How to Pray Salat Al-Qasr
Prayer in Journey | Salat Al-Qasr
رَبِّ اشْرَحْ لِي صَدْرِي ; وَيَسِّرْ لِي أَمْرِي ; وَاحْلُلْ عُقْدَةً مِنْ لِسَانِي ; يَفْقَهُوا قَوْلِي
In order that the readers may understand the subject clearly (Be-izn-Allah), let us cover this topic under different questions covering different aspects of the topic, and then we will go through the answers of the same to get the facts clarified, Insha’Allah.
Insha’Allah, we will cover the subject in two major parts: The first part deals with the essence of Salat Al-Qasr; whereas, in second part we shall understand the requirements/actions/other categorized things associated with Salat Al-Qasr. So, let us start.
Part | One
Q. 1. Why should we offer shortened prayers while in a journey?
Most of the people say that we should always offer shortened prayers during journey as it is a farz. The explanation in the support of this view is that it is an order from Allah in Qur’an. But limiting our understanding to this shall render our knowledge on this subject incomplete. Therefore, we need to study this subject from a deeper perspective. Let us refer to Qur’an and some ahadith on the subject to get the exact information about it.
“And when you (Muslims) travel in the land, there is no sin on you if you shorten As-Salat if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial; verily, the disbelievers are ever unto you open enemies.” (Aayah No. 101, Surah An-Nisa’, Chapter No. 4, Holy Qur’an).
The verse above does not highlight any order from Allah for shortening the prayer; instead, Allah says that there is no harm if you do it. So, what shall we do then? Following hadith will answer this:
Yǎla bin Umayyah said: I asked Umar bin Al-Khattab (RA), “Do you see that people are shortening the prayers? This, despite the fact that Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, said: ‘If you fear that those who disbelieve will put you in trial.’ And this fear has now gone in our days.” Umar Farooq (RA) replied, “I also wondered about what you are wondering, and I mentioned this to Allah’s Messenger (PBUH), and he said: (This is a) charity that Allah has given to you, so accept His charity.”
(Hadith No. 1199, Book of The Traveller’s Prayers, Sunan Abu Dawud, Vol. 2; Hadith No. 1573 (686), Book of The Traveller’s Prayers & Shortening Thereof, Sahih Muslim, Vol. 2).
Hence, it is not made obligatory by Allah in Qur’an; rather it is an allowance (as Allah’s Messenger, PBUH, said in hadith quoted above) from Allah, and refusing the charity or allowance from Allah will be an act of non-thankfulness on our part. So, let us put it like this: Offering the farz prayers, either in normal circumstances and/or during a journey, is a ‘Farz’; the act of shortening the farz prayers during the journey is a ‘Sunnah’. And that’s why we should offer shortened prayers during a journey.
Part | Two
Having understood, the concept of ‘Why’ to offer shortened prayers in journey, let us now move our attention to ‘How’ to offer prayers during a journey.
Q. 2.1. What is the length of journey that makes it permissible for one to offer shortened prayer?
The distance of any journey that makes shortened prayers permissible is 48 miles and above, as agreed by all scholars. If converted into kilometres, it works out to approximately 77 KMs. This is authenticated by following narration:
The Prophet (PBUH) called a journey of one day & one night as travelling. Ibn Umar (RA), Ibn Abbas (RA) used to shorten the Salat & stop fasting in a journey of four ‘Burud’ i.e. sixteen ‘Farsakh’ i.e. 48 miles (1 Farsakh equals 3 miles). (Chapter 4, Book of Abridged Prayers, Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2).
The view that a journey which comprises of one day and one night of travel is considered a journey for shortening of prayers gets slightly inapplicable for modern scenario. The fast modes of travelling nowadays have enabled us to cover thousands of miles in a very short duration (much earlier than completion of a day and a night).
Therefore, if we stick to the criterion of one day and one night of duration to consider it as a journey, then we might end up making the ruling of shortened prayers extinct. This is my personal understanding of the subject. May Allah forgive me and guide me to proper understanding if my understanding is not correct.
Therefore, as per the criterion of distance, which is a better way to judge the journey and is universally accepted by all scholars, whenever we travel for a distance of 48 miles (or 77 kilometres) and more, we offer shortened prayer.
And Allah knows best.
Q. 2.2. Up to how many days can we offer shortened prayers?
Let me briefly describe different views which we come across on this matter:
Imam Shafi and Imam Ahmad go with 4 day limit. Their view is based on report that Sa’eed bin Al-Musayyab said that ‘when he stays for four (days) he prays four (raka’at)’. Sa’eed bin Al-Musayyab was born in Madinah during the Caliphate of Umar bin Al-Khattab (RA) and is considered to be one of the foremost authorities in jurisprudence among the Taba’een.
Imam Al-Awzai goes with 12 day limit. His view is based on report from Ibn Umar (RA), from whom 12 days as well as 15 days, both have been reported in context of shortening of prayers.
People of Kufah followed the 15 day limit. Their view is also based on report from Ibn Umar (RA). But the strongest view is of Ibn Abbas (RA) because he narrated it directly from the Prophet (PBUH). The hadith is as follows:
Narrated Ibn Abbas (RA): The Prophet (PBUH) once travelled & stayed for nineteen (19) days and offered shortened prayers. So when we travelled for 19 days, we used to shorten the prayer, but if we travelled (& stayed) for a longer period, we used to offer the full prayer.
(Hadith No. 1080, Book of Abridged Prayers, Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2; Hadith No. 549, Chapters on Travelling, Jami’ At-Tirmidhi, Vol. 2).
So, the strongest view is: We can offer shortened prayers (Salat Al-Qasr) if we travel (& stay) up to nineteen (19) days; if the journey (& stay) is more than nineteen days, we should pray full prayers.
Q. 2.3. How many raka’at shall we pray in journey?
Narrated Ibn Umar (RA):
”I accompanied Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) & he never offered more than two raka’at prayer during a journey. Abu Bakr (RA), Umar (RA) & Uthman (RA) used to do the same.”
(Hadith No. 1102, Book of Abridged Prayers, Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2).
Therefore, it is clear that we have to offer only two raka’at in each prayer when in a journey. But here another question crops up: Is it ‘two raka’at’ even for Maghrib? Let us find out. Hadith mentioned above shows that Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) always used to offer two raka’at for each prayer during a journey. However, following hadith tells us something else:
“Ibn Umar (RA) used to offer the Maghrib & Isha prayers together in Al-Muzdalifa.” Saalim further said, “Ibn Umar (once) delayed the Maghrib prayer because at that time he heard the news of the death of his wife, Saffiya bint Abi Ubaid. I said to him, ‘As-Salat.’ He said, ‘Go on.’ Again I said, ‘As-Salat (is due).’ He said, ‘Go on,’ till we covered two or three miles. Then he got down, offered Salat and said, “I saw Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) offering Salat in this way, whenever he was in a hurry during the journey.”
Abdullah bin Umar (RA) added,
“Whenever Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) was in a hurry, he used to delay the Maghrib prayers and then offer three raka’at (of Maghrib) and perform Taslim, and after waiting for a short while, Iqamah used to be pronounced for the Isha prayer, when he would offer two raka’at & perform Taslim. He would never offer any optional Salat till the middle of the night (when he used to offer Tahajjud).”
(Hadith No. 1092, Book of Abridged Prayers, Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2).
Therefore, we come to know that the Prophet (PBUH) offered three raka’at for Maghrib prayer while in journey. As the Prophet (PBUH) had prayed three raka’at in Maghrib during travel, I personally am of the view that we should offer three raka’at in Maghrib. This is the most universally accepted view in context of number of raka’at to be offered in Maghrib prayer during a journey. This is way of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (PBUH); the Sunnah way.
Q. 2.4. Shall we offer Nawafil prayers during a journey?
This question is yet another point where we come across more than one view as an answer:
View 1: Voluntary/Nawafil prayers should not be offered during a journey.
”Narrated Hafs bin Asim: Ibn Umar (RA) went on a journey & said, “I accompanied the Prophet (PBUH) and he did not offer the Nawafil during the journey,”
and Allah says;
“Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad, PBUH) you have a good example to follow…”
(Hadith No. 1101, Book of Abridged Prayers, Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2).
The verse from Qur’an which Ibn Umar (RA) quoted in hadith above is Aayah No. 21, Surah Al-Ahzab (Chapter No. 33). The same hadith has been reported in a more detailed manner by Imam Abu Dawud; it is as follows:
Hafs bin Asim bin Umar bin Al-Khattab narrated:
”I accompanied Ibn Umar (RA) in one of his journeys. He led us in a two raka’at prayer, then turned around and saw people standing. He asked, “What are these people doing?” I said, “They are praying voluntary (nawafil) prayers.” He said, “If I were to pray the voluntary prayers, I would have completed my (obligatory) prayer!
O nephew, I accompanied Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) during his travels, and he never prayed more than two raka’at (while travelling) until Allah took his soul. And I accompanied Abu Bakr (RA) during his travels, and he never prayed more than two raka’at until Allah took his soul.
And I accompanied Umar (RA) during his travels, and he never prayed more than two raka’at until Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, took his soul. And I accompanied Uthman (RA) during his travels, and he never prayed more than two raka’at until Allah took his soul. And Allah has said: Indeed, you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent example.”
(Hadith No. 1223, Book of the Traveller’s Prayers, Sunan Abu Dawud, Vol. 2).
If we read these ahadith in conjunction with hadith mentioned in previous section (explaining joint Maghrib & Isha prayers by Allah’s Messenger, PBUH), we come to know that Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) did not offer nawafil prayers in a journey, except the night prayer (i.e. Tahajjud & Witr).
View 2: Voluntary/Nawafil prayers may/can be offered during a journey.
The second hadith (Hadith No. 1092, Book of Abridged Prayers, Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2) quoted in Q.2.3. above tells us that the Prophet (PBUH) would offer night prayer (i.e. Tahajjud & Witr) during his journey. However, there are some other narrations which tell us that other nawafil prayers were also being offered by the Prophet (PBUH) during a journey; refer to one such narration below:
Al-Bara bin Azib (RA) said:
”I accompanied Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) on eighteen journeys, and I did not see him leave the two raka’at when the sun waned before Zuhr.”
(Hadith No. 550, Chapters on Travelling, Jami’ At-Tirmidhi, Vol. 2).
View 3: Voluntary/Nawafil prayers must be offered in full during a journey.
As per my understanding of the subject, this view has no basis at all.
I personally go by the view of Ibn Umar (RA) i.e. we are not required/supposed to offer Nawafil prayers during a journey (when we are offering shortened prayers), except night prayer (i.e. Tahajjud & Witr).
However, if someone, based on the above mentioned narrations related to nawafil prayers during journey, offers other voluntary prayers also during a journey (i.e. follows View 2 discussed above), that too shall be OK, and should not be made a point of argument.
Q. 2.5. When the journey does starts and when does it ends?
It is well established by ahadith that the journey (in context of shortening of prayers) starts when a person starts from his/her place (i.e. the city in which he/she lives); and the journey ends when he / she reaches back his/her place (i.e. the city in which he/she lives); and, the permission to offer shortened prayer becomes valid only when we get out of the limits of our town/city/place. This is authenticated by following hadith:
It was reported from Muhammad bin Al-Munkadir and Ibrahim bin Maisarah, that they heard Anas bin Malik (RA) saying, “I prayed Zuhr with Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) four raka’at while in Al-Madinah, and then Asr as two raka’at at Dhul-Hulaifah.”
(Hadith No. 1202, Book of the Traveller’s Prayers, Sunan Abu Dawud, Vol. 2).
Therefore, a prayer shall be shortened only after a person has left his place for a journey and is beyond the limits of his/her city/town. If he travels even 100 kilometres or more within the city, the ruling of shortened prayers won’t apply.
I hope most of the doubts pertaining to rulings associated with shortening of prayers in a journey must get clarified once the reader is through this article thoroughly. May Allah enlighten us with the knowledge and help us to act accordingly!
And Allah knows best.
May Allah forgive me if I am wrong and guide us to the right path…Ameen.
.سُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُون ; وَسَلامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ ; وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
Shortening The Prayer During a Journey
We gratefully acknowledge and thank Islamic
Publications Ltd. for permission to print this
excerpt (Ch. 26) from Everyday Fiqh (vol. 1)
by Abdul Aziz Kamal
The Shari’ah has allowed the traveller to shorten his prayer while on journey, and to offer only two rak’ahs of Fard at a prayer time where one has normally to offer four rak’ahs.
The Qur’an says:
“When you go on a journey, there is no harm if you shorten Salat.” [Qur’an 4:101]
The holy Prophet has said: “This is a favour of Allah to you, so you should accept His favour gratefully.” (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi)
Shortening the Prayer
After a person has left his habitation with the intention of proceeding on journey, he should shorten his prayer, otherwise he would be committing a sin. (‘Ilm al-Fiqh, Vol. II, p. 130, Durr al-Mukhtar, etc.)
Hadrat Abdullah ibn Umar says: “I have travelled in company with the holy Prophet, Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, and have never seen them offering more than two rak’ahs of Fard during a journey.” (Bukhari, Muslim)
It should be borne in mind that shortening is allowed only in those prayers were one has normally to offer four rak’ahs of Fard namely Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers. In the Fajr and Maghrib prayers, no shortening is allowed, and one has to offer two and three rak’ahs of Fard respectively.
the Sunnat and Nafl Prayer
The Sunnat rak’ahs of the Fajr prayer should not be abandoned and as far as possible, one should also offer the Sunnat rak’ahs of Maghrib. But as for the Sunnat rak’ahs of the other prayers, one has complete option. One should offer only Fard rak’ahs, when one is actually travelling, but when one has halted at a place during the journey one may offer the Sunnat rak’ahs as well (Durr al-Mukhtar).
The Witr prayer, however, being Wajib must be offered in full. No shortening is allowed in the Sunnat or Nafl rak’ahs during the journey. If a person chooses to offer them, he has to offer them in full.
Mileage of the Journey
If a person sets out with the intention of visiting a place that is about 36 miles(1) away from his hometown, he will be considered to be on a journey. This distance can be covered in three days by a person who walks a normal gait and who travels from morning until the sun begins to decline. It does not matter whether a person covers this distance on foot in three days or reaches his destination by a faster mode of conveyance in a few hours, he might shorten his prayer during the journey.
When to Shorten the Prayer
After one has set out on journey, one should continue offering the prayer in full as long as one is inside the habitation. But as soon as one has crossed the outer-most limits of the habitation, one may begin shortening the prayer.
The Period of Qasr
The traveller is allowed to continue shortening the prayer until he returns home. However, if during the journey, he makes up his mind to halt at a place for 15 days or more, he will be regarded as being at home and will have to offer the full prayers no matter whether he has to cut short his stay later due to some reason.
On the other hand, if he has the intention of staying for less than 15 days at a place, he will shorten his prayers as if on a journey, and will continue doing so even if he has to prolong his stay for months and has to postpone his departure, due to unforeseen circumstances (provided that he intends to stay for less than 15 days each time).
1. If a traveller offers four rak’ahs of Fard by mistake, and has observed the first Qa’dah duly after two rak’ahs, he should perform sajdah sahv. In this case, two of the four rak’ahs will be regarded as Fard and the remaining two as Nafl and the prayer will be in order. However, if he has not observed the first Qa’dah, the four rak’ahs will be counted as Nafl, and he will have to offer the prayer afresh.
2. If a person has an itinerary of staying various numbers of days at different places, i.e. five days here and ten days there, but less than 15 days in each case, he will have to shorten his prayers throughout the journey.
3. If a married woman has started living permanently with her husband, her home will be the home of her husband. Now if she undertakes a journey to visit her parents, who live at least 36 miles away, she will have to shorten prayers at the parents’ home. However if she has gone to stay with her husband for a few days and she has the intention of living with her parents most of the time, her home will be the home of her parents.
4. If a woman is travelling with her husband, or a servant with his master, or a boy with his father, or a ward with his guardian, their intention will not be reliable. Even if the woman, or the servant, or the boy makes up his or her mind to stay at a place for more than 15 days, he or she will not be regarded as resident unless it is also the intention of the husband or the master himself.
5. The residence of the place can offer their prayer behind an Imam who is travelling. Such an Imam, however, has to announce after salutation at the completion of two Rak’ahs that he is a traveller so the resident followers may complete their prayer independently.
6. A traveller can offer his prayer behind a resident Imam, though in this case he has to observe the full prayer in obedience to the Imam and is not allowed to shorten it.
7. If a person has not yet made up his mind about the duration of his stay, or has the intention of staying for less than 15 days at a place, but then during the prayer he changes his mind to extend his stay to 15 days or more, he will have to offer the full prayer and will no longer be allowed shorten it.
8. The prayers missed during a journey will have to be shortened when offered later at home, and the prayers missed while at home will have to be offered in full when offered during a journey.
Combining Two Prayers
During a Journey
Combining two prayers during the Hajj and offering them together is in accordance with the Sunnah of the holy Prophet. The Zuhr and Asr prayers are combined on the 9th Zul-Hijjah at the plain of ‘Arafah, and offered at the Zuhr time with one Azan but two separate Iqamahs.(2)After sunset the pilgrims leave for Muzdalifah and combine the Maghrib and Isha prayers there. If a person offers his Maghrib prayer on the way to Muzdalifah, his prayer will not be valid and he will have to offer it afresh.
Combining two prayers together except during Hajj is not permissible, though one may combine them apparently by offering one prayer just after the other. One may, for instance, delay a prayer up to its last time limit and offer the other at the beginning of its time limit. In this way, the prayers would apparently seem to have been combined, but actually they are not combined but offered within their own prescribed time limits.(3)
1. According to Bahishti Zevar, the minimum distance before shortening the prayer is 48 miles.
2. A separate Iqamah for the Asr prayer is necessary so that people may know that the prayer is being offered before its prescribed time on the 9th Zul-Hijjah.
3.According to the Ahl al-Hadith, combining of two prayers together is permissible during every journey, not only apparently but actually as well. In other words, one may combine the prayers and offer them actually together at a prescribed time during the journey.
This may be done in two ways:
(a) The later prayer may be offered before it’s time along with and during the time limit of an earlier prayer. For instance, Asr prayer may be offered along with a Zuhr prayer in after the sun has declined. This is termed Jamm’i-Taqdim, i.e. combining the prayers at the time of the earlier prayer.
(b) The earlier prayer may be delayed and offered along with and during the time limit of the later prayer. For instance, the Zuhr prayer may be delayed and offered along with the Asr prayer after the sun has declined. This is termed Jamm’i-Takhir, i.e. combining the prayers at the time of the later prayer.
The Ahl al-Hadith practice all three ways. They combine two prayers apparently, combine them at a time of the earlier prayer and also at the time of the later prayer. They hold that the traveller is allowed to follow any of the alternatives according to his convenience, both during the journey and while staying at a place, for all three are supported by authentic traditions.
Hadrat ibn Abbas says, “The practice of the holy Prophet was that before starting on any journey, if he saw that the sun has declined, he would first offer the Zuhr and Asr prayers at the Zuhr time and then set out on the journey. On the other hand if he saw that the sun had not yet declined, he would set out on the journey and combine the Zuhr and Asr prayers on the way at the Asr time.
Similarly if he saw that the sun had set, he would combine the Maghrib and Isha at home and then start out on the journey. But if the sun had not yet set, he would set out and combine the Isha and Maghrib prayers on the way at the Isha time.” (Musnad Ahmad)
And Hadrat Mu’az bin Jabal has reported that during the Tabuk Campaign, if the holy Prophet resumed the journey before the sun had declined, he would combine the Zuhr and Asr prayers at the Asr time, but if the sun had declined, he would first offer the Zuhr and Asr prayers at the Zuhr time and then resume the journey.
Similarly if he resumed the journey before the setting of the sun, he would combine the Maghrib and Isha prayers at the Isha time, but if he started after sunset, he would combine the Maghrib and Isha prayers at the Maghrib time and then resume the journey.” (Tirmidhi)
Quastions & Answers
About The Prayer of Traveller
Islam the Glorious religion
Q 1: Who is traveller under Shari’ah?
A. A traveller, according to Shari’ah, is that person who leaves his normal place of residence,town for a distance of three days continuous journey. Continuous journey does not mean that he should keep travelling from dawn to dusk but it means to travel in the greater part of the day, for, he has to break the journey for prayer, food and other essential needs. To travel means travelling at a moderate speed, neither fast nor slow.
Q 2: Is “Kos” reliable for distance of journey?
A. “Kos” (an unstandardised distance measure ranging from 1 1/4 to three miles) is not reliable for journey as these are small at one place and large at the other. That’s why three “Manzil pl.Manaazil” (a day’s journey) are reliable. On land the distance of journey is about 57 1/2 miles Only that mode of journey will be countable by which one travels.
Q3: What does it mean to be out of town?
A. It means to go out of the popUlaated area of village or town or city as the case may be. A citizen should also go out of the adjoining populated areas of the city. The one who leaves his normal place of residence,town with the intention of three days continuous journey will be considered traveller even before reaching bus stand or railway station if they are situated out of the popUlaated area.
Q4: Which Islamic injunctions are changed for a traveller?
A. Prayer becomes “Qasr”(curtailment of prayer during journey), non-observance of fast becomes “Mubah” (permissible), duration of “Masah” on socks extends upto three days, prayers of “Jumu’ah and of both “Eids” and sacrifice (on Eidul Adah) are not obligatory on traveller.
Q 5: What is meant by “Qasr” in prayer?
A. “Qasr” means to offer only two of four Rakahs obligatory prayer. Only two Rakahs (of Fard prayer) are complete prayer for a traveller. It is very sinful for one to offer four Rakahs intentionally as it is deliberate omission of Waajib. He must repent for the sin.
Q 6: Is there “Qasr” in Sunnah or not?
A. Sunnat prayers can not be curtailed but must be offered in full. However, in case of any fear or hurry these can be dropped but have to be offered in peace.
Q 7: How long will a traveller remain traveller?
A. The traveller who has covered a distance of three days continuous journey will remain traveller unless he comes back to his normal place of residence, town or intends to stay there (the place he travelled to) for full fifteen days and in case he intends to go back home before covering the distance of three “Manaazil” then he is no longer traveller even if he be in forest.
Q 8: How many kinds of place of residence are there?
A. Place of residence is of two kinds i.e. original or permanent place of residence and temporary place of residence or place of stay. Original or permanent place of residence is that place where one was born or his family is permanently settled having no intention to leave the place and temporary place of residence or place of stay is that place where one (a traveller) intends to stay for fifteen or more days.
Q 9: Is “Qasr” essential for one who intends to stay at any place for less than fifteen days but extends his stay for more four or six days due to incompletion of work?
A. The one (traveller) who stays at any place for two or four days or for thirteen or fourteen days for any work or in wait of his companion(s) and his stay extends even for years in the hope that his work will be completed today or tomorrow, will offer “Qasr” prayer unless he intends to stay for full fifteen days at one time.
Q10: What about that traveller who offered full four Rakahs of obligatory prayer?
A. If a traveller offers full four Rakahs of obligatory prayer by mistake then he should observe Sajdatus Sahv in the end of the prayer. The prayer so offered will be treated as two “Fard” and two “Nafl” and if he offered four Rakahs intentionally with “Qa’adah” after two Rakahs, his obligatory prayer would be deemed to have been observed and later two Rakahs would be treated as Nafl but he is sinner. And in case of non-observance of Qa’adah after two Rakahs his “Fard” prayer would be deemed to have not been offered. This prayer will be treated “Nafl”. He ought to repeat the prayer to accomplish “Fard”.
Q11: Can a traveller offer his prayer behind a resident (Imaam) or not?
A. A traveller can offer prayer under the leadership of a resident in normal (the first) congregation of the time but not after the time is over i.e. in second congregation, if arranged,held. hi normal congregation he will offer full four Rakahs behind the resident. However, a traveller can offer all those prayers under the leadership of a resident which are not curtailed i.e. are not “Qasr” within and without the time.
Q12: Can a resident offer prayer behind a traveller?
A. A resident can offer prayer under the leadership of a traveller irrespective of the time and “Qada” prayer and should complete his remaining two Rakahs after the Imaam has said “Salaam”. He should not do “Qiraa-at” in these Rakahs but instead should stand silent for such a time during which Surah Faateha is recited.
The Imaam should announce either at the outset or after finishing his prayer that he is a traveller so that Muqtadis may become aware of his being traveller and complete their prayer accordingly.
Q13: Can a traveller offer prayer in a train in motion or not?
A. “Fard”, “Waajib” and Sunnat of Fajr can not be offered in a train in motion, as facing the Qiblah and place (on which prayer is offered) must also be one are the prerequisites of obligatory prayers. These two conditions are not possible to be met in a train in motion. However, Nafl and other prayers can be offered.
Traveller should perform ablution in advance and offer these prayers as soon as the train stops at any station and in case he apprehends that the stipulated time of prayer will run out then he should offer prayer in train anyhow and repeat it later at the first available time, for, repetition of the prayer in which any “Rukn” or precondition is left out is must.
The same rule also applies to plane. It is wrong to consider train like plane and boat to this effect because boat will not stand on or touch the earth even though stopped on the water whereas the train will. Prayer in boat will be in order only when it is in the deep of river and if it is ashore and traveller can go to the land then prayer will not be in order in boat.
Source: Islamic Academy.org