or go out to meet the enemy, and the majority of them requested that they go out to meet the enemy, and he did.

He also took their advice on the day of Khandaq (the Trench) about conducting a peace treaty with some of the tribes of Al-Ahzab (the Confederates), in return for giving them one-third of the fruits of Al-Madinah.

However, Sa`d bin Ubadah and Sa`d bin Mu`adh rejected this offer and the Prophet went ahead with their advice.

The Prophet also asked them if they should attack the idolators on the Day of Hudaybiyyah, and Abu Bakr disagreed, saying, “We did not come here to fight anyone. Rather, we came to perform Umrah.” The Prophet agreed.

On the day of Ifk, (i.e. the false accusation), the Messenger of Allah said to them,

“O Muslims! Give me your advice about some men who falsely accused my wife (Aishah). By Allah! I never knew of any evil to come from my wife. And they accused whom They accused he from whom I only knew righteous conduct, by Allah!”

The Prophet asked Ali and Usamah about divorcing Aishah.

In summary, the Prophet used to take his Companions’ advice for battles and other important events.

Ibn Majah recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said;

The one whom advice is sought from is to be entrusted.

This was recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa’i who graded it Hasan.

Trust in Allah After Taking the Decision.

Allah’s statement,

”Then when you have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah, means, if you conduct the required consultation and you then make a decision, trust in Allah over your decision.’

(… certainly, Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him).

Allah’s statement,

”If Allah helps you, none can overcome you; and if He forsakes you, who is there after Him that can help you..”

is similar to His statement that we mentioned earlier.

‘’And there is no victory except from Allah the Almighty, the All-Wise.’’ (3:126)

Allah next commands the believers to trust in Him,

”And in Allah (Alone) let believers put their trust.”

Treachery with the Spoils of War was not a Trait of the Prophet.

Allah said,

”t is not for any Prophet to illegally take a part of the booty, Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and Al-Hasan said that the Ayah means, “It is not for a Prophet to breach the trust.”

Ibn Jarir recorded that, Ibn Abbas said that, this Ayah,

(It is not for any Prophet to illegally take a part of the booty), was revealed in connection with a red robe that was missing from the spoils of war of Badr. Some people said that the Messenger of Allah might have taken it. When this rumor circulated, Allah sent down,

It is not for any Prophet to illegally take a part of the booty, and whosoever is deceitful with the booty, he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took.

This was also recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who said “Hasan Gharib”.

This Ayah exonerates the Messenger of Allah of all types of deceit and treachery, be it returning what was entrusted with him, dividing the spoils of war, etc.

Allah then said,

”..and whosoever is deceitful with the booty, he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took…”

Then every person shall be paid in full what he has earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.

This Ayah contains a stern warning and threat against Ghulul (stealing from the booty), and there are also Hadiths, that prohibit such practice.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Malik Al-Ashjai said that the Prophet said,

The worst Ghulul (i.e. stealing) with Allah is a yard of land, that is, when you find two neighbors in a land or home and one of them illegally acquires a yard of his neighbor’s land. When he does, he will be tied with it from the seven earths until the Day of Resurrection.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Humayd As-Sa`idi said, “The Prophet appointed a man from the tribe of Al-Azd, called Ibn Al-Lutbiyyah, to collect the Zakah. When he returned he said, `This (portion) is for you and this has been given to me as a gift.’

The Prophet stood on the Minbar and said,

What is the matter with a man whom we appoint to collect Zakah, when he returns he said, `This is for you and this has been given to me as a gift.’

Why hadn’t he stayed in his father’s or mother’s house to see whether he would be given presents or not! By Him in Whose Hand my life is, whoever takes anything from the resources of the Zakah (unlawfully), he will carry it on his neck on the Day of Resurrection; if it be a camel, it will be grunting; if a cow, it will be mooing; and if a sheep, it will be bleating.

The Prophet then raised his hands till we saw the whiteness of his armpits, and he said thrice,

`O Allah! Haven’t I conveyed Your Message.”’

Hisham bin Urwah added that Abu Humayd said, “I have seen him with my eyes and heard him with my ears, and ask Zayd bin Thabit.”

This is recorded in the Two Sahihs.

In the book of Ahkam of his Sunan, Abu Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded that Mu`adh bin Jabal said, “The Messenger of Allah sent me to Yemen, but when I started on the journey, he sent for me to come back and said,

Do you know why I summoned you back..?

Do not take anything without my permission, for if you do, it will be Ghulul.

(and whosoever deceives his companions over the booty, he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took).

This is why I summoned you, so now go and fulfill your mission.”

At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Gharib.”

In addition, Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said,

“The Prophet got up among us and mentioned Ghulul and emphasized its magnitude. He then said,

I will not like to see anyone among you on the Day of Resurrection, carrying a grunting camel over his neck. Such a man will say, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Intercede on my behalf,’ and I will say, ‘I can’t intercede for you with Allah, for I have conveyed (Allah’s Message) to you.’

I will not like to see any of you coming on the Day of Resurrection while carrying a neighing horse over his neck. Such a man will be saying, `O Allah’s Messenger! Intercede on my behalf,’ and I will reply, ‘I can’t intercede for you with Allah, for I have conveyed (Allah’s Message) to you.’

I will not like to see any of you coming on the Day of Resurrection while carrying clothes that will be fluttering, and the man will say, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Intercede (with Allah) for me, ‘ and I will say, ‘I can’t help you with Allah, for I have conveyed (Allah’s Message) to you.’

I will not like to see any of you coming on the Day of Resurrection while carrying gold and silver on his neck. This person will say, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Intercede (with Allah) for me.’ And I will say, ‘I can’t help you with Allah, for I have conveyed (Allah’s Message) to you.”’

This Hadith was recorded in the Two Sahihs.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “During the day (battle) of Khyber, several Companions of the Messenger of Allah came to him and said, `So-and-so died as a martyr, so-and-so died as a martyr.’ When they mentioned a certain man that died as a martyr, the Messenger of Allah said,

‘’No. I have seen him in the Fire because of a robe that he stole (from the booty).’’

The Messenger of Allah then said,

O Ibn Al-Khattab! Go and announce to the people that only the faithful shall enter Paradise.

So I went out and proclaimed that none except the faithful shall enter Paradise.”

This was recorded by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi, who said “Hasan Sahih”.

The Honest and Dishonest are Not Similar.

Allah said,

”Is then one who follows (seeks) the pleasure of Allah like the one who draws on himself the wrath of Allah! His abode is Hell, and worse indeed is that destination..”

This refers to those seeking what pleases Allah by obeying His legislation, thus earning His pleasure and tremendous rewards, while being saved from His severe torment.

This type of person is not similar to one who earns Allah’s anger, has no means of escaping it and who will reside in Jahannam on the Day of Resurrection, and what an evil destination it is.

There are many similar statements in the Qur’an, such as,

‘’Shall he then who knows that what has been revealed unto you (O Muhammad) from your Lord is the truth be like him who is blind..! (13:19)

Is he whom We have promised an excellent promise (Paradise) which he will find true, like him whom We have made to enjoy the luxuries of the life of (this) world! (28:61)

Allah then said,

They are in varying grades with Allah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Muhammad bin Ishaq said, meaning, the people of righteousness and the people of evil are in grades.

Abu Ubaydah and Al-Kisa’i said that; this Ayah refers to degrees, meaning there are various degrees and dwellings in Paradise, as well as, various degrees and dwellings in the Fire.

In another Ayah, Allah said,

”For all there will be degrees (or ranks) according to what they did.” (6:132)

Next, Allah said,

”… and Allah is All-Seer of what they do. and He will compensate or punish them, and will never rid them of a good deed, or increase their evil deeds. Rather, each will be treated according to his deeds.”

The Magnificent Blessing in the Advent of Our Prophet Muhammad.

Allah the Most High said:

Indeed Allah conferred a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from among themselves,

Meaning, from their own kind, so that it is possible for them to speak with him, ask him questions, associate with him, and benefit from him. Just as Allah said:

‘’And among His signs is that he created for them mates, that they may find rest in. Meaning; of their own kind.’’ (30:21)

And Allah said;

Say: “I am only a man like you. It has been revealed to me that your God is One God.” (18:110)

And We never sent before you any of the Messengers but verily, they ate food and walked in the markets.” (25:20)

‘’And We sent not before you any but men unto whom We revealed, from among the people of townships.’’ (12:109)

‘’O you assembly of Jinn and mankind! “Did not there come to you Messengers from among you…” (6:130)

Allah’s favor is perfected when His Messenger to the people is from their own kind, so that they are able to talk to him and inquire about the meanings of Allah’s Word.

This is why Allah said,

(…reciting unto them His verses, the Qur’an.

(… and purifying them, commanding them to do righteous works and forbidding them from committing evil. This is how their hearts will be purified and cleansed of the sin and evil that used to fill them when they were disbelievers and ignorant.

(… and instructing them (in) the Book and the Hikmah, the Qur’an and the Sunnah,

(… while before that they had been, before sending this Prophet, Muhammad,

(… in manifest error. indulging in plain and unequivocal error and ignorance that are clear to everyone.

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3:165.| (What is the matter with you) When a single disaster smites you, although you smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, you say: “From where does this come to us!” Say, “It is from yourselves.” And Allah has power over all things.

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3:166.| And what you suffered on the day the two armies met, was by the leave of Allah, in order that He might test the believers.

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3:167.| And that He might test the hypocrites, it was said to them: “Come, fight in the way of Allah or defend yourselves.” They said: “Had we known that fighting will take place, we would certainly have followed you.” They were that day, nearer to disbelief than to faith, saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts. And Allah has full knowledge of what they conceal.

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3:168.| (They are) the ones who said about their killed brethren while they themselves sat (at home): “If only they had listened to us, they would not have been killed.” Say: “Avert death from your own selves, if you speak the truth.”

The Reason and Wisdom Behind the Defeat at Uhud.

Allah said,

When a single disaster smites you, in reference to when the Muslims suffered seventy fatalities during the battle of Uhud.

(… although you smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, during Badr, when the Muslims killed seventy Mushriks and captured seventy others.

(… you say: “From where does this come to us..!” why did this defeat happen to us!

Say, “It is from yourselves.”

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “When Uhud occurred, a year after Badr, Muslims were punished for taking ransom from the disbelievers at Badr (in return for releasing the Mushriks whom they captured in that battle). Thus, they suffered the loss of seventy fatalities and the Companions of the Messenger of Allah gave flight and abandoned him. The Messenger suffered a broken tooth, the helmet was smashed on his head and blood flowed onto his face. Allah then revealed,

When a single disaster smites you, although you smote (your enemies) with one twice as great, you say: “From where does this come to us!” Say, “It is from yourselves”, because you took the ransom.”

Furthermore, Muhammad bin Ishaq, Ibn Jurayj, Ar-Rabi bin Anas and As-Suddi said that; the Ayah,

(Say, “It is from yourselves.”) means, because you, the archers, disobeyed the Messenger’s command to not abandon your positions.

And Allah has power over all things. and He does what He wills and decides what He wills, and there is none who can resist His decision.

Allah then said,

And what you suffered on the day the two armies met, was by the leave of Allah, for when you ran away from your enemy, who killed many of you and injured many others, all this occurred by Allah’s will and decree out of His perfect wisdom.

(… in order that He might test the believers. who were patient, firm and were not shaken.

And that He might test the hypocrites, it was said to them: “Come, fight in the way of Allah or defend yourselves.” They said: “Had we known that fighting will take place, we would certainly have followed you.”

Ibn Abbas, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Salih, Al-Hasan and As-Suddi stated, This refers to the Companions of Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul who went back (to Al-Madinah) with him before the battle. Some believers followed them and encouraged them to come back and fight, saying,

(or defend), so that the number of Muslims increases.

Al-Hasan bin Salih said that this part of the Ayah means, help by supplicating for us, while others said it means, man the posts.

However, they refused, saying,

(“Had we known that fighting will take place, we would certainly have followed you.”),

According to Mujahid meaning, (..if we knew that you would fight today, we would join you, but we think you will not fight.)

Allah said,

They were that day, nearer to disbelief than to faith,”

This Ayah indicates that a person passes through various stages, sometimes being closer to Kufr and sometimes closer to faith, as evident by,

(They were that day, nearer to disbelief than to faith).

Allah then said,

… saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts.”

for they utter what they do not truly believe in, such as, (Had we known that fighting will take place, we would certainly have followed you).”

They knew that there was an army of idolators that came from a far land raging against the Muslims, to avenge their noble men whom the Muslims killed in Badr. These idolators came in larger numbers than the Muslims, so it was clear that a battle will certainly occur.

Allah said;

And Allah has full knowledge of what they conceal.”

(They are) the ones who said about their killed brethren while they themselves sat (at home): “If only they had listened to us, they would not have been killed.” had they listened to our advice and not gone out, they would not have met their demise.

Allah said,

Say: “Avert death from your own selves, if you speak the truth.”

… meaning, (… if staying at home saves one from being killed or from death, then you should not die.)

However death will come to you even if you were hiding in fortified castles. Therefore, fend death off of yourselves, if you are right.

Mujahid said that Jabir bin Abdullah said,

“This Ayah (3:168) was revealed about Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul (the chief hypocrite).”

3:169.| Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.

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3:170.| They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty and rejoice for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind (not yet martyred) that on them no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve.

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3:171.| They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers.

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3:172.| Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded; for those of them who did good deeds and feared Allah, there is a great reward.

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3:173.| Those to whom the people said, “Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.” But it (only) increased them in faith, and they said: “Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs.”

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3:174.| So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them; and they followed the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty.

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3:175.| It is only Shaytan that suggests to you the fear of his friends; so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers.

Virtues of the Martyrs.

Allah tells;

Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.”

Allah states that even though the martyrs were killed in this life, their souls are alive and receiving provisions in the Dwelling of Everlasting Life.

In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Masruq said, “We asked Abdullah about this Ayah,

He said, `We asked the Messenger of Allah the same question and he said,

Their souls are inside green birds that have lamps, which are hanging below the Throne (of Allah), and they wander about in Paradise wherever they wish. Then they return to those lamps.

Allah looks at them and says, `Do you wish for anything..?’

They say, `What more could we wish for, while we go wherever we wish in Paradise.’

Allah asked them this question thrice, and when they realize that He will keep asking them until they give an answer, they say, `O Lord! We wish that our souls be returned to our bodies so that we are killed in Your cause again.’

Allah knew that they did not have any other wish, so they were left.”’

There are several other similar narrations from Anas and Abu Sa`id.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

No soul that has a good standing with Allah and dies would wish to go back to the life of this world, except for the martyr. He would like to be returned to this life so that he could be martyred again, for he tastes the honor achieved from martyrdom.

Muslim collected this Hadith.

In addition, Imam Ahmad recorded that, Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

When your brothers were killed in Uhud, Allah placed their souls inside green birds that tend to the rivers of Paradise and eat from its fruits. They then return to golden lamps hanging in the shade of the Throne. When they tasted the delight of their food, drink and dwelling, they said, `We wish that our brothers knew what Allah gave us so that they will not abandon Jihad or warfare.’

Allah said,

‘‘ `I will convey the news for you.‘ ‘’

Allah revealed these and the following Ayat,

‘’Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.’’

Qatadah, Ar-Rabi and Ad-Dahhak said that; these Ayat were revealed about the martyrs of Uhud.

Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said,

“The Messenger of Allah looked at me one day and said, `O Jabir! Why do I see you sad..?’

I said, `O Messenger of Allah! My father was martyred and left behind debts and children.’

He said,

”Should I tell you that Allah never spoke to anyone except from behind a veil..? However, He spoke to your father directly.

He said, `Ask Me and I will give you.’

He said, `I ask that I am returned to life so that I am killed in Your cause again.’

The Lord, Exalted He be, said, `I have spoken the word that they shall not be returned back to it (this life).’

He said, `O Lord! Then convey the news to those I left behind.’

Allah revealed,

”Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of Allah….

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

The martyrs convene at the shore of a river close to the door of Paradise, in a green tent, where their provisions are brought to them from Paradise day and night.

Ahmad and Ibn Jarir collected this Hadith, which has a good chain of narration.

It appears that the martyrs are of different types, some of them wander in Paradise, and some remain close to this river by the door of Paradise. It is also possible that the river is where all the souls of the martyrs convene and where they are provided with their provision day and night, and Allah knows best.

UImam Ahmad narrated a Hadith that contains good news for every believer that; his soul will be wandering in Paradise, as well, eating from its fruits, enjoying its delights and happiness and tasting the honor that Allah has prepared in it for him.

This Hadith has a unique, authentic chain of narration that includes three of the Four Imams.

Imam Ahmad narrated this Hadith from Muhammad bin Idris Ash-Shafii who narrated it from Malik bin Anas Al-Asbuhi, from Az-Zuhri, from Abdur-Rahman bin Ka`b bin Malik that his father said that the Messenger of Allah said,

The soul of the believer becomes a bird that feeds on the trees of Paradise, until Allah sends him back to his body when He resurrects him.

This Hadith states that the souls of the believers are in the shape of a bird in Paradise. As for the souls of martyrs, they are inside green birds, like the stars to the rest of the believing souls.

We ask Allah the Most Generous that He makes us firm on the faith.

Allah’s statement,

They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them,”

Indicates that the martyrs who were killed in Allah’s cause are alive with Allah, delighted because of the bounty and happiness they are enjoying.

(…of His bounty and rejoice for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind (not yet martyred) that on them no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve.

They are also awaiting their brethren, who will die in Allah’s cause after them, for they will be meeting them soon. These martyrs do not have fear about the future or sorrow for what they left behind. We ask Allah to grant us Paradise.

The Two Sahihs record from Anas, the story of the seventy Ansar Companions who were murdered at Bir Ma`unah in one night. In this Hadith, Anas reported that the Prophet used to supplicate to Allah in Qunut in prayer against those who killed them. Anas said, “A part of the Qur’an was revealed about them, but was later abrogated, `Convey to our people that we met Allah and He was pleased with us and made us pleased.”’

Allah said next,

They rejoice in a grace and a bounty from Allah, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers.”

Muhammad bin Ishaq commented,

“They were delighted and pleased because of Allah’s promise that was fulfilled for them, and for the tremendous rewards they earned.”

Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, “This Ayah encompasses all the believers, martyrs and otherwise. Rarely does Allah mention a bounty and a reward that He granted to the Prophets, without following that with what He has granted the believers after them.”

The Battle of Hamra’ Al-Asad.

Allah said,

Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded,

This occurred on the day of Hamra’ Al-Asad. After the idolators defeated the Muslims (at Uhud), they started on their way back home, but soon they were concerned because they did not finish off the Muslims in Al-Madinah, so they set out to make that battle the final one. When the Messenger of Allah got news of this, he commanded the Muslims to march to meet the disbelievers, to bring fear to their hearts and to demonstrate that the Muslims still had strength to fight.

The Prophet only allowed those who were present during Uhud to accompany him, except for Jabir bin Abdullah Al-Ansari, as we will mention. The Muslims mobilized, even though they were still suffering from their injuries, in obedience to Allah and His Messenger.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ikrimah said, “When the idolators returned (towards Makkah) after Uhud, they said, `You neither killed Muhammad nor collected female captives. Woe to you for what you did. Let us go back.’

When the Messenger of Allah heard this news, he mobilized the Muslim forces, and they marched until they reached Hamra Al-Asad.

The idolators said, `Rather, we will meet next year’, and the Messenger of Allah went back (to Al-Madinah), and this was considered a Ghazwah (battle). Allah sent down,

Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger after being wounded; for those of them who did good deeds and feared Allah, there is a great reward.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Aishah said to Urwah about the Ayah;

(Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger),

“My nephew! Your fathers Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr were among them.

After the Prophet suffered the calamity at Uhud and the idolators went back, he feared that the idolators might try to come back and he said,

`Who would follow them..?’

Seventy men, including Az-Zubayr and Abu Bakr, volunteered.”

This was recorded by Al-Bukhari alone.

As for Allah’s statement,

Those unto whom the people said, “Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.” But it (only) increased them in faith,”

… it means, those who threatened the people, saying that the disbelievers have amassed against them, in order to instill fear in them, but this did not worry them, rather, they trusted in Allah and sought His help.

(… and they said: “Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs.”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

(“Allah Alone is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us),

  • “Ibrahim said it when he was thrown in fire.
  • Muhammad said it when the people said, `Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.’

But it only increased them in faith, and they said, `Allah is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer of affairs for us.”’

Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Prophet was told on the day of Uhud,

“Verily, the people have gathered against you, therefore, fear them.”

Thereafter, Allah sent down this Ayah,” (3:173)

This is why Allah said,

So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them; for when they relied on Allah, Allah took care of their worries, He confounded the plots of their enemies, and the Muslims returned to their land, (with grace and bounty from Allah. No harm touched them;) safe from the wicked plots of their enemies,

(… and they followed the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is the Owner of great bounty.

Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Ibn Abbas said about Allah’s statement,

(So they returned with grace and bounty from Allah),

“The `Grace’ was that they were saved. The `Bounty’ was that a caravan passed by, and those days were (Hajj) season days. Thus the Messenger of Allah bought and sold and made a profit, which he divided between his Companions.”

Allah then said,

It is only Shaytan that suggests to you the fear of his friends,

… meaning, Shaytan threatens you with his friends and tries to pretend they are powerful and fearsome.

Allah said next,

(… so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are indeed believers.) meaning,

“If Shaytan brings these thoughts to you, then depend on Me and seek refuge with Me.

Indeed, I shall suffice you and make you prevail over them.”

Similarly, Allah said,

Is not Allah Sufficient for His servant! Yet they try to frighten you with those besides Him! (39: 36) until,

Say: “Sufficient for me is Allah; in Him those who trust must put their trust.” (39:38)

Allah said,

So fight you against the friends of Shaytan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaytan. (4:76) and,

They are the party of Shaytan. Verily, it is the party of Shaytan that will be the losers! (58:19)

Allah has decreed:

“Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious.” Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, All-Mighty. (58:21) and,

‘’Verily, Allah will help those who help His (cause). (22:40) and,

O you who believe! If you help (in the cause of) Allah, He will help you. (47:7) and,

‘’Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe, in this world’s life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth. The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode.’’ [40:51,52]

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3:176.| And let not those grieve you who rush with haste to disbelieve; verily, not the least harm will they do to Allah. It is Allah’s will to give them no portion in the Hereafter. For them there is a great torment.

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3:177.| Verily, those who purchase disbelief at the price of faith, not the least harm will they do to Allah. For them, there is a painful torment.

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3:178.| And let not the disbelievers think that Our postponing their punishment is good for them. We postpone the punishment only so that they may increase in sinfulness. And for them is a disgraceful torment.

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3:179.| Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good. Nor will Allah disclose to you the secrets of the Unseen, but Allah chooses of His Messengers whom He wills. So believe in Allah and His Messengers. And if you believe and have Taqwa of All ah, then for you there is a great reward.

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3:180.| And let not those who are stingy with that which Allah has bestowed on them of His bounty think that it is good for them. Nay, it will be worse for them; the things that they were stingy with shall be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of Resurrection. And Allah’s is the inheritance of the heavens and the earth; and Allah is Well-Acquainted with all that you do.

Comforting the Messenger of Allah.

Allah said to His Prophet,

And let not those grieve you who rush with haste to disbelieve, Because the Prophet was eager for people’s benefit, he would become sad when the disbelievers would resort to defiance, rebellion and stubbornness.

Allah said,

‘’Do not be saddened by this behavior,’’

‘’verily, not the least harm will they do to Allah. It is Allah’s will to give them no portion in the Hereafter. for He decided with His power and wisdom that they shall not acquire any share in the Hereafter.

For them there is a great torment.

Allah said about the disbelievers,

”Verily, those who purchase disbelief at the price of faith, by exchanging disbelief for faith,”

(… not the least harm will they do to Allah.

Rather, they will only harm themselves.

For them, there is a painful torment.

Allah said next,

”And let not the disbelievers think that Our postponing their punishment is good for them.”

” We postpone the punishment only so that they may increase in sinfulness.”

”And for them is a disgraceful torment.”

This statement is similar to Allah’s other statements,

Do they think that because We have given them abundant wealth and children, (that) We hasten unto them with good things. Nay, but they perceive not. (23:55-56)

Then leave Me Alone with such as belie this Qur’an. We shall punish them gradually from directions they perceive not. (68:44)

And let not their wealth or their children amaze you. Allah’s plan is to punish them with these things in this world, and that their souls shall depart (die) while they are disbelievers. (9:85)

Allah then said,

Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good.

(… meaning, He allows a calamity to happen, and during this calamity His friend becomes known and His enemy exposed, the patient believer recognized and the sinful hypocrite revealed.

This Ayah refers to Uhud, since Allah tested the believers in that battle, thus making known the faith, endurance, patience, firmness and obedience to Allah and His Messenger that the believers had. Allah exposed the hypocrites in their defiance, reverting from Jihad, and the treachery they committed against Allah and His Messenger.

This is why Allah said,

(Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good).

Mujahid commented, “He distinguished between them during the day of Uhud.”

Qatadah said, “He distinguished between them in Jihad and Hijrah.”

Allah said next,

Nor will Allah disclose to you the secrets of the Unseen. meaning, you do not have access to Allah’s knowledge of His creation so that you can distinguish between the believer and the hypocrite, except by the signs of each type that Allah uncovers.

Allah’s statement,

( … but Allah chooses of His Messengers whom He wills.

is similar to another Ayah,

 (He Alone is) the All-Knower of the Unseen, and He reveals to none His Unseen. Except to a Messenger (from mankind) whom He has chosen, and then He makes a band of watching guards (angels) to march before him and behind him. [72:26-27]

Allah then said,

So believe in Allah and His Messengers.

Obey Allah and His Messenger and adhere to the law that he legislated for you.

( … and if you believe and fear Allah, then for you there is a great reward.

The Censure of Selfishness, and Warning Against it.

Allah said,

And let not those who are stingy with that which Allah has bestowed on them of His bounty (wealth) think that it is good for them. Nay, it will be worse for them.

Therefore, the Ayah says that the miser should not think that collecting money will benefit him. Rather, it will harm him in his religion and worldly affairs. Allah mentions the money that the miser collected on the Day of Resurrection,

( … the things that they stingy with shall be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of Resurrection.)

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

Whoever Allah makes wealthy and he does not pay the Zakah due on his wealth, then (on the Day of Resurrection) his wealth will be made in the likeness of a bald-headed poisonous male snake with two black spots over the eyes. The snake will encircle his neck and bite his cheeks and proclaim, `I am your wealth, I am your treasure.’

The Prophet then recited the Ayah,

And let not those who are stingy with that which Allah has bestowed on them of His bounty think that it is good for them. Nay, it will be worse for them, until the end.

Al-Bukhari, but not Muslim, collected this Hadith using this chain of narration, Ibn Hibban also collected it in his Sahih.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah said that the Prophet said,

Every person who does not pay the Zakah due on his wealth, will have his money made into the shape of a bald-headed, poisonous male snake who will follow him. The person will run away from the snake, who will follow him and proclaim,

`I am your treasure.’

Abdullah then recited the Ayah in Allah’s Book that testifies to this fact,

(the things that they were stingy with shall be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of Resurrection).

This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i, and Ibn Majah, and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.”

Allah’s statement,

And to Allah belongs the inheritance of the heavens and the Earth, means,

(and spend of that whereof He has made you trustees), (57:7).

Therefore, since all affairs are under Allah’s control, then spend from your money so it will benefit you on the Day of Return.

( … and Allah is Well-Acquainted with all that you do. with your intentions and what your hearts conceal.

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3:181.| Indeed, Allah has heard the statement of those who say: “Truly, Allah is poor and we are rich!” We shall record what they have said and their killing of the Prophets unjustly, and We shall say: “Taste you the torment of the burning (Fire).”

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3:182.| This is because of that which your hands have sent before you. And certainly, Allah is never unjust to (His) servants.

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3:183.| Those who said: “Verily, Allah has taken our promise not to believe in any Messenger unless he brings to us an offering which the fire (from heaven) shall devour.” Say: Verily, there came to you Messengers before me, with Al-Bayinat and even with with what you speak of; why then did you kill them, if you are truthful.

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3:184.| Then if they reject you, so were Messengers rejected before you, who came with Al-Bayinat and the Scriptures and the Book of Enlightenment.

Allah Warns the Idolators.

Allah says;

Indeed, Allah has heard the statement of those (Jews) who say: “Truly, Allah is poor and we are rich..!”

Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn Abbas said, “When Allah’s statement,

Who is he that will lend to Allah a goodly loan so that He may multiply it to him many times (2:245) was revealed, the Jews said, `O Muhammad! Has your Lord become poor so that He asks His servants to give Him a loan..?’

Allah sent down,

(Indeed, Allah has heard the statement of those (Jews) who say: “Truly, Allah is poor and we are rich!”)” (3:181)

This Hadith was collected by Ibn Marduwyah and Ibn Abi Hatim.

Allah’s statement,

We shall record what they have said, contains a threat and a warning that Allah followed with His statement.

( … and their killing of the Prophets unjustly, This is what they say about Allah and this is how they treat His Messengers. Allah will punish them for these deeds in the worst manner.

(… and We shall say: “Taste you the torment of the burning (Fire).” This is because of that which your hands have sent before you. And certainly, Allah is never unjust to (His) servants.

They will be addressed like this as a way of chastising, criticism, disgrace and humiliation.

Allah said,

Those (Jews) who said: “Verily, Allah has taken our promise not to believe in any Messenger unless he brings to us an offering which the fire (from heaven) shall devour.”

Ibn Abbas and Al-Hasan stated, Allah refuted their claim that in their Books, Allah took a covenant from them to only believe in the Messenger whose miracles include fire coming down from the sky that consumes the charity offered by a member of the Messenger’s nation.

Allah replied,

Say: “Verily, there came to you Messengers before me, with Al-Bayinat…” with proofs and evidence,

( … and even with what you speak of, a fire that consumes the accepted charity, as you asked,

( … why then did you kill them..!

Why did you meet these Prophets with denial, defiance, stubbornness and even murder..!

( … if you are truthful. if you follow the truth and obey the Messengers.

Allah then comforts His Prophet Muhammad,

Then if they reject you, so were Messengers rejected before you, who came with Al-Baiyyinat and the Scripture, and the Book of Enlightenment.

( … meaning, do not be sad because they deny you, for you have an example in the Messengers who came before you. These Messengers were rejected although they brought clear proofs, plain evidence and unequivocal signs.

(and the Zubur), the divinely revealed Books that were sent down to the Messengers,

(and the Book of Enlightenment) meaning the clarification and best explanation.

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3:185.| Everyone shall taste death. And only on the Day of Resurrection shall you be paid your wages in full. And whoever is moved away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, he indeed is successful. The life of this world is only the enjoyment of deception.

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3:186.| You shall certainly be tried and tested in your wealth and properties and in yourselves, and you shall certainly hear much that will grieve you from those who received the Scripture before you (Jews and Christians) and from those who ascribe partners to Allah; but if you persevere patiently, and have Taqwa, then verily, that will be a determining factor in all affairs.

Every Soul Shall Taste Death.

Allah says;

”Everyone shall taste death.”

Allah issues a general and encompassing statement that every living soul shall taste death.

In another statement, Allah said,

Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Lord full of majesty and honor will remain forever. (55:26-27)

Therefore, Allah Alone is the Ever-Living Who never dies, while the Jinn, mankind and angels, including those who carry Allah’s Throne, shall die. The Irresistible One and Only, will alone remain for ever and ever, remaining Last, as He was the First.

This Ayah comforts all creation, since every soul that exists on the earth shall die. When the term of this life comes to an end and the sons of Adam no longer have any new generations, and thus this world ends, Allah will command that the Day of Resurrection commence. Allah will then recompense the creation for their deeds, whether minor or major, many or few, big or small.

Surely, Allah will not deal unjustly with anyone, even the weight of an atom, and this is why He said,

And only on the Day of Resurrection shall you be paid your wages in full.

Who Shall Gain Ultimate Victory.

Allah said,

And whoever is moved away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, he indeed is successful.

(… meaning, whoever is kept away from the Fire, saved from it and entered into Paradise, will have achieved the ultimate success.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

A place in Paradise as small as that which is occupied by a whip is better than the world and whatever is on its surface.

Read if you will,

(And whoever is removed away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, he indeed is successful).

This was collected in the Two Sahihs, but using another chain of narration and without the addition of Ayah.

Abu Hatim Ibn Hibban recorded it in his Sahih without the addition as did Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak.

Allah said,

‘’The life of this world is only the enjoyment of deception.’’

(… belittling the value of this life and degrading its importance.

This life is short, little and finite, just as Allah said,

‘’Nay, you prefer the life of this world. Although the Hereafter is better and more lasting.’’ [87:16-17]

And whatever you have been given is an enjoyment of the life of (this) world and its adornment, and that (Hereafter) which is with Allah is better and will remain forever. (28:60)

A Hadith states,

By Allah! This life, compared to the Hereafter, is just as insignificant as when one of you dips his finger in the sea; let him contemplate what his finger will come back with.

Qatadah commented on Allah’s statement,

(The life of this world is only the enjoyment of deception).

“Life is a delight. By Allah, other than Whom there is no deity, it will soon fade away from its people. Therefore, take obedience to Allah from this delight, if you can. Verily, there is no power except from Allah.”

The Believer is Tested and Hears Grieving Statements from the Enemy.

Allah said,

You shall certainly be tried and tested in your wealth and properties and in yourselves, just as He said in another Ayah,

”And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits.” (2:155)

Therefore, the believer shall be tested, in his wealth, himself, his offspring and family. The believer shall be tested according to the degree of his faith, and when his faith is stronger, the test is larger.

(… and you shall certainly hear much that will grieve you from those who received the Scripture before you (Jews and Christians) and from those who ascribe partners to Allah.

Allah said to the believers upon their arrival at Al-Madinah, before Badr, while comforting them against the harm they suffered from the People of the Scriptures and the polytheists;

( … but if you persevere patiently, and have Taqwa, then verily, that will be a determining factor in all affairs.

Therefore, Allah commanded the believers to be forgiving, patient and forbearing until He brought His awaited aid.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Usamah bin Zayd said that; Allah’s Messenger rode a donkey with a saddle covered by a velvet sheet and let Usamah ride behind him (on the donkey). The Prophet wanted to visit Sa`d bin Ubadah in Bani Al-Harith bin Al-Khazraj, and this occurred before the battle of Badr.

The Prophet passed by a gathering in which Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul was sitting, before Abdullah bin Ubayy became Muslim. That gathering was made up of various Muslims as well as Mushriks, who worshipped the idols, and some Jews. Abdullah bin Rawahah was sitting in that gathering.

When the Prophet reached Abdullah bin Ubayy, the donkey caused some sand to fall on the group. Then, Abdullah bin Ubayy covered his nose with his robe and said, `Do not fill us with sand.’

The Messenger of Allah greeted the gathering with Salam, called them to Allah and recited some of the Qur’an to them.

Abdullah bin Ubayy said, `O fellow! No other speech is better than what you said, if it was true! However, do not bother us in our gatherings. Go back to your place and whoever came to you, narrate your stories to him.’

Abdullah bin Rawahah said, `Rather, O Messenger of Allah! Attend our gatherings for we like that.’

The Muslims, Mushriks and Jews then cursed each other, and they almost fought with each other. The Prophet tried to calm them down, until they finally settled.

The Prophet rode his donkey and went to Sa`d bin Ubadah, saying, `O Sa`d! Have you heard what Abu Hubbab said (meaning Abdullah bin Ubayy)? He said such and such things.’

Sa`d said, `O Messenger of Allah! Forgive and pardon him. By Allah, Who sent down the Book to you, Allah brought us the truth that you came with at a time when the people of this city almost appointed him king. When Allah changed all that with the truth that He gave you, he choked on it, and this is the reason behind the behavior you saw from him.’

The Messenger of Allah forgave him. Indeed, the Messenger of Allah and his Companions used to forgive the Mushriks and the People of the Scriptures, just as Allah commanded them, and they used to tolerate the harm that they suffered.

Allah said,

( … and you shall certainly hear much that will grieve you from those who received the Scripture before you (Jews and Christians) and from those who ascribe partners to Allah; and,

Many of the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their own selves, even after the truth has become manifest unto them. But forgive and overlook, till Allah brings His command. (2:109)

The Prophet used to implement the pardon that Allah commanded him until He gave His command (to fight the disbelievers).

When the Messenger fought at Badr, and Allah killed, by his hand, the leaders of the disbelievers from Quraysh, Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul and the Mushriks and idol worshippers who were with him said, `This matter has prevailed,’ and they gave their pledge to the Prophet and became Muslims.”

Therefore, every person who stands for truth, enjoins righteousness and forbids evil, will be harmed in some manner. In such cases, there is no cure better than being patient in Allah’s cause, trusting in Him and returning to Him.

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3:187.| (And remember) when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) to make it (the truth) known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And indeed worst is that which they bought.

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3:188.| Think not that those who rejoice in what they have done (or brought about), and love to be praised for what they have not done, think not that they are rescued from the torment, and for them is a painful torment.

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3:189.| And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Allah has power over all things.

Chastising the People of the Scriptures for Breaking the Covenant and Hiding the Truth.

Allah says;

(And remember) when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) to make it (the truth) known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And indeed worst is that which they bought.

In this Ayah, Allah chastises the People of the Scriptures, from whom Allah took the covenant by the words of their Prophets, that they would believe in Muhammad and describe him to the people, so that they would recognize and follow him when Allah sent him. However, they hid this truth and preferred the the small amounts and the material gains instead of the rewards of this life and the Hereafter that they were promised.

This is a losing deal and a failing trade, indeed.

These Ayat also contain a warning for the scholars not to imitate their behavior, so that they do not suffer the same fate and become like them. Therefore, the scholars are required to spread the beneficial knowledge that they have, encouraging the various righteous good deeds.

They are also warned against hiding any part of their knowledge.

A Hadith states that the Prophet said,

Whoever was asked about knowledge that he knew but did not disclose it, will be tied with a bridle made of fire on the Day of Resurrection.

Chastising Those Who Love to be Praised for What They Have not Done.

Allah’s statement,

Think not that those who rejoice in what they have done, and love to be praised for what they have not done, refers to those who show off, rejoice in what they do and claim to do what they have not done.

The Two Sahihs recorded that the Prophet said,

Whoever issues a false claim to acquire some type of gain, then Allah will only grant him decrease.

The Sahih also recorded;

He who claims to do what he has not done, is just like a person who wears two robes made of falsehood.

Imam Ahmad recorded that; Marwan told his guard Rafi to go to Ibn Abbas and proclaim to him, “If every person among us who rejoices with what he has done and loves to be praised for what he has not done will be tormented, we all will be tormented.”

Ibn Abbas said, “This Ayah was revealed about the People of the Scriptures.”

He then recited the Ayah,

‘’And remember) when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) to make it (the truth) known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And indeed worst is that which they bought.’’ (3:187) then the Ayah,

‘’Think not that those who rejoice in what they have done, and love to be praised for what they have not done.’’

Ibn Abbas said, “The Prophet asked them about something, and they hid its knowledge, giving him an incorrect answer. They parted after showing off and rejoicing in front of him because they answered him, so they pretended, and they were delighted that they hid the correct news about what he had asked them.”

This was recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said, “During the time of the Messenger of Allah, when the Messenger would go to battle, some hypocrite men would remain behind and rejoice because they did not accompany the Prophet in battle.

When the Messenger would come back, they would ask him to excuse them swearing to having some excuse, and wanting to be praised for that which they did not do. So Allah revealed,

‘’Think not that those who rejoice in what they have done, and love to be praised for what they have not done.” to the end of the Ayah.”

And Muslim recorded similarly.

Allah said;

( … think not that they are rescued from the torment,..)

Do not think that they will be saved from punishment, rather it will certainly strike them.

So Allah said;

( … and for them is a painful torment.)

Allah then said,

And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Allah has power over all things. He is the Owner of everything, able to do all things and nothing escapes His might. Therefore, fear Him, never defy Him and beware of His anger and revenge. He is the Most Great, none is greater than Him, and the Most Able, none is more able than He is.

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3:190.| Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the Earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding.

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3:191.| Those who remember Allah standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and think deeply about the creation of the heavens and the earth, (saying): “Our Lord! You have not created this without purpose, glory to You! Give us salvation from the torment of the Fire.

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3:192.| “Our Lord! Verily, whom You admit to the Fire, indeed, You have disgraced him; and never will the wrongdoers find any helpers.

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3:193.| “Our Lord! Verily, we have heard the call of one calling to faith: `Believe in your Lord,’ and we have believed. Our Lord! Forgive us our sins and expiate from us our evil deeds, and make us die along with Al-Abrar (the most righteous).

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3:194.| “Our Lord! Grant us what You promised us through Your Messengers and disgrace us not on the Day of Resurrection, for You never break (Your) Promise.”

The Proofs of Tawhid for People of Understanding, their Characteristics, Speech, and Supplications.

Allah said,

‘’Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the Earth,’’

(… referring to the sky in its height and spaciousness, the earth in its expanse and density, the tremendous features they have of rotating planets, seas, mountains, deserts, trees, plants, fruits, animals, metals and various beneficial colors, scents, tastes and elements.’’

And in the alternation of night and day, as one follows and takes from the length of the other. For instance, at times one of them becomes longer than the other, shorter than the other at times and equal to the other at other times, and the same is repeated again and again, and all this occurs by the decision of the Almighty, Most Wise.

This is why Allah said,

( … there are indeed signs for men of understanding,

(… referring to the intelligent and sound minds that contemplate about the true reality of things, unlike the deaf and mute who do not have sound comprehension.

Allah said about the latter type,

And how many a sign in the heavens and the earth they pass by, while they are averse therefrom. And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners unto Him. [12:105-106]

Allah then describes those who have good minds,

Those who remember Allah standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Imran bin Husayn said that the Messenger of Allah said,

Pray while standing, and if you can’t, pray while sitting, and if you cannot do even that, then pray lying on your side.

These people remember Allah in all situations, in their heart and speech,

( … and think deeply about the creation of the heavens and the Earth, contemplating about signs in the sky and earth that testify to the might, ability, knowledge, wisdom, will and mercy of the Creator.

Allah criticizes those who do not contemplate about His creation, which testifies to His existence, Attributes, Shariah, His decree and Ayat.

Allah said,

And how many a sign in the heavens and the Earth they pass by, while they are averse therefrom. And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners unto Him. [12:105-106]

Allah also praises His believing servants,

Those who remember Allah standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and think deeply about the creation of the heavens and the earth, supplicating;

“Our Lord! You have not created this without purpose,”

You did not create all this in jest and play. Rather, You created it in truth, so that You recompense those who do evil in kind, and reward those who do righteous deeds with what is better.

The faithful believers praise Allah and deny that He does anything in jest and without purpose, saying,

“glory to You,” for You would never create anything without purpose.

“Give us salvation from the torment of the Fire.”

( … meaning, “O You Who created the creation in truth and justice, Who is far from any shortcomings, or doing things without purpose or with jest, save us from the torment of the Fire with Your power and strength. Direct us to perform the deeds that make You pleased with us. Guide us to righteous work from which You admit us into the delightful Paradise, and save us from Your painful torment.”

They next supplicate,

“Our Lord! Verily, whom You admit to the Fire, indeed,

You have disgraced him; by humiliating and disgracing him before all people on the Day of Gathering.

“and never will the wrongdoers find any helpers.”

(… on the Day of Judgment, who would save them from You. Therefore, there is no escaping whatever fate You decided for them.)

“Our Lord! Verily, we have heard the call of one calling to faith,”

(… a caller who calls to faith, referring to the Messenger of Allah.

`Believe in your Lord,’ and we have believed, accepted his call and followed him.

“Our Lord! Forgive us our sins,”

( … on account of our faith and obeying Your Prophet.

(“Forgive us our sins”), and cover them.

“and expiate from us our evil deeds,”

(… between us and You, in private,

“and make us die along with Al-Abrar,”

( … join us with the righteous people.

“Our Lord! Grant us what You promised unto us through Your Messengers,”

(… for our faith in Your Messengers, or, and this explanation is better; grant us what You promised us by the words of Your Messengers.

“and disgrace us not on the Day of Resurrection,”

(…  before all creation.

“for You never break (Your) Promise.”

(… for surely, the promise that You conveyed to Your Messengers, which includes us being resurrected before You, shall certainly come to pass.

It was the Prophet’s tradition to recite the ten Ayat at the end of Surah Al Imran when he woke up at night for (voluntary) prayer.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “I slept one night at the house of my aunt, Maymunah. The Messenger of Allah spoke with his wife for a while and then went to sleep. When it was the third part of the night, he stood up, looked at the sky and recited,

‘’Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding… (3:190)

The Prophet then stood up, performed ablution, used Siwak (to clean his teeth) and prayed eleven units of prayer.

When Bilal said the Adhan, the Prophet prayed two units of prayer, went out (to the Masjid) and led the people in the Dawn prayer.”

This was also collected by Muslim. Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Ata’ said,

“I, Ibn Umar and Ubayd bin Umayr went to Aishah and entered her room, and there was a screen between us and her.

She said, `O Ubayd! What prevents you from visiting us?’

He said, `What the poet said, `Visit every once in a while, and you will be loved more.’

Ibn Umar said, `Tell us about the most unusual thing you witnessed from the Messenger of Allah.’

She cried and said, `All his matters were amazing. On night, he came close to me until his skin touched my skin and said, `Let me worship my Lord.’

I said, `By Allah I love your being close to me. I also love that you worship your Lord.’

He used the water-skin and performed ablution, but did not use too much water. He then stood up in prayer and cried until his beard became wet.

He prostrated and cried until he made the ground wet. He then laid down on his side and cried.

When Bilal came to alert the Prophet for the Dawn prayer, he said, `O Messenger of Allah..! What makes you cry, while Allah has forgiven you your previous and latter sins?’

He said,

O Bilal! What prevents me from crying, when this night, this Ayah was revealed to me,

‘’Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding.’’

Woe to he who recites it but does not contemplate it.”

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3:195.| So their Lord accepted of them (their supplication and answered them), “Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female. You are (members) one of another, so those who emigrated and were driven out from their homes, and suffered harm in My cause, and who fought and were killed (in My cause), verily, I will expiate from them their evil deeds and admit them into Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise); a reward from Allah, and with Allah is the best of rewards.”

Allah Accepts the Supplication of Men of Understanding.

Allah said,

So their Lord accepted of them, answered their invocation.

Sa`id bin Mansur recorded that Salamah, a man from the family of Umm Salamah said, “Umm Salamah said, `O Messenger of Allah! Allah does not mention women in connection with Hijrah (Migration).’

Allah sent down the Ayah,

(So their Lord accepted of them (their supplication and answered them), “Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female).

The Ansar say that Umm Salamah was the first woman to migrate to them.”

Al-Hakim collected this Hadith in his Mustadrak, and said, “It is Sahih according to the criteria of Al-Bukhari but they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not collect it”.

Allah’s statement,

“Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female, explains the type of answer Allah gave them, stating that no deed of any person is ever lost with Him. Rather, He will completely reward each person for his or her good deeds.

Allah’s statement,

You are (members) one of another, means, you are all equal in relation to gaining My reward.

Therefore,

( … those who emigrated, by leaving the land of Shirk and migrating to the land of faith, leaving behind their loved ones, brethren, friends and neighbors.

(… and were driven out from their homes, when the Mushriks tormented them and forced them to migrate.

( … and suffered harm in My cause, for their only wrong, to the people, was that they believed in Allah Alone.

In similar Ayat, Allah said,

(… and have driven out the Messenger and yourselves because you believe in Allah your Lord! (60:1)

And they had no fault except that they believed in Allah, the Almighty, Worthy of all praise! (85:8)

Allah’s statement,

( … and who fought and were killed (in My cause), refers to the highest rank there is, that one fights in the cause of Allah and dies in the process, with his face covered in dust and blood.

It is recorded in the Sahih that a man said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! If I was killed in Allah’s cause, observing patience, awaiting Allah’s reward, attacking, not retreating, would Allah forgive my sins?’

The Prophet said, `Yes.’

The Prophet then asked the man, `What did you ask?’

When the man repeated the question, the Prophet said,

`Yes, except for the debt, for Jibril conveyed this to me right now’.

This is why Allah said here,

( … verily, I will expiate from them their evil deeds and admit them into Gardens under which rivers flow, within Paradise, where there are rivers of various drinks: milk, honey, wine and fresh water. There is what no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard and no heart has ever imagined (of delights in Paradise).

Allah’s statement,

( … a reward from Allah, testifies to His might, for the Mighty and Most Great only gives tremendous rewards.

Allah’s statement,

( … and with Allah is the best of rewards.” for those who perform good deeds.

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3:196.| Let not the free disposal (and affluence) of the disbelievers throughout the land deceive you.

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3:197.| A brief enjoyment; then their ultimate abode is Hell; and worst indeed is that place for rest.

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3:198.| But, for those who have Taqwa of their Lord, are Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise); therein are they to dwell, an entertainment from Allah; and that which is with Allah is the best for Al-Abrar (the most righteous).

Warning Against Being Deceived by This Life; the Rewards of the Righteous Believers.

Allah says;

”Let not the free disposal (and affluence) of the disbelievers throughout the land deceive you.”

Allah said, do not look at the disbelievers, who are enjoying various delights and joys. Soon, they will loose all this and be tied to their evil works, for verily, we are only giving them time, which deceives them. when all they have is,

A brief enjoyment; then their ultimate abode is Hell; and worst indeed is that place for rest.

This Ayah is similar to several other Ayat, such as,

‘’None disputes in the Ayat of Allah but those who disbelieve. So, let not their ability of going about here and there through the land deceive you..! (40:4)

‘’Verily, those who invent a lie against Allah, will never be successful. (A brief) enjoyment in this world! and then unto Us will be their return, then We shall make them taste the severest torment because they used to disbelieve.’’ (10:69-70)

We let them enjoy for a little while, then in the end We shall oblige them to (enter) a great torment. (31:24)

So, give a respite to the disbelievers; deal gently with them for a while. (86:17) and,

‘’Is he whom We have promised an excellent promise (Paradise) which he will find true – like him whom We have made to enjoy the luxuries of the life of (this) world, then on the Day of Resurrection, he will be among those brought up (to be punished in the Hell-fire).’’ (28:61)

After Allah mentioned the condition of the disbelievers in this life and their destination to the Fire, He said,

But, for those who have Taqwa of their Lord, are Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise); therein are they to dwell, an entertainment from Allah, for certainly,

(… and that which is with Allah is the best for Al-Abrar.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Ad-Darda’ used to say, “Death is better for every believer. Death is better for every disbeliever, and those who do not believe me should read Allah’s statements, (and that which is with Allah is the best for Al-Abrar), and, And let not the disbelievers think that Our postponing of their punishment is good for them.

We postpone the punishment only so that they may increase in sinfulness. And for them is a disgraceful torment. (3:178)”

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3:199.| And there are, certainly, among the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), those who believe in Allah and in that which has been revealed to you, and in that which has been revealed to them, humbling themselves before Allah. They do not sell the verses of Allah for a small price, for them is a reward with their Lord. Surely, Allah is swift in account.

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3:200.| O you who believe! Endure and be more patient, and Rabitu, and have Taqwa of Allah, so that you may be successful.

The Condition of Some of the People of the Scriptures and their Rewards.

Allah says;

And there are, certainly, among the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), those who believe in Allah and in that which has been revealed to you, and in that which has been revealed to them, humbling themselves before Allah.

Allah states that some of the People of the Book truly believe in Him and in what was sent down to Muhammad, along with believing in the previously revealed Books, and they are obedient to Him and humble themselves before Allah.

They do not sell the verses of Allah for a small price. for they do not hide what they know of the glad tidings about the description of Muhammad, his Prophethood, and the description of his Ummah. Indeed, these are the best people among the People of the Book, whether they were Jews or Christians.

Allah said in Surah Al-Qasas,

Those to whom We gave the Scripture before it, they believe in it (the Qur’an). And when it is recited to them, they say: “We believe in it.

‘’Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed even before it we were Muslims. These will be given their reward twice over, because they are patient.’’ [28:52-54]

Allah said,

‘’Those to whom We gave the Book, recite it (follow it) as it should be recited (i.e. followed), they are the ones who believe therein.’’ [2:121]

And of the people of Musa there is a community who lead with truth and establish justice therewith. (7:159)

‘’Not all of them are alike; a party of the people of the Scripture stand for the right, they recite the verses of Allah during the hours of the night, prostrating themselves in prayer.’’ (3:113) and,

‘’Say: “Believe in it (the Qur’an) or do not believe (in it). Verily, those who were given knowledge before it, when it is recited to them, fall down on their faces in humble prostration.” And they say: “Glory be to our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.” And they fall down on their faces weeping and it increases their humility.’’ [17:107-109]

These qualities exist in some of the Jews, but only a few of them. For instance, less than ten Jewish rabbis embraced the Islamic faith, such as Abdullah bin Salam.

Many among the Christians, on the other hand, embraced the Islamic faith.

Allah said,

 ‘’Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers the Jews and those who commit Shirk, and you will find the nearest in love to the believers those who say: “We are Christians.” (5:82) until,

‘’So because of what they said, Allah rewarded them Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), they will abide therein forever.’’ (5:85)

In this Ayah, Allah said,

(… for them is a reward with their Lord.

When Jafar bin Abi Talib recited Surah Maryam to An-Najashi, King of Ethiopia, in the presence of Christian priests and patriarchs, he and they cried until their beards became wet from crying.

The Two Sahihs record that; when An-Najashi died, the Prophet conveyed the news to his Companions and said, A brother of yours from Ethiopia has passed, come to offer the funeral prayer.

He went out with the Companions to the Musalla lined them up in rows, and after that led the prayer.

Ibn Abi Najih narrated that Mujahid said that,

(And there are, certainly, among the People of the Scripture), refers to those among them who embraced Islam.

Abbad bin Mansur said that; he asked Al-Hasan Al-Basri about Allah’s statement,

(And there are, certainly, among the People of the Scripture, those who believe in Allah).

Al-Hasan said,

“They are the People of the Book, before Muhammad was sent, who believed in Muhammad and recognized Islam. Allah gave them a double reward, for the faith that they had before Muhammad, and for believing in Muhammad (after he was sent as Prophet).”

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded both of these statements.

The Two Sahihs record that Abu Musa said that the Messenger of Allah said, Three persons will acquire a double reward.

He mentioned among them, A person from among the People of the Book who believed in his Prophet and in me.

Allah’s statement,

(They do not sell the verses of Allah for a small price), means, they do not hide the knowledge that they have, as the cursed ones among them have done.

Rather, they share the knowledge without a price, and this is why Allah said,

… for them is a reward with their Lord. surely, Allah is Swift in account.

Mujahid commented on the verse,

((Surely, Allah is) swift in account), “He is swift in reckoning,” as Ibn Abi Hatim and others have recorded from him.

The Command for Patience and Ribat

Allah said,

‘’O you who believe! Endure and be more patient, and Rabitu.’’

Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “The believers are commanded to be patient in the religion that Allah chose for them, Islam.

They are not allowed to abandon it in times of comfort or hardship, ease or calamity, until they die as Muslims.

They are also commanded to endure against their enemies, those who hid the truth about their religion.”

Similar explanation given by several other scholars among the Salaf.

As for Murabatah, it is to endure in acts of worship and perseverance.

It also means to await prayer after prayer, as Ibn Abbas, Sahl bin Hanif and Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi stated.

Ibn Abi Hatim collected a Hadith that was also collected by Muslim and An-Nasa’i from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

‘’Should I tell you about actions with which Allah forgives sins and raises the grade Performing perfect ablution in unfavorable conditions, the many steps one takes to the Masajid, and awaiting prayer after the prayer, for this is the Ribat, this is the Ribat, this is the Ribat.

They also say that; the Murabatah in the above Ayah refers to battles against the enemy, and manning Muslim outposts to protect them from enemy incursions inside Muslim territory.

There are several Hadiths that encourage Murabatah and mention its rewards.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d As-Sa`idi said that the Messenger of Allah said, A Day of Ribat in the cause of Allah is better than this life and all that is in it.

Muslim recorded that Salman Al-Farisi said that the Messenger of Allah said, ‘’Ribat for a day and a night is better than fasting the days of a month and its Qiyam (voluntary prayer at night). If one dies in Ribat, his regular righteous deeds that he used to perform will keep being added to his account, and he will receive his provision, and will be saved from the trials of the grave.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Fadalah bin Ubayd said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

Every dead person will have his record of deeds sealed, except for whoever dies while in Ribat in the cause of Allah, for his work will keep increasing until the Day of Resurrection, and he will be safe from the trial of the grave.

This is the same narration collected by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who said, “Hasan Sahih”.

Ibn Hibban also collected this Hadith in his Sahih.

At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn Abbas said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying, Two eyes shall not be touched by the Fire: an eye that cried for fear from Allah and an eye that spent the night guarding in Allah’s cause.

Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said, Let the servant of the Dinar, the servant of the Dirham and the servant of the Khamisah (of clothes) perish, as he is pleased if these things are given to him, and if not, he is displeased. Let such a person perish and be humiliated, and if he is pierced with a thorn, let him not find anyone to take it out for him.

Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse, striving in Allah’s cause, with his hair unkempt and feet covered with dust: if he is appointed to the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rearguard, he accepts his post with satisfaction; if he asks for permission he is not permitted, and if he intercedes, his intercession is not accepted.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Zayd bin Aslam said, “Abu Ubaydah wrote to Umar bin Al-Khattab and mentioned to him that the Romans were mobilizing their forces.

Umar wrote back, `Allah will soon turn whatever hardship a believing servant suffers, to ease, and no hardship shall ever overcome two types of ease. Allah says in His Book,

O you who believe! Endure and be more patient, and Rabitu, and have Taqwa of Allah, so that you may be successful.'”

Al-Hafiz Ibn Asakir mentioned in the biography of Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak, that Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Abi Sakinah said,

“While in the area of Tarsus, Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak dictated this poem to me when I was greeting him goodbye.

He sent the poem with me to Al-Fudayl bin Iyad in the year one hundred and seventy,

`O he who worships in the vicinity of the Two Holy Masjids!

If you but see us, you will realize that you are only jesting in worship.

He who brings wetness to his cheek with his tears, should know that our necks are being wet by our blood.

He who tires his horses without purpose, know that our horses are getting tired in battle.

Scent of perfume is yours, while our scent is the glimmer of spears and the stench of dust (in battle).

We were narrated about in the speech of our Prophet, an authentic statement that never lies.

That the dust that erupts by Allah’s horses and which fills the nostrils of a man shall never be combined with the smoke of a raging Fire.

This, the Book of Allah speaks among us that the martyr is not dead, and the truth in Allah’s Book cannot be denied.’

I met Al-Fudayl Ibn Iyad in the Sacred Masjid and gave him the letter.

When he read it, his eyes became tearful and he said, `Abu Abdur-Rahman (Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak) has said the truth and offered sincere 4advice to me.’

He then asked me, `Do you write the Hadith?’

I said, `Yes.’

He said, `Write this Hadith as reward for delivering the letter of Abu Abdur-Rahman to me.

He then dictated, `Mansur bin Al-Mu`tamir narrated to us that Abu Salih narrated from Abu Hurayrah that a man asked, `O Messenger of Allah! Teach me a good deed that will earn me the reward of the Mujahidin in Allah’s cause.’

The Prophet said,  ‘’Are you able to pray continuously and fast without breaking the fast.?

The man said, `O Messenger of Allah! I cannot bear it.’

The Prophet said, By He in Whose Hand is my soul! Even if you were able to do it, you will not achieve the grade of the Mujahidin in Allah’s cause. Did you not know that the horse of the Mujahid earns rewards for him as long as it lives.

Allah said next,

… and have Taqwa of Allah, concerning all your affairs and situations.

For instance, the Prophet said to Mu`adh when he sent him to Yemen, ­Have Taqwa of Allah wherever you may be, follow the evil deed with a good deed and it will erase it, and deal with people in a good manner.

Allah said next,

… so that you may be successful. in this life and the Hereafter.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi said that, Allah’s statement,

(and have Taqwa of Allah, so that you may be successful), means, “Fear Me concerning what is between you and Me, so that you may acquire success when you meet Me tomorrow.”

The Tafsir of Surah Al Imran ends here, all praise is due to Allah, and we ask Him that we die while on the path of the Qur’an and Sunnah, Amin.