Surah ‘An-Nisaa 
سورة النساء

Tafsir : Al-Quranul Kareem
Surah ‘An-Nisaa | The Women
Chapter 4: Part Two
Revealed in: Madinah

Part One | Part Two | Part Three | Part Four

Decorative Lines

Tafsir Surat an-Nisaa
القرآن الكريم – تفسير سورة النساء

Part | Two

{4:47} يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ آمِنُوا بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّطْمِسَ وُجُوهًا فَنَرُدَّهَا عَلَىٰ أَدْبَارِهَا أَوْ نَلْعَنَهُمْ كَمَا لَعَنَّا أَصْحَابَ السَّبْتِ ۚ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللهِ مَفْعُولًا

4:47.| O you who have been given the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Believe in what We have revealed confirming what is with you, before We efface faces and turn them backwards or curse them as We cursed the people of the Sabbath. And the commandment of Allah is always executed.

{4:48}  إِنَّ اللهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَىٰ إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا

4:48.| Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that to whom He wills; and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin.

Calling the People of the Book to Embrace the Faith, Warning them Against Doing Otherwise

Allah says;

”O you who have been given the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Believe in what We have revealed confirming what is with you,”

Allah commands the People of the Scriptures to believe in what He has sent down to His servant and Messenger, Muhammad, the Glorious Book that conforms to the good news that they already have about Muhammad.

He also warns them, before We efface faces and turn them backwards Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas said that; `effacing’ here refers to blindness.

(and turn them backwards),

meaning, We put their faces on their backs, and make them walk backwards, since their eyes will be in their backs.

Similar was said by Qatadah and Atiyah Al-Awfi.

This makes the punishment even more severe, and it is a parable that Allah set for ignoring the truth, preferring the wrong way and turning away from the plain path for the paths of misguidance. Therefore, such people walk backwards.

Similarly, some said that Allah’s statement,

”Verily, We have put on their necks iron collars reaching to the chins, so that their heads are raised up. And We have put a barrier before them.” (36:8-9)

… that is a parable that Allah gave for their deviation and hindrance from guidance.

Ka`b Al-Ahbar Embraces Islam Upon Hearing this Ayah (4:47)

Ibn Jarir recorded that; Isa bin Al-Mughirah said: We were with Ibrahim when we talked about the time when Ka`b became Muslim.

He said, `Ka`b became Muslim during the reign of Umar, for he passed by Al-Madinah intending to visit Jerusalem, and Umar said to him, “Embrace Islam, O Ka`b.’

Ka`b said, `Do you not read in your Book,

(The likeness of those who were entrusted with the Tawrah, but did not carry it, is as the likeness of a donkey which carries huge burdens of books). I am among those who were entrusted with the Tawrah.’

Umar left him alone and Ka`b went on to Hims (in Syria) and heard one of its inhabitants recite this Ayah while feeling sad,

”O you who have been given the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Believe in what We have revealed confirming what is with you, before We efface faces and turn them backwards.”

Ka`b said, `I believe, O Lord! I embraced Islam, O Lord!’ for He feared that this might be struck by this threat. He then went back to his family in Yemen and returned with them all as Muslims.”

Allah’s statement,

”… or curse them as We cursed the people of the Sabbath.”

Refers to those who breached the sanctity of the Sabbath, using deceit, for the purpose of doing more work. Allah changed these people into apes and swine, as we will come to know in the explanation of Surah Al-A`raf.

Allah’s statement,

”And the commandment of Allah is always executed.”

… means, when He commands something, then no one can dispute or resist His command.

”Allah Does not Forgive Shirk, Except After Repenting From it.”

Allah said that He,

”Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship),”

… meaning, He does not forgive a servant if he meets Him while he is associating partners with Him.

… but He forgives except that (of sins),

… to whom He wills, of His servants.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

Allah said,

“O My servant! As long as you worship and beg Me, I will forgive you, no matter your shortcomings.”

”O My servant! If you meet Me with the earth’s fill of sin, yet you do not associate any partners with Me, I will meet you with its fill of forgiveness.”

Only Ahmad recorded this Hadith with this chain of narration.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said, “I came to the Messenger of Allah and he said,

“No servant proclaims,`There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah,’ and dies on that belief, but will enter Paradise.”

I said, “Even if he committed adultery and theft!”

He said, “Even if he committed adultery and theft.”

I asked again, “Even if he committed adultery and theft!”

He said, “Even if he committed adultery and theft.”

The fourth time, he said,

“Even if Abu Dharr’s nose was put in the dust.”

Abu Dharr departed while pulling his Izar and saying, “Even if Abu Dharr’s nose was put in the dust.”

Ever since that happened, Abu Dharr used to narrate the Hadith and then comment, “Even if Abu Dharr’s nose was put in dust.”

The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith.

Al-Bazzar recorded that Ibn Umar said, “We used to refrain from begging (Allah) for forgiveness for those who commit major sins until we heard our Prophet reciting,

‘’Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills;’’ and his saying,

I have reserved my intercession on the Day of Resurrection for those among my Ummah who commit major sins.”

Allah’s statement,

”… and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin.”

… is similar to His statement,

’Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed.’’ (31:13)

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said,

“I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Which is the greatest sin?’

He said, To make a rival with Allah, while He Alone created you.”

{4:49} أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنفُسَهُم ۚ بَلِ اللهُ يُزَكِّي مَن يَشَاءُ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا

4:49.| Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves! Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills, and they will not be dealt with injustice even equal to the extent of a Fatil.

{4:50}  انظُرْ كَيْفَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللهِ الْكَذِبَ ۖ وَكَفَىٰ بِهِ إِثْمًا مُّبِينًا

4:50.| Look, how they invent a lie against Allah, and enough is that as a manifest sin.

{4:51}  أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا هَٰؤُلَاءِ أَهْدَىٰ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا سَبِيلًا

4:51.| Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture They believe in Jibt and Taghut and say to those who disbelieve, “These people are better guided on the way, ” than the believers.

{4:52}  أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللهُ ۖ وَمَن يَلْعَنِ اللهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ نَصِيرًا

4:52.| They are those whom Allah has cursed, and he whom Allah curses, you will not find for him (any) helper.

Chastising and Cursing the Jews for Claiming Purity for Themselves and Believing in Jibt and Taghut

Allah said; Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves!

Al-Hasan and Qatadah said,

“This Ayah, was revealed about the Jews and Christians when they said, `We are Allah’s children and His loved ones.”’

Ibn Zayd also said, “This Ayah was revealed concerning their statement,

‘’We are the children of Allah and His loved ones.’’ (5:18)

…. and their statement,

‘’shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian).” (2:111)

This is why Allah said,

”…  Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills,”

… meaning, the decision in this matter is with Allah Alone, because He has perfect knowledge of the true reality and secrets of all things.

Allah then said,

”And they will not be dealt with injustice even equal to the extent of a Fatil,”

… meaning, He does no injustice with anyone’s compensation in any part of his reward, even if it was the weight of a Fatil.

Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Ata, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others among the Salaf said that; Fatil means, “The scalish thread in the long slit of the date-stone.”

Allah said,

”Look, how they invent a lie against Allah, claiming purity for themselves, their claim that they are Allah’s children and His loved ones, their statement.”

(None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian) (2:111), their statement;

(The Fire shall not touch us but for a number of days) (3:24) and their reliance on the righteous deeds of their forefathers.

Allah has decreed that the good actions of the fathers do not help the children, when He said,

‘’That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn.’’ (2:134)

Allah then said,

”… and enough is that as a manifest sin.”

… meaning, these lies and fabrications of theirs are sufficient.

Allah’s statement,

”Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture! They believe in Jibt and Taghut.”

Muhammad bin Ishaq said from Hassan bin Fa’id that Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “Jibt is sorcery and Taghut is the Shaytan.”

Abu Nasr Ismail bin Hammad Al-Jawhari, the renowned scholar, said in his book As-Sihah, “Al-Jibt means idol, soothsayer and sorcerer.”

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that; Jabir bin Abdullah was asked about Taghut, and he said, “They are soothsayers upon whom the devils descend.”

Mujahid said “Taghut is a devil in the shape of man, and they refer to him for judgment.”

Imam Malik said, “Taghut is every object that is worshipped instead of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.”

Disbelievers Are not Better Guided Than Believers

Allah said,

”… and say to those who disbelieve,”

“These people are better guided on the way,” than the believers. preferring the disbelievers over Muslims, because of their ignorance, un-religious nature and disbelief in Allah’s Book which is before them.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ikrimah said, “Huyay bin Akhtab and Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf (two Jewish leaders) came to the people of Makkah, who said to them, `You (Jews) are people of the Book and knowledge, so judge us and Muhammad.’

They said, `Describe yourselves and describe Muhammad.’

They said, `We keep relation with kith and kin, slaughter camels (for the poor), release the indebted and provide water for the pilgrims.

As for Muhammad he is without male children, he severed our relations, and the thieves who rob pilgrims (the tribe of) Ghifar follow him. So who is better, we or him?’

They said, `You are more righteous and better guided.’

Thereafter, Allah sent down, (Have you not seen those who were given a portion).”

This story was also reported from Ibn Abbas and several others among the Salaf.

Allah’s Curse on the Jews

Allah said,

”They are those whom Allah has cursed, and he whom Allah curses, you will not find for him (any) helper.”

This Ayah (4:52) contains a curse for the Jews and informs them that they have no supporter in this life or the Hereafter, because they sought the help of the idolators.

They uttered this statement (in Ayah 4:51) to lure the disbelievers into supporting them, and they ultimately gathered their forces for the battle of Al-Ahzab, forcing the Prophet and his Companions to dig a defensive tunnel around Al-Madinah. But, Allah saved the Muslims from their evil,

And Allah drove back those who disbelieved in their rage, they gained no advantage (booty).

”Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting. And Allah is Ever All-Strong, All-Mighty.” (33:25)

{4:53}  أَمْ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُلْكِ فَإِذًا لَّا يُؤْتُونَ النَّاسَ نَقِيرًا

4:53.| Or have they a share in the dominion! Then in that case they would not give mankind even a Naqir.

{4:54}  أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلَىٰ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۖ فَقَدْ آتَيْنَا آلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْنَاهُم مُّلْكًا عَظِيمًا

4:54.| Or do they envy men for what Allah has given them of His bounty! Then, We have already given the family of Ibrahim the Book and Al-Hikmah, and conferred upon them a great kingdom.

{4:55}  فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن صَدَّ عَنْهُ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيرًا

4:55.| Of them were (some) who believed in it, and of them were (some) who rejected it; and enough is Hell for burning (them).

The Envy and Miserly Conduct of the Jews

Allah says;

”Or have they a share in the dominion!”

Allah asked the Jews if they have a share in the dominion. That is merely a statement of rebuke, since they do not have any share in the dominion.

Allah then described them as misers,

Then in that case they would not give mankind even a Naqir.

Meaning, if they had a share in the sovereignty and dominion, they would not give anyone anything, especially Muhammad, even if it was the speck on the back of a date-stone, which is the meaning of Naqir according to Ibn Abbas and the majority of the scholars.

This Ayah is similar to another of Allah’s statements,

‘’Say: “If you possessed the treasure of the mercy of my Lord, then you would surely withhold it out of fear of spending it.’’ (17:100)

meaning, for fear that what you have might end, although there is no such possibility here. This only demonstrates their greedy and stingy nature.

This is why Allah said,

”And man is ever Qatur.” (17:100)

… meaning Bakhil (stingy).

Allah then said,

”Or do they envy men for what Allah has given them of His Bounty!”

… referring to their envy of the Prophet for the great Prophethood that Allah entrusted him with. Their envy made them reject him, because he was an Arab and not from the Children of Israel.

At-Tabarani recorded that Ibn Abbas said that,  (Or do they envy men) means,

“We are the worthy people, rather than the rest of the people.”

Allah said,

‘’Then, We have already given the family of Ibrahim the Book and Al-Hikmah, and conferred upon them a great kingdom.’’

… meaning, We gave the Prophethood to the tribes of the Children of Israel, who are among the offspring of Ibrahim and sent down the Books to them. These Prophets ruled the Jews with the prophetic tradition, and We made kings among them.

Yet, … Of them were (some) who believed in it; referring to Allah’s favor and bounty (Prophets, Books, kingship).

… and of them were (some) who rejected it, by disbelieving in it, ignoring it, and hindering the people from its path, although this bounty was from and for them, the Children of Israel. They disputed with their own Prophets; so what about you, O Muhammad, especially since you are not from the Children of Israel.

Mujahid said, (Of them were (some) who believed in (him), “Muhammad,  (and of them were (some) who rejected (him)).”

Therefore, O Muhammad, the rejection of you because of their disbelief is even more severe and they are even further from the truth that you brought them.

This is why Allah threatened them,

… and enough is Hell for burning (them). meaning, the Fire is a just punishment for them because of their disbelief, rebellion and defiance of Allah’s Books and Messengers.

{4:56}  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ ۗ إِنَّ اللهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

4:56.| Surely, those who disbelieved in Our Ayat, We shall burn them in Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment. Truly, Allah is Ever Most Powerful, All-Wise.

{4:57}  وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۖ لَّهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ ۖ وَنُدْخِلُهُمْ ظِلًّا ظَلِيلًا

4:57.| But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, We shall admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), abiding therein forever. Therein they shall have Azwajun Mutahharatun (purified mates), and We shall admit them to shades, wide and ever deepening.

The Punishment of Those Who Disbelieve in Allah’s Books and Messengers

Allah describes the torment in the Fire of Jahannam for those who disbelieve in His Ayat and hinder from the path of His Messengers.

Allah said,

”Surely, those who disbelieved in Our Ayat, We shall burn them in Fire,”

.. meaning, We will place them in the Fire which will encompass every part of their bodies.

Allah then states that their punishment and torment are everlasting,

”As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment.”

Al-Amash said that Ibn Umar said;

“When their skin are burned, they will be given another skin in replacement, and this skin will be as white as paper.”

This was collected by Ibn Abi Hatim, who also recorded that Al-Hasan said,

(O (As often as their skins are roasted through),

“Their skin will be roasted through, seventy thousand times every day.”

Husayn said; Fudayl added that Hisham said that Al-Hasan also said that, (As often as their skins are roasted through), means,

“Whenever the Fire has roasted them through and consumed their flesh, they will be told, `Go back as you were before,’ and they will.”

Truly, Allah is Ever Most Powerful, All-Wise The Wealth of the Righteous; Paradise and its Joy

Allah said,

”But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, We shall admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), abiding therein forever.”

… describing the destination of the happy ones in the gardens of Eden, beneath which rivers flow in all of its areas, spaces and corners, wherever they desire and wish. They will reside in it for eternity, and they will not be transferred or removed from it, nor would they want to move from it.

Allah said,

”Therein they shall have Azwajun Mutahharatun (purified mates), free of menstruation, postnatal bleeding, filth, bad manners and shortcomings.”

Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah means,

“They are purified of filth and foul things.”

Similar was said by Ata, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak,

An-Nakhai, Abu Salih, Atiyah, and As-Suddi.

Mujahid said that; “they are, free of urine, menstruation, spit, mucous and pregnancies.”

Allah’s statement,

‘’And We shall admit them to shades, wide and ever deepening (Paradise).’’

… means, wide, extensive, pure and elegant shade.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

There is a tree in Paradise, that if a rider travels under its shade for a hundred years, he will not cross it. It is the Tree of Everlasting Life.

{4:58} إِنَّ اللهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤَدُّوا الْأَمَانَاتِ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ أَن تَحْكُمُوا بِالْعَدْلِ ۚ إِنَّ اللهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُم بِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللهَ كَانَ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا

4:58.| Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due; and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice. Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you! Truly, Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.

The Command to Return the Trusts to Whomever They Are Due

Allah says;

‘’Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due.’’

Allah commands that the trusts be returned to their rightful owners.

Al-Hasan narrated that Samurah said that the Messenger of Allah said, Return the trust to those who entrusted you, and do not betray those who betrayed you.

Imam Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan recorded this Hadith.

This command refers to all things that one is expected to look after, such as Allah’s rights on His servants:

  • praying,
  • Zakah,
  • fasting,
  • penalties for sins,
  • vows and so forth.

The command also includes

  • the rights of the servants on each other, such as what they entrust each other with, including the cases that are not recorded or documented.

Allah commands that all types of trusts be fulfilled.

Those who do not implement this command in this life, it will be extracted from them on the Day of Resurrection.

It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,

The rights will be rendered back to those to whom they are due, and even the sheep that does not have horns will take revenge from the horned sheep.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Jurayj said about this Ayah,

“It was revealed concerning Uthman bin Talhah from whom the Messenger of Allah took the key of the Ka`bah and entered it on the Day of the victory of Makkah. When the Prophet went out, he was reciting this Ayah, (Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due).

He then called Uthman and gave the key back to him.”

Ibn Jarir also narrated that Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “When the Messenger of Allah went out of the Ka`bah, he was reciting this Ayah,

(Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due).

May I sacrifice my father and mother for him, I never heard him recite this Ayah before that.”

It is popular that this is the reason behind revealing the Ayah (4:58). Yet, the application of the Ayah is general, and this is why Ibn Abbas and Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyyah said,

“This Ayah is for the righteous and wicked,”

… meaning it is a command that encompasses everyone.

The Order to Be Just

Allah said,

”…and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice.”

… commanding justice when judging between people.

Muhammad bin Ka`b, Zayd bin Aslam and Shahr bin Hawshab said;

“This Ayah was revealed about those in authority”,

meaning those who judge between people.

A Hadith states,

Allah is with the judge as long as he does not commit injustice, for when he does, Allah will make him reliant on himself.

A statement goes, “One day of justice equals forty years of worship.”

Allah said,

’Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you!’’

… meaning, His commands to return the trusts to their owners, to judge between people with justice, and all of His complete, perfect and great commandments and laws.

Allah’s statement,

‘’Truly, Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.’’

… means, He hears your statements and knows your actions.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ
{4:59}  إِلَى اللهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ  تَأْوِيلًا

4:59.| O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those of you who are in authority. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination.

The Necessity of Obeying the Rulers in Obedience to Allah

Allah says;

’Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those of you who are in authority.’’

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said that; the Ayah, “Was revealed about Abdullah bin Hudhafah bin Qays bin Adi, who the Messenger of Allah sent on a military expedition.”

This statement was collected by the Group, with the exception of Ibn Majah. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan, Gharib”.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ali said, “The Messenger of Allah sent a troop under the command of a man from Al-Ansar. When they left, he became angry with them for some reason and said to them, `Has not the Messenger of Allah commanded you to obey me?’

They said, `Yes.’

He said, `Collect some wood,’ and then he started a fire with the wood, saying, `I command you to enter the fire.’

The people almost entered the fire, but a young man among them said, `You only ran away from the Fire to Allah’s Messenger.

Therefore, do not rush until you go back to Allah’s Messenger, and if he commands you to enter it, then enter it.’ When they went back to Allah’s Messenger, they told him what had happened, and the Messenger said,

‘’Had you entered it, you would never have departed from it. Obedience is only in righteousness.”

This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs.

Abu Dawud recorded that Abdullah bin Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

The Muslim is required to hear and obey in that which he likes and dislikes, unless he was commanded to sin. When he is commanded with sin, then there is no hearing or obeying.

This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs.

Ubadah bin As-Samit said, “We gave our pledge to Allah’s Messenger to hear and obey (our leaders), while active and otherwise, in times of ease and times of difficulty, even if we were deprived of our due shares, and to not dispute this matter (leadership) with its rightful people.

The Prophet said, ‘’Except when you witness clear Kufr about which you have clear proof from Allah.”

This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs.

Another Hadith narrated by Anas states that the Messenger of Allah said, Hear and obey (your leaders), even if an Ethiopian slave whose head is like a raisin, is made your chief.

Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith.

Umm Al-Husayn said that she heard the Messenger of Allah giving a speech during the Farewell Hajj, in which he said; Even if a slave was appointed over you, and he rules you with Allah’s Book, then listen to him and obey him.

Muslim recorded this Hadith.

In another narration with Muslim, the Prophet said, Even if an Ethiopian slave, whose nose was mutilated…

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said, Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah, and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah. Whoever obeys my commander, obeys me, and whoever disobeys my commander, disobeys me.

This is why Allah said,

Obey Allah, adhere to His Book. and obey the Messenger, adhere to his Sunnah.

And those of you who are in authority.

… in the obedience to Allah which they command you, not what constitutes disobedience of Allah, for there is no obedience to anyone in disobedience to Allah, as we mentioned in the authentic Hadith, Obedience is only in righteousness.

The Necessity of Referring to the Qur’an and Sunnah for Judgment

Allah said,

”(And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger.”

Mujahid and several others among the Salaf said that the Ayah means,

“(Refer) to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger.”

This is a command from Allah that whatever areas the people dispute about, whether major or minor areas of the religion, they are required to refer to the Qur’an and Sunnah for judgment concerning these disputes. In another Ayah, Allah said,

‘’And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah.’’ (42:10)

Therefore, whatever the Book and Sunnah decide and testify to the truth of, then it, is the plain truth. What is beyond truth, save falsehood.

This is why Allah said; ‘’if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day.’’

… meaning, refer the disputes and conflicts that arise between you to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger for judgment.

Allah’s statement,

”… if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day), indicates that those who do not refer to the Book and Sunnah for judgment in their disputes, are not believers in Allah or the Last Day.”

Allah said; ‘’That is better,’’

… meaning, referring to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger for judgment in various disputes is better.

… and more suitable for final determination.

As-Suddi and several others have stated,

… meaning, “Has a better end and destination.”

Mujahid said, “Carries a better reward.”

{4:60}  أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَن يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ وَيُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

4:60.| Have you not seen those (hypocrites) who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you, and they wish to go for judgment (in their disputes) to the Taghut while they have been ordered to reject them. But Shaytan wishes to lead them far astray.

{4:61}  وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَإِلَى الرَّسُولِ رَأَيْتَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنكَ صُدُودًا

4:61.| And when it is said to them: “Come to what Allah has sent down and to the Messenger,” you see the hypocrites turn away from you with aversion.

{4:62}  فَكَيْفَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ جَاءُوكَ يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا إِحْسَانًا وَتَوْفِيقًا

4:62.| How then, when a catastrophe befalls them because of what their hands have sent forth, they come to you swearing by Allah, “We meant no more than goodwill and conciliation!”

{4:63}  أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُ اللهُ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَعِظْهُمْ وَقُل لَّهُمْ فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَوْلًا بَلِيغًا

4:63.| They (hypocrites) are those of whom Allah knows what is in their hearts; so turn aside from them (do not punish them) but admonish them, and speak to them an effective word to reach their inner selves.

Referring to Other than the Qur’an and Sunnah for Judgment is Characteristic of Non-Muslims

Allah said”

”Have you not seen those (hypocrites) who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you, and they wish to go for judgment (in their disputes) to the Taghut while they have been ordered to reject them. But Shaytan wishes to lead them far astray.”

Allah chastises those who claim to believe in what Allah has sent down to His Messenger and to the earlier Prophets, yet they refer to other than the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger for judgment in various disputes.

It was reported that the reason behind revealing this

Ayah was that; a man from the Ansar and a Jew had a dispute, and the Jew said, “Let us refer to Muhammad to judge between us.”

However, the Muslim man said, “Let us refer to Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf (a Jew) to judge between us.”

It was also reported that; The Ayah was revealed about some hypocrites who pretended to be Muslims, yet they sought to refer to the judgment of Jahiliyyah.

Other reasons were also reported behind the revelation of the Ayah.

However, the Ayah has a general meaning, as it chastises all those who refrain from referring to the Qur’an and Sunnah for judgment and prefer the judgment of whatever they chose of falsehood, which befits the description of Taghut here.

This is why Allah said,

‘’…and they wish to go for judgment to the Taghut) until the end of the Ayah.’’

Allah’s statement,

‘’And when it is said to them: “Come to what Allah has sent down and to the Messenger,” you see the hypocrites turn away from you with aversion.’’

(turn away from you with aversion) means, they turn away from you in arrogance, just as Allah described the polytheists, When it is said to them:

“Follow what Allah has sent down.” They say: “Nay! We shall follow what we found our fathers following.” (31:21)

This is different from the conduct of the faithful believers, whom Allah describes as,

The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them, is that they say:

We hear and we obey.” (24:51)

Chastising the Hypocrites Chastising the hypocrites,

Allah said,

”How then, when a catastrophe befalls them because of what their hands have sent forth,”

… meaning, how about it if they feel compelled to join you because of disasters that they suffer due to their sins, then they will be in need of you.

They come to you swearing by Allah,

“We meant no more than goodwill and conciliation!”

… apologizing and swearing that they only sought goodwill and reconciliation when they referred to other than the Prophet for judgment, not that they believe in such alternative judgment, as they claim.

Allah describes these people to us further in His statement,

‘’And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease, they hurry to their friendship, saying: “We fear lest some misfortune of a disaster may befall us.” Perhaps Allah may bring a victory or a decision according to His will. Then they will become regretful for what they have been keeping as a secret in themselves.’’ (5:52)

At-Tabarani recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

“Abu Barzah Al-Aslami used to be a soothsayer who judged between the Jews in their disputes.

When some Muslims came to him to judge between them,

Allah sent down,

”Have you not seen those (hypocrites) who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you,” (4:60) until,

We meant no more than goodwill and conciliation!.” (4:62)

Allah then said,

”They (hypocrites) are those of whom Allah knows what is in their hearts,”

These people are hypocrites, and Allah knows what is in their hearts and will punish them accordingly, for nothing escapes Allah’s watch.

Consequently, O Muhammad! Let Allah be sufficient for you in this regard, because He has perfect knowledge of their apparent and hidden affairs.

This is why Allah said,

‘’so turn aside from them (do not punish them), meaning, do not punish them because of what is in their hearts. but admonish them, means, advise them against the hypocrisy and evil that reside in their hearts.”

… and speak to them an effective word to reach their inner selves. advise them, between you and them, using effective words that might benefit them.

{4:64}  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذ ظَّلَمُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ جَاءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا اللهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا اللهَ تَوَّابًا رَّحِيمًا

4:64.| We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by Allah’s leave. If they, when they were unjust to themselves, had come to you and begged Allah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had begged forgiveness for them, indeed, they would have found Allah All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

{4:65}  فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

4:65.| But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.

The Necessity of Obeying the Messenger

Allah said,

”We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed,”

… meaning, obeying the Prophet was ordained for those to whom Allah sends the Prophet.

Allah’s statement; ‘’by Allah’s leave,’’

According to Mujahid, means,

“None shall obey, except by My leave,”

This Ayah indicates that the Prophets are only obeyed by whomever Allah directs to obedience.

In another Ayah, Allah said,

‘’And Allah did indeed fulfill His promise to you when you were killing them (your enemy) with His permission.’’ (3:152)

… meaning, by His command, decree, will and because He granted you superiority over them.

Allah’s statement,

”If they (hypocrites), when they had been unjust to themselves, had come to you and begged Allah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had begged forgiveness for them, directs the sinners and evildoers, when they commit errors and mistakes, to come to the Messenger, so that they ask Allah for forgiveness in his presence and ask him to supplicate to Allah to forgive them. If they do this, Allah will forgive them and award them His mercy and pardon.”

This is why Allah said,

‘’…indeed, they would have found Allah All-Forgiving (One Who forgives and accepts repentance), Most Merciful.’’

One Does not Become a Believer Unless He Refers to the Messenger for Judgment and Submits to his Decisions

Allah said,

‘’But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them,’’

Allah swears by His Glorious, Most Honorable Self, that no one shall attain faith until he refers to the Messenger for judgment in all matters.

Thereafter, whatever the Messenger commands, is the plain truth that must be submitted to inwardly and outwardly.

Allah said,

‘’… and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.’’

… meaning: they adhere to your judgment, and thus do not feel any hesitation over your decision, and they submit to it inwardly and outwardly.

They submit to the Prophet’s decision with total submission without any rejection, denial or dispute.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Urwah said, “Az-Zubayr quarreled with a man about a stream which both of them used for irrigation. Allah’s Messenger said to Az-Zubayr, O Zubayr! Irrigate (your garden) first, and then let the water flow to your neighbor.

The Ansari became angry and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Is it because he is your cousin?’

On that, the face of Allah’s Messenger changed color (because of anger) and said,

Irrigate (your garden), O Zubayr, and then withhold the water until it reaches the walls (surrounding the palms). Then, release the water to your neighbor.

So, Allah’s Messenger gave Az-Zubayr his full right when the Ansari made him angry.

Before that, Allah’s Messenger had given a generous judgment, beneficial for Az-Zubayr and the Ansari.

Az-Zubayr said, `I think the following verse was revealed concerning that case,

But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you (O Muhammad) judge in all disputes between them.”’

Another Reason In his Tafsir, Al-Hafiz Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim bin Duhaym recorded that Damrah narrated that; two men took their dispute to the Prophet, and he gave a judgment to the benefit of whoever among them had the right. The person who lost the dispute said, “I do not agree.”

The other person asked him, “What do you want then?”

He said, “Let us go to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq.”

They went to Abu Bakr and the person who won the dispute said, “We went to the Prophet with our dispute and he issued a decision in my favor.”

Abu Bakr said, “Then the decision is that which the Messenger of Allah issued.”

The person who lost the dispute still rejected the decision and said, “Let us go to Umar bin Al-Khattab.”

When they went to Umar, the person who won the dispute said, “We took our dispute to the Prophet and he decided in my favor, but this man refused to submit to the decision.”

Umar bin Al-Khattab asked the second man and he concurred.

Umar went to his house and emerged from it holding aloft his sword. He struck the head of the man who rejected the Prophet’s decision with the sword and killed him. Consequently, Allah revealed,

{4:66}  وَلَوْ أَنَّا كَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَنِ اقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ أَوِ اخْرُجُوا مِن دِيَارِكُم مَّا فَعَلُوهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ مِّنْهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ فَعَلُوا مَا يُوعَظُونَ بِهِ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ تَثْبِيتًا

4:66.| And if We had ordered them (saying), “Kill yourselves (i.e. the innocent ones kill the guilty ones) or leave your homes,” very few of them would have done it; but if they had done what they were told, it would have been better for them, and would have strengthened their conviction;

{4:67}  وَإِذًا لَّآتَيْنَاهُم مِّن لَّدُنَّا أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

4:67.| And indeed We would then have bestowed upon them a great reward from Ourselves.

{4:68}  وَلَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

4:68.| And indeed We would have guided them to the straight way.

{4:69}  وَمَن يُطِعِ اللهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ ۚ وَحَسُنَ أُولَٰئِكَ رَفِيقًا

4:69.| And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets, the Siddiqin, the martyrs, and the righteous.

{4:70}  ذَٰلِكَ الْفَضْلُ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ عَلِيمًا

4:70.| Such is the bounty from Allah, and Allah is sufficient as All-Knower.

Most People Disobey What They Are Ordered

Allah says

‘’And if We had ordered them (saying), “Kill yourselves (i.e. the innocent ones kill the guilty ones) or leave your homes,” very few of them would have done it;’’

Allah states that even if the people were commanded to commit what they were prohibited from doing, most of them would not submit to this command, for their wicked nature is such that they dispute orders. Allah has complete knowledge of what has not occurred, and how it would be if and when it did occur.

This is why Allah said,

‘’had ordered them (saying), “Kill yourselves (i.e. the innocent ones kill the guilty ones.’’ until the end of the Ayah.

This is why Allah said,

‘’but if they had done what they were told, meaning, if they do what they were commanded and refrain from what they were prohibited.’’

… it would have been better for them, than disobeying the command and committing the prohibition, and would have strengthened their conviction, According to As-Suddi, stronger Tasdiq (conviction of faith).

And indeed We should then have bestowed upon them from Ladunna, (from Us) A great reward, (Paradise).

And indeed We should have guided them to the straight way. in this life and the Hereafter.

Whoever Obeys Allah and His Messenger Will Be Honored by Allah

Allah then said,

‘’And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets, the Siddiqin, the martyrs, and the righteous. And how excellent these companions are!’’

Consequently, whosoever implements what Allah and His Messenger have commanded him and avoids what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, then Allah will grant him a dwelling in the Residence of Honor.

There, Allah will place him in the company of the Prophets, and those who are lesser in grade, the true believers, then the martyrs and then the righteous, who are righteous inwardly and outwardly.

Allah then praised this company, (And how excellent these companions are!).

Al-Bukhari recorded that Aishah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah saying, Every Prophet who falls ill is given the choice between this life and the Hereafter.

During the illness that preceded his death, his voice became weak and I heard him saying,  ‘ (in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, the Prophets, the true believers (Siddiqin), the martyrs and the righteous).

I knew then that he was being given the choice.”

Muslim recorded this Hadith.

This Hadith explains the meaning of another Hadith; the Prophet said before his death; O Allah! In the Most High Company, three times, and he then died, may Allah’s best blessings be upon him.

The Reason Behind Revealing this Honorable Ayah Ibn Jarir recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “An Ansari man came to the Messenger of Allah while feeling sad. The Prophet said to him, `Why do I see you sad?’

He said, `O Allah’s Prophet! I was contemplating about something.’

The Prophet said, `What is it?’

The Ansari said, `We come to you day and night, looking at your face and sitting by you. Tomorrow, you will be raised with the Prophets, and we will not be able to see you.’

The Prophet did not say anything, but later Jibril came down to him with this Ayah, (And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets), and the Prophet sent the good news to the Ansari man.” This Hadith was narrated in Mursal form from Masruq, Ikrimah, Amir Ash-Sha`bi, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi bin Anas.

This is the version with the best chain of narrators.

Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah recorded it with a different chain from Aishah, who said;

“A man came to the Prophet and said to him, `O Messenger of Allah! You are more beloved to me than myself, my family and children. Sometimes, when I am at home, I remember you, and I cannot wait until I come and look at you. When I contemplate about my death and your death, I know that you will be with the Prophets when you enter Paradise. I fear that I might not see you when I enter Paradise.’

The Prophet did not answer him until the Ayah,

”And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets, the true believers, the martyrs, and the righteous.”

‘’And how excellent these companions are!’’ was revealed to him.”

This was collected by Al-Hafiz Abu Abdullah Al-Maqdisi in his book, Sifat Al-Jannah, he then commented, “I do not see problems with this chain.”

And Allah knows best.

Muslim recorded that Rabi`ah bin Ka`b Al-Aslami said, “I used to sleep at the Prophet’s house and bring him his water for ablution and his needs. He once said to me, `Ask me.’

I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I ask that I be your companion in Paradise.’

He said, `Anything except that?’

I said, `Only that.’

He said,

Then help me (fulfill this wish) for you by performing many prostrations.”

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amr bin Murrah Al-Juhani said, “A man came to the Prophet and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah, pray the five (daily prayers), give the Zakah due on my wealth and fast the month of Ramadan.’

The Messenger of Allah said, Whoever dies in this state will be with the Prophets, the truthful and martyrs on the Day of Resurrection, as long as – and he raised his finger – he is not disobedient to his parents.”

Only Ahmad recorded this Hadith.

Greater news than this is in the authentic Hadith collected in the Sahih and Musnad compilations, in Mutawatir form, narrated by several Companions that the Messenger of Allah was asked about the person who loves a people, but his status is not close to theirs.

The Messenger said, One is with those whom he loves.

Anas commented, “Muslims were never happier than with this Hadith.”

In another narration, Anas said, “I love the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr and Umar, and I hope that Allah will resurrect me with them, even though I did not perform actions similar to theirs.”

Allah said,

‘’Such is the bounty from Allah, meaning, from Allah by His mercy, for it is He who made them suitable for this, not their good deeds.’’

”… and Allah is sufficient as All-Knower, He knows those who deserve guidance and success.”

{4:71}  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا خُذُوا حِذْرَكُمْ فَانفِرُوا ثُبَاتٍ أَوِ انفِرُوا جَمِيعًا

4:71.| O you who believe! Take your precautions, and either go forth (on an expedition) in parties, or go forth all together.

{4:72}  وَإِنَّ مِنكُمْ لَمَن لَّيُبَطِّئَنَّ فَإِنْ أَصَابَتْكُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَالَ قَدْ أَنْعَمَ اللهُ عَلَيَّ إِذْ لَمْ أَكُن مَّعَهُمْ شَهِيدًا

4:72.| There is certainly among you he who would linger behind. If a misfortune befalls you, he says, “Indeed Allah has favored me in that I was not present among them.”

{4:73}  وَلَئِنْ أَصَابَكُمْ فَضْلٌ مِّنَ اللهِ لَيَقُولَنَّ كَأَن لَّمْ تَكُن بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُ مَوَدَّةٌ يَا لَيْتَنِي كُنتُ مَعَهُمْ فَأَفُوزَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا

4:73.| But if a bounty comes to you from Allah, he would surely say  as if there had never been ties of affection between you and him, “Oh! I wish I had been with them; then I would have achieved a great success.”

{4:74}  فَلْيُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ يَشْرُونَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَمَن يُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيُقْتَلْ أَوْ يَغْلِبْ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

4:74.| So fight those who trade the life of this world with the Hereafter, in the cause of Allah, and whoever fights in the cause of Allah, and is killed or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward.

The Necessity of Taking Necessary Precautions Against the Enemy

Allah says;

‘’…you who believe! Take your precautions, and either go forth (on an expedition) in parties, or go forth all together.’’

Allah commands His faithful servants to take precautions against their enemies, by being prepared with the necessary weapons and supplies, and increasing the number of troops fighting in His cause.

(in parties) means, group after group, party after party, and expedition after expedition.

Ali bin Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said that, (and either go forth in parties) means, “In groups, expedition after expedition, (or go forth all together), means, all of you.”

Similar was reported from Mujahid, Ikrimah, As-Suddi, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ata Al-Khurasani, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Khusayf Al-Jazari. Refraining from Joining Jihad is a Sign of Hypocrites Allah said,

‘’There is certainly among you he who would linger behind.’’

Mujahid and others said, “this Ayah was revealed about the hypocrites.”

Muqatil bin Hayyan said that, %q&4<8  (linger behind) means, stays behind and does not join Jihad.

It is also possible that this person himself lingers behind, while luring others away from joining Jihad. For instance, Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, may Allah curse him, used to linger behind and lure other people to do the same and refrain from joining Jihad, as Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Jarir stated. This is why Allah said about the hypocrite, that when he lingers behind from Jihad, then:

If a misfortune befalls you, death, martyrdom, or – by Allah’s wisdom – being defeated by the enemy. he says, “Indeed Allah has favored me that I was not present among them.”

… meaning, since I did not join them in battle.

Because he considers this one of Allah’s favors on him, unaware of the reward that he might have gained from enduring war or martyrdom, if he was killed.

But if a bounty comes to you from Allah, such as victory, triumph and booty. he would surely say – as if there had never been ties of affection between you and him,

… meaning, as if he was not a follower of your religion.

“Oh! I wish I had been with them; then I would have achieved a great success.”

by being assigned a share of the booty and taking possession of that share. This is his ultimate aim and objective.

The Encouragement to Participation in Jihad

Allah then said,

‘’So fight, the believer with an aversion (to fighting), those who trade the life of this world with the Hereafter, referring to those sell their religion for the meager goods of the world, and they only do this because of their disbelief and lack of faith.’’

Allah then said;

”And whoever fights in the cause of Allah, and is killed or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward.”

… meaning, whoever fights in the cause of Allah, whether he was killed or triumphant, he will earn an immense compensation and a great reward with Allah.

The Two Sahihs recorded,

Allah has guaranteed the Mujahid in His cause that;

  • He will either bring death to him, admitting into Paradise;
  • or, He will help him return safely to his home with whatever reward and booty he gained.

وَمَا لَكُمْ لَا تُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ الَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ نَصِيرًا

4:75.| And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help.”

{4:76}  الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ الطَّاغُوتِ فَقَاتِلُوا أَوْلِيَاءَ الشَّيْطَانِ ۖ إِنَّ كَيْدَ الشَّيْطَانِ كَانَ ضَعِيفًا

4:76.| Those who believe, fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of the Taghut. So fight against the friends of Shaytan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaytan.

Encouraging Jihad to Defend the Oppressed

Allah say;

”And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children,”

Allah encouraged His believing servants to perform Jihad in His cause and to strive hard to save the oppressed Muslims in Makkah, men, women and children who were restless because of having to remain there.

This is why Allah said,

‘’whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town,’’ referring to Makkah.

In a similar Ayah, Allah said,

‘’And many a town, stronger than your town which has driven you out.’’ (47:13)

Allah then describes this town,

”…whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help.”

… meaning, send protectors and helpers for us.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “I and my mother were from the oppressed (in Makkah).”

Allah then said,

‘’Those who believe, fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of the Taghut.’’

Therefore, the believers fight in obedience to Allah and to gain His pleasure, while the disbelievers fight in obedience to Shaytan.

Allah then encourages the believers to fight His enemies, So fight against the friends of Shaytan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaytan.

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ قِيلَ لَهُمْ كُفُّوا أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً ۚ وَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا لِمَ كَتَبْتَ عَلَيْنَا الْقِتَالَ لَوْلَا أَخَّرْتَنَا إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ ۗ قُلْ مَتَاعُ الدُّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ وَالْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا

4:77.| Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands (from fighting) and perform Salah and give Zakah, but when the fighting was ordained for them, behold! a section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more. They say: “Our Lord! Why have You ordained for us fighting Would that You granted us respite for a short period!” Say: “Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is (far) better for him who fears Allah, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly even equal to the Fatil.

أَيْنَمَا تَكُونُوا يُدْرِككُّمُ الْمَوْتُ وَلَوْ كُنتُمْ فِي بُرُوجٍ مُّشَيَّدَةٍ ۗ وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ حَسَنَةٌ يَقُولُوا هَٰذِهِ مِنْ عِندِ اللهِ ۖ وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ يَقُولُوا هَٰذِهِ مِنْ عِندِكَ ۚ قُلْ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ اللهِ ۖ فَمَالِ هَٰؤُلَاءِ الْقَوْمِ لَا يَكَادُونَ يَفْقَهُونَ حَدِيثًا

4:78.| “Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!” And if some good reaches them, they say, “This is from Allah,” but if some evil befalls them, they say, “This is from you.” Say: “All things are from Allah,” so what is wrong with these people that they fail to understand any word!

{4:79}  مَّا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللهِ ۖ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ ۚ وَأَرْسَلْنَاكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُولًا ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا

4:79.| Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allah, but whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself. And We have sent you as a Messenger to mankind, and Allah is sufficient as a Witness.

The Wish that the Order for Jihad be Delayed

Allah says;

”Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands (from fighting) and perform Salah and give Zakah, but when the fighting was ordained for them, behold! a section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more.”

In the beginning of Islam, Muslims in Makkah were commanded to perform the prayer and pay some charity, so as to comfort the poor among them. They were also commanded to be forgiving and forbearing with the idolators and to observe patience with them at the time. However, they were eager and anticipating the time when they would be allowed to fight, so that they could punish their enemies.

The situation at that time did not permit armed conflict for many reasons. For instance, Muslims were few at the time, compared to their numerous enemies. The Muslims’ city was a sacred one and the most honored area on the earth, and this is why the command to fight was not revealed in Makkah.

Later on when the Muslims controlled a town of their own, Al-Madinah, and had strength, power and support, Jihad was then legislated. Yet, when the command to fight was revealed, just as Muslims wished, some of them became weary and were very fearful of facing the idolators in battle.

They say: “Our Lord! Why have You ordained for us fighting Would that You had granted us respite for a short period!”

… meaning, we wish that Jihad was delayed until a later time, because it means bloodshed, orphans and widows. In a similar Ayah,

Allah said,

‘’Those who believe say: “Why is not a Surah sent down (for us) But when a decisive is sent down, and fighting is mentioned.’’ (47:20)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Abbas said that; Abdur-Rahman bin Awf and several of his companions came to the Prophet while in Makkah and said, “O Allah’s Prophet! We were mighty when we were pagans, but when we embraced the faith, we became weak.”

The Prophet said, I was commanded to pardon the people, so do not fight them.

When Allah transferred the Prophet to Al-Madinah, He commanded him to fight (the idolators), but they (some Muslims) held back.

So, Allah revealed the Ayah;

”(Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands.”

This Hadith was collected by An-Nasa’i and Al-Hakim.

Allah’s statement,

‘’Say: “Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is (far) better for him who fears Allah,’’

… means, the destination of the one who with Taqwa is better for him than this life. and you shall not be dealt with unjustly even equal to the Fatil. for your good deeds. Rather, you will earn your full rewards for them.

This promise directs the focus of believers away from this life and makes them eager for the Hereafter, all the while encouraging them to fight in Jihad.

There is No Escaping Death

Allah said,

”Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you, meaning, you shall certainly die and none of you shall ever escape death.”

Allah said,

”Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish.” (55:26)

”Everyone shall taste death.” (21:35)

”And We granted not to any human being immortality before you.” (21:24)

Therefore, every soul shall taste death and nothing can save any person from it, whether he performed Jihad or not. Everyone has an appointed time, and a limited term of life.

In the illness that preceded his death, Khalid bin Al-Walid said, while in his bed, “I participated in so and so number of battles, and every part of my body sustained an injury due to a stab or a shot. Yet here I am, I die in my bed! Let not the eyes of the cowards ever taste sleep.’’

Allah’s statement,

”..even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!”

… means, entrenched, fortified, high and towering.

No caution or fortification can ever avert death.

The Hypocrites Sense a Bad Omen Because of the Prophet!

Allah said,

”And if some good reaches them,”

… meaning, fertile years and provision of fruits, produce, children, etc., as said by Ibn Abbas, Abu Al-Aliyah and As-Suddi. they say, “This is from Allah,” but if some evil befalls them, drought, famine, shortages of fruits and produce, death that strikes their children or animals, and so forth, as Abu Al-`Aliyah and As-Suddi stated. … they say, “This is from you,”

… meaning, because of you and because we followed you and embraced your religion.

Allah said about the people of Fir`awn,

”But whenever good came to them, they said: “Ours is this.” And if evil afflicted them, they ascribed it to evil omens connected with Musa and those with him.” (7:131)

Allah said,

”And among mankind is he who worships Allah as it were upon the edge (i. e. in doubt).” (22:11)

The same is the statement uttered by the hypocrites, who embraced Islam outwardly, but disliked it inwardly. This is why when a calamity befell them, they attributed it to following the Prophet.

Consequently, Allah revealed,

”Say: All things are from Allah,”

Allah’s statement that all things are from Him means, everything occurs by the decision and decree of Allah, and His decision shall come to pass for both the righteous and the wicked, the faithful and the disbelievers.

… so what is wrong with these people that they fail to understand any word!

Allah then said while addressing His Messenger, but referring to mankind in general,

”Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allah,”

… meaning, of Allah’s bounty, favor, kindness and mercy.

But whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself,” meaning because of you and due to your actions.

Similarly, Allah said,

”And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned. And He pardons much.” (42:30)

As-Suddi, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Zayd said that,  (from yourself) means, because of your errors.

Qatadah said that, (From yourself) means, as punishment for you, O son of Adam, because of your sins.

Allah said,

‘’And We have sent you as a Messenger to mankind, so that you convey to them Allah’s commandments, what He likes and is pleased with, and what He dislikes and refuses.’’

… and Allah is sufficient as a Witness. that He has sent you. He is also Witness over you and them, having full knowledge in what you convey to them and the disbelief and rebellion with which they respond to the truth.

{4:80}  مَّن يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللهَ ۖ وَمَن تَوَلَّىٰ فَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا

4:80.| He who obeys the Messenger, has indeed obeyed Allah, but he who turns away, then We have not sent you as a watcher over them.

{4:81}  وَيَقُولُونَ طَاعَةٌ فَإِذَا بَرَزُوا مِنْ عِندِكَ بَيَّتَ طَائِفَةٌ مِّنْهُمْ غَيْرَ الَّذِي تَقُولُ ۖ وَاللهُ يَكْتُبُ مَا يُبَيِّتُونَ ۖ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا

4:81.| They say: “We are obedient,” but when they leave you, a section of them spends all night in planning other than what you say. But Allah records their nightly (plots). So turn aside from them (do not punish them), and put your trust in Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.

Obeying the Messenger is Obeying Allah.

Allah says;

”He who obeys the Messenger, has indeed obeyed Allah, Allah states that whoever obeys His servant and Messenger, Muhammad, obeys Allah; and whoever disobeys him, disobeys Allah. Verily, whatever the Messenger utters is not of his own desire, but a revelation inspired to him.”

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said, Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah; and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah. Whoever obeys the Amir (leader, ruler), obeys me; and whoever disobeys the Amir, disobeys me. This Hadith was recorded in the Two Sahihs.

Allah’s statement,

‘’But he who turns away, then We have not sent you as a watcher over them.’’

… means, do not worry about him. Your job is only to convey, and whoever obeys you, he will acquire happiness and success and you will gain a similar reward to that he earns. As for the one who turns away from you, he will gain failure and loss and you will not carry a burden because of what he does.

A Hadith states,

Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, will acquire guidance; and whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, will only harm himself.

The Foolishness of the Hypocrites

Allah said; They say: “We are obedient,”

Allah states that the hypocrites pretend to be loyal and obedient.

… but when they leave you,

… meaning, when they depart and are no longer with you, a section of them spends all night in planning other than what you say.

They plot at night among themselves for other than what they pretend when they are with you.

Allah said,

‘’But Allah records their nightly (plots).’’

… meaning, He has full knowledge of their plots and records it through His command to His scribes, the angels who are responsible for recording the actions of the servants.

This is a threat from Allah, stating that He knows what the hypocrites try to hide, their plotting in the night to defy the Messenger and oppose him, even though they pretend to be loyal and obedient to him. Allah will certainly punish them for this conduct.

In a similar Ayah, Allah said,

‘’They say: “We have believed in Allah and in the Messenger, and we obey,” then a party of them turn away thereafter, such are not believers.’’ (24:47)

Allah’s statement,

‘’So turn aside from them,’’

… means, pardon them, be forbearing with them, do not punish them, do not expose them to the people and do not fear them.

… and put your trust in Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.

… meaning, He is sufficient as Protector, Supporter and Helper for those who rely on Him and return to Him.

{4:82}  أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا

4:82.| Do they not then consider the Qur’an carefully! Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely, have found therein contradictions in abundance.

{4:83}  وَإِذَا جَاءَهُمْ أَمْرٌ مِّنَ الْأَمْنِ أَوِ الْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُوا بِهِ ۖ وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَىٰ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ ۗ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَاتَّبَعْتُمُ الشَّيْطَانَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

4:83.| When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people); if only they had referred it to the Messenger or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly). Had it not been for the grace and mercy of Allah upon you, you would have followed Shaytan, except a few of you.

The Qur’an is True

Allah says;

‘’Do they not then consider the Qur’an carefully!’’

Allah commands them to contemplate about the Qur’an and forbids them from ignoring it, or ignoring its wise meanings and eloquent words.

Allah states that there are no inconsistencies, contradictions, conflicting statements or discrepancies in the Qur’an, because it is a revelation from the Most-Wise, Worthy of all praise. Therefore, the Qur’an is the truth coming from the Truth, Allah.

This is why Allah said in another Ayah,

‘’Do they not then think deeply in the Qur’an, or are their hearts locked up (from understanding it).’’ (47:24)

Allah then said,

‘’Had it been from other than Allah, meaning, had it been fraudulent and made up, as the ignorant idolators and hypocrites assert in their hearts.’’

… they would surely, have found therein contradictions, discrepancies and inconsistencies in abundance.

However, this Qur’an is free of shortcomings, and therefore, it is from Allah.

Similarly, Allah describes those who are firmly grounded in knowledge,

‘’We believe in it, all of it is from our Lord.’’ (3:7)

… meaning, the Muhkam sections (entirely clear) and the Mutashabih sections (not entirely clear) of the Qur’an are all true. So they understand the not entirely clear from the clear, and thus gain guidance.

As for those in whose heart is the disease of hypocrisy, they understand the Muhkam from the Mutashabih; thus only gaining misguidance.

Allah praised those who have knowledge and criticized the wicked.

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amr bin Shu`ayb said that his father said that his grandfather said, “I and my brother were present in a gathering, which is more precious to me than red camels. My brother and I came and found that some of the leaders of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah were sitting close to a door of his. We did not like the idea of being separate from them, so we sat near the room. They then mentioned an Ayah and began disputing until they raised their voices.

The Messenger of Allah was so angry that when he went out his face was red. He threw sand on them and said to them,

Behold, O people! This is how the nations before you were destroyed, because of their disputing with their Prophets and their contradicting parts of the Books with other parts. The Qur’an does not contradict itself. Rather, it testifies to the truth of itself. Therefore, whatever of it you have knowledge in, then implement it, and whatever you do not know of it, then refer it to those who have knowledge in it.”

Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin `Amr said, “I went to the Messenger of Allah one day. When we were sitting, two men disputed about an Ayah, and their voices became loud. The Prophet said, Verily, the nations before you were destroyed because of their disagreements over the Book.

Muslim and An-Nasa’i recorded this Hadith.

The Prohibition of Disclosing Unreliable and Uninvestigated News

Allah said,

‘’When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people),’

Chastising those who indulge in things before being sure of their truth, disclosing them, making them known and spreading their news, even though such news might not be true at all.

In the introduction to his Sahih, Imam Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said, Narrating everything one hears is sufficient to make a person a liar.

This is the same narration collected by Abu Dawud in the section of Adab (manners) in his Sunan.

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah said that the Messenger of Allah prohibited, “It was said,” and, “So-and-so said.”

This Hadith refers to those who often convey the speech that people utter without investigating the reliability and truth of what he is disclosing.

The Sahih also records, Whoever narrates a Hadith while knowing it is false, then he is one of the two liars (who invents and who spreads the lie).

We should mention here the Hadith of Umar bin Al-Khattab collected in the Two Sahihs.

When Umar was informed that the Messenger of Allah divorced his wives, he came from his house, entered the Masjid and found the people talking about this news. He could not wait and went to the Prophet to ask him about what had truly happened, asking him, “Have you divorced your wives?”

The Prophet said, “No.”

Umar said, “I said, Allahu Akbar…” and mentioned the rest of the Hadith.

In the narration that Muslim collected, Umar said, “I asked, `Have you divorced them?’

He said, `No.’

So, I stood by the door of the Masjid and shouted with the loudest voice, `The Messenger of Allah did not divorce his wives.’

Then, this Ayah was revealed, When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people), if only they had referred it to the Messenger or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly).

So I properly investigated that matter.”

This Ayah refers to proper investigation, or extraction of matters from their proper resources.

Allah’s statement,

‘’Had it not been for the grace and mercy of Allah upon you,’’

… you would have followed Shaytan except a few of you.

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas, refers to the believers.

{4:85}  فَقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ لَا تُكَلَّفُ إِلَّا نَفْسَكَ ۚ وَحَرِّضِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ عَسَى اللهُ أَن يَكُفَّ بَأْسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ وَاللهُ أَشَدُّ بَأْسًا وَأَشَدُّ تَنكِيلًا

4:84.| Then fight in the cause of Allah, you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself, and incite the believers (to fight along with you), it may be that Allah will restrain the evil might of the disbelievers. And Allah is Stronger in might and Stronger in punishing.

{4:85}  مَّن يَشْفَعْ شَفَاعَةً حَسَنَةً يَكُن لَّهُ نَصِيبٌ مِّنْهَا ۖ وَمَن يَشْفَعْ شَفَاعَةً سَيِّئَةً يَكُن لَّهُ كِفْلٌ مِّنْهَا ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُّقِيتًا

4:85.| Whosoever intercedes for a good cause, will have the reward thereof; and whosoever intercedes for an evil cause, will have a share in its burden. And Allah is Ever All-Able to do everything.

{4:86}  وَإِذَا حُيِّيتُم بِتَحِيَّةٍ فَحَيُّوا بِأَحْسَنَ مِنْهَا أَوْ رُدُّوهَا ۗ إِنَّ اللهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ حَسِيبًا

4:86.| When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it, or (at least) return it equally. Certainly, Allah is Ever a Careful Account Taker of all things.

{4:87} اللهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ لَيَجْمَعَنَّكُمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۗ وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللهِ حَدِيثًا

4:87.| Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He. Surely, He will gather you together on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt. And who is truer in statement than Allah.

Allah Commands His Messenger to Perform Jihad

Allah commands;

”Then fight in the cause of Allah,”

Allah commands His servant and Messenger, Muhammad, to himself fight in Jihad and not to be concerned about those who do not join Jihad.

Hence Allah’s statement,

‘’… you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself,’’

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Ishaq said, “I asked Al-Bara bin Azib about a man who meets a hundred enemies and still fights them, would he be one of those referred to in Allah’s statement,

‘’And do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the cause of Allah.’’ (2:195)

He said, `Allah said to His Prophet, (Then fight in the cause of Allah, you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself, and incite the believers (to fight along with you)).”

Imam Ahmad recorded Sulayman bin Dawud saying that Abu Bakr bin Ayyash said that Abu Ishaq said, “I asked Al-Bara, `If a man attacks the lines of the idolators, would he be throwing himself to destruction?’

He said, `No, because Allah has sent His Messenger and commanded him, (Then fight in the cause of Allah, you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself).

That Ayah is about spending (in Allah’s cause).”

Inciting the Believers to Fight

Allah said,

‘’… and incite the believers, to fight, by encouraging them and strengthening their resolve in this regard.’’

For instance, the Prophet said to the believers at the battle of Badr, while organizing their lines, Stand up and march forth to a Paradise, as wide as the heavens and Earth.

There are many Hadiths that encourage Jihad.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

Whoever believes in Allah and His Messenger, offers prayer, pays the Zakah and fasts the month of Ramadan, will rightfully be granted Paradise by Allah, no matter whether he migrates in Allah’s cause or remains in the land where he is born.

The people said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Shall we acquaint the people with this good news!’

He said, Paradise has one hundred grades which Allah has reserved for the Mujahidin who fight in His cause, the distance between each two grades is like the distance between the heaven and the Earth. So, when you ask Allah, ask for Al-Firdaws, which is the best and highest part of Paradise, above it is the Throne of the Most Beneficent (Allah) and from it originate the rivers of Paradise.

There are various narrations for this Hadith from Ubadah, Mu`adh, and Abu Ad-Darda’.

Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, O Abu Sa`id! Whoever accepts Allah as his Lord, Islam as his religion and Muhammad as the Prophet, then he would rightfully acquire Paradise.

Abu Sa`id liked these words and said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Repeat them for me.”

The Prophet repeated his words, then said, And (there is) another deed for which Allah raises the servant a hundred grades in Paradise, between each two grades is the distance between heaven and Earth.

Abu Sa`id said, “What is it, O Allah’s Messenger!” He said, Jihad in Allah’s cause. This Hadith was collected by Muslim.

Allah’s statement,

‘’… it may be that Allah will restrain the evil might of the disbelievers.’’

.. means, by your encouraging them to fight, their resolve will be strengthened to meet the enemy in battle, to defend Islam and its people and to endure and be patient against the enemy.

Allah’s statement,

‘’And Allah is Stronger in might and Stronger in punishing.’’

… means, He is able over them in this life and the Hereafter, just as He said in another Ayah,

‘’But if it had been Allah’s will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight) in order to test some of you with others.’’ (47:4)

Interceding for a Good or an Evil Cause

Allah said,

‘’Whosoever intercedes for a good cause, will have the reward thereof.’’

… meaning, whoever intercedes in a matter that produces good results, will acquire a share in that good.

And whosoever intercedes for an evil cause, will have a share in its burden.

… meaning, he will carry a burden due to what resulted from his intercession and intention.

For instance, it is recorded in the Sahih that the Prophet said,

Intercede and you will gain a reward of it. Yet, Allah shall decide whatever He wills by the words of His Prophet.

Mujahid bin Jabr said, “This Ayah was revealed about the intercession of people on behalf of each other.”

Allah then said,

”And Allah is Ever Muqit over everything.”

Ibn Abbas, Ata, Atiyah, Qatadah and Matar Al-Warraq said that, (Muqit) means, “Watcher.”

Mujahid said that; Muqit means, `Witness’, and in another narration, `Able to do.’

Returning the Salam, With a Better Salam

Allah said,

”When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it, or (at least) return it equally.”

… meaning, if the Muslim greets you with the Salam, then return the greeting with a better Salam, or at least equal to the Salam that was given. Therefore, the better Salam is recommended, while returning it equally is an obligation.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Raja Al-Utaridi said that; Imran bin Husayn said that a man came to the Messenger of Allah and said, “As-Salamu Alaykum”.

The Prophet returned the greeting, and after the man sat down he said, “Ten.”

Another man came and said, “As-Salamu Alaykum wa Rahmatullah, O Allah’s Messenger.”

The Prophet returned the greeting, and after the man sat down he said, “Twenty.”

Then another man came and said, “As-Salamu Alaykum wa Rahmatullah wa Barakatuh.”

The Prophet returned the greeting, and after the man sat down he said, “Thirty.”

This is the narration recorded by Abu Dawud. At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Al-Bazzar also recorded it.

At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Gharib”.

There are several other Hadiths on this subject from Abu Sa`id, Ali, and Sahl bin Hanif. When the Muslim is greeted with the full form of Salam, he is obliged to return the greeting equally.

As for Ahl Adh-Dhimmah the Salam should not be initiated nor should the greeting be added to when returning their greeting. Rather, as recorded in the Two Sahihs their greeting is returned to them equally.

Ibn Umar narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, When the Jews greet you, one of them would say, `As-Samu `Alayka (death be unto you).’

Therefore, say, `Wa `Alayka (and the same to you).’)

In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

Do not initiate greeting the Jews and Christians with the Salam, and when you pass by them on a road, force them to its narrowest path.

Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said, By He in Whose Hand is my soul! You will not enter Paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love each other. Should I direct you to an action that would direct you to love each other! Spread the Salam among yourselves.

Certainly, Allah is Ever a Careful Account Taker of all things.

Allah said,

‘’Allah! none has the right to be worshipped but He.’’

… informing that He is singled out as the sole God of all creation.

Allah then said,

”Surely, He will gather you together on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt. swearing that He will gather the earlier and latter generations in one area, rewarding or punishing each person according to his or her actions.”

Allah said,

’’And who is truer in statement than Allah.’’

… meaning, no one utters more truthful statements than Allah, in His promise, warning, stories of the past and information of what is to come; there is no deity worthy of worship nor Lord except Him.

{4:88}  فَمَا لَكُمْ فِي الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِئَتَيْنِ وَاللهُ أَرْكَسَهُم بِمَا كَسَبُوا ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَهْدُوا مَنْ أَضَلَّ اللهُ ۖ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلًا

4:88.| Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites! Allah has cast them back because of what they have earned. Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray! And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him a way.

وَدُّوا لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ كَمَا كَفَرُوا فَتَكُونُونَ سَوَاءً ۖ فَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ حَتَّىٰ يُهَاجِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَخُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا

4:89.| They wish that you reject faith, as they have rejected, and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Awliya’ from them, till they emigrate in the way of Allah. But if they turn back, take (hold of) them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Awliya’ nor helpers from them.

{4:90}  إِلَّا الَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ أَوْ جَاءُوكُمْ حَصِرَتْ صُدُورُهُمْ أَن يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ أَوْ يُقَاتِلُوا قَوْمَهُمْ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللهُ لَسَلَّطَهُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ فَلَقَاتَلُوكُمْ ۚ فَإِنِ اعْتَزَلُوكُمْ فَلَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ وَأَلْقَوْا إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ فَمَا جَعَلَ اللهُ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلًا

4:90.| Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So, if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has made no way for you against them.

{4:91}  سَتَجِدُونَ آخَرِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَأْمَنُوكُمْ وَيَأْمَنُوا قَوْمَهُمْ كُلَّ مَا رُدُّوا إِلَى الْفِتْنَةِ أُرْكِسُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ يَعْتَزِلُوكُمْ وَيُلْقُوا إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ وَيَكُفُّوا أَيْدِيَهُمْ فَخُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكُمْ جَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا

4:91. You will find others that wish to have security from you and security from their people. Every time they are sent back to Fitnah, they yield thereto. If they withdraw not from you, nor offer you peace, nor restrain their hands, take (hold of) them and kill them wherever you Thaqiftumuhum. In their case, We have provided you with a clear warrant against them.

Censuring the Companions for Disagreeing over the Hypocrites who Returned to Al-Madinah Before Uhud

Allah says;

‘’Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites!’’

Allah criticizes the believers for disagreeing over the hypocrites.

There are conflicting opinions over the reason behind revealing this Ayah.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Zayd bin Thabit said that; Messenger of Allah marched towards Uhud.

However, some people who accompanied him went back to Al-Madinah, and the Companions of the Messenger of Allah divided into two groups concerning them, one saying they should be killed and the other objecting.

Allah sent down,

”Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites.”

The Messenger of Allah said, She (Al-Madinah) is Taybah, and she expels filth, just as the billow expels rust from iron.

The Two Sahihs also recorded this Hadith.

Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas said that; the Ayah was revealed about some people in Makkah who said they embraced Islam, yet they gave their support to the idolators. One time, theses people went out of Makkah to fulfill some needs and said to each other, “If we meet the Companions of Muhammad, there will be no harm for us from their side.”

When the believers got news that these people went out of Makkah, some of them said, “Let us march to these cowards and kill them, because they support your enemy against you.”

However, another group from the believers said, “Glory be to Allah! Do you kill a people who say as you have said, just because they did not perform Hijrah or leave their land. Is it allowed to shed their blood and confiscate their money in this case?”

So they divided to two groups, while the Messenger was with them, and did not prohibit either group from reiterating their argument.

Thereafter, Allah revealed,

(Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites).

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this Hadith.

Allah said,

”Allah has cast them back because of what they have earned.”

… meaning, He made them revert to, and fall into error.

Ibn Abbas said that,

(Arkasahum), means, `cast them’

Allah’s statement,

”… because of what they have earned), means, because of their defiance and disobedience to the Messenger and following falsehood.”

Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray! And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him a way.

… meaning, there will be no path for him, or way to guidance.

Allah’s statement,

”They wish that you reject faith, as they have rejected, and thus that you all become equal.”

… means, they wish that you fall into misguidance, so that you and they are equal in that regard.

This is because of their extreme enmity and hatred for you.

Therefore, Allah said,

”So take not Awliya from them, till they emigrate in the way of Allah. But if they turn back,”

Al-Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas, if they abandon Hijrah.

As-Suddi said that this part of the Ayah means,

“If they make their disbelief public.” take (hold of) them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Awliya nor helpers from them.

Combatants and Noncombatants Allah excluded some people; Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace),

… meaning, except those who join and take refuge with a people with whom you have a pact of peace, or people of Dhimmah, then treat them as you treat the people with whom you have peace.

This is the saying of As-Suddi, Ibn Zayd and Ibn Jarir.

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded the story of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah, where it was mentioned that; whoever liked to have peace with Quraysh and conduct a pact with them, then they were allowed. Those who liked to have peace with Muhammad and his Companions and enter a pact with them were allowed.

It was reported that Ibn Abbas said that; this Ayah was later abrogated by Allah’s statement,

‘’Then when the Sacred Months have passed, kill the idolators wherever you find them.’’ (9:5)

Allah said,

”… or those who approach you with their breasts restraining,”

… referring to another type of people covered by the exclusion from fighting. They are those who approach the Muslims with hesitation in their hearts because of their aversion to fighting the Muslims.

… from fighting you as well as fighting their own people.

They do not have the heart to fight with the Muslims against their own people. Therefore, they are neither with nor against Muslims.

Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you.

… meaning, it is from Allah’s mercy that He has stopped them from fighting you.

So, if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, meaning, they revert to peace.

… then Allah has opened no way for you against them. you do not have the right to kill them, as long as they take this position.

This was the position of Banu Hashim (the tribe of the Prophet), such as Al-Abbas, who accompanied the idolators in the battle of Badr, for they joined the battle with great hesitation. This is why the Prophet commanded that Al-Abbas not be killed, but only captured.

Allah’s statement,

‘’You will find others that wish to have security from you and security from their people. ‘’

… refers to a type of people who on the surface appear to be like the type we just mentioned.

However, the intention of each type is different, for the latter are hypocrites. They pretend to be Muslims with the Prophet and his Companions, so that they could attain safety with the Muslims for their blood, property and families. However, they support the idolators in secret and worship what they worship, so that they are at peace with them also. These people have secretly sided with the idolators, just as Allah described them,

 ‘’But when they are alone with their Shayatin, they say: “Truly, we are with you.” (2:14)

In this Ayah, Allah said,

”Every time they are sent back to Fitnah, they yield thereto.”

… meaning, they dwell in Fitnah.

As-Suddi said that; the Fitnah mentioned here refers to Shirk.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Mujahid said that; the Ayah was revealed about a group from Makkah who used to go to the Prophet (in Al-Madinah) pretending to be Muslims. However, when they went back to Quraysh, they reverted to worshipping idols.

They wanted to be at peace with both sides. Allah commanded they should be fought against, unless they withdraw from combat and resort to peace.

This is why Allah said,

”If they withdraw not from you, nor offer you peace,”

… meaning, revert to peaceful and complacent behavior. nor restrain their hands, refrain from fighting you, take (hold of) them, capture them. … and kill them wherever you Thaqiftumuhum. … wherever you find them.

In their case, We have provided you with a clear warrant against them, meaning an unequivocal and plain warrant.

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَن يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلَّا خَطَأً ۚ وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَأً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ إِلَّا أَن يَصَّدَّقُوا ۚ فَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَّكُمْ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ وَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ فَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِّنَ اللهِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

4:92.| It is not for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake; and whosoever kills a believer by mistake, he must set free a believing slave and submit compensation (blood money) to the deceased’s family unless they remit it. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is prescribed); and if he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, then compensation (blood money) must be paid to his family, and a believing slave must be freed. And whoso finds this beyond his means, he must fast for two consecutive months in order to seek repentance from Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.

{4:93}  وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَابًا عَظِيمًا

4:93.| And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein; and the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him.

The Ruling Concerning Killing a Believer by Mistake

Allah said;

‘’It is not for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake,’’

Allah states that the believer is not allowed to kill his believing brother under any circumstances.

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said, The blood of a Muslim who testifies that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah, is sacred, except in three instances. They are:

  • life for life,
  • the married adulterer,
  • and whoever reverts from the religion and abandons the Jama`ah (community of the faithful believers).

When one commits any of these three offenses, it is not up to ordinary citizens to kill him or her, because this is the responsibility of the Muslim Leader or his deputy.

Allah said, (except by mistake).

There is a difference of opinion concerning the reason behind revealing this part of the Ayah.

Mujahid and others said that; it was revealed about Ayyash bin Abi Rabiah, Abu Jahl’s half brother, from his mother’s side, Asma’ bint Makhrabah. Ayyash killed a man called Al-Harith bin Yazid Al-Amiri, out of revenge for torturing him and his brother because of their Islam. That man later embraced Islam and performed Hijrah, but Ayyash did not know this fact. On the Day of the Makkan conquest, Ayyash saw that man and thought that he was still a disbeliever, so he attacked and killed him. Later, Allah sent down this Ayah.

Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that; this Ayah was revealed about Abu Ad-Darda’ because he killed a man after he embraced the faith, just as Abu Ad-Darda’ held the sword above him. When this matter was conveyed to the Messenger of Allah, Abu Ad-Darda’ said, “He only said that to avert death.”

The Prophet said to him, Have you opened his heart?

The basis for this story is in the Sahih, but it is not about Abu Ad-Darda’.

Allah said,

‘’…and whosoever kills a believer by mistake, he must set free a believing slave and submit compensation (blood money) to the deceased’s family.’’

thus, ordaining two requirements for murder by mistake.

  • The first requirement is the Kaffarah (fine) for the great sin that has been committed, even if it was a mistake. The Kaffarah is to free a Muslim slave, not a non-Muslim slave.

Imam Ahmad recorded that; a man from the Ansar said that he brought a slave and said, “O Messenger of Allah! I have to free a believing slave, so if you see that this slave is a believer, I will free her.”

The Messenger of Allah asked her, Do you testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah?

She said, “Yes.”

He asked her, Do you testify that I am the Messenger of Allah?

She said, “Yes.”

He asked, Do you believe in Resurrection after death?

She said, “Yes.”

The Prophet said, Then free her.

This is an authentic chain of narration, and not knowing the name of the Ansari Companion does not lessen its authenticity.

Allah’s statement,

‘’…and submit compensation (blood money) to the deceased’s family.’’

  • is the second obligation which involves the killer and the family of the deceased, who will receive blood money as compensation for their loss.

The compensation is only obligatory for the one who possesses one of five; as Imam Ahmad, and the Sunan compilers recorded from Ibn Mas`ud. He said;

“Allah’s Messenger determined that the Diyah (blood money) for unintentional murder is twenty camels which entered their fourth year, twenty camels which entered their fifth year, twenty camels which entered their second year, and twenty camels which entered their third year.”

This is the wording of An-Nasa’i.

This Diyah is required from the elders of the killer’s tribe, not from his own money.

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said,

“Two women from Hudhayl quarreled and one of them threw a stone at the other and killed her and her unborn fetus. They disputed before the Messenger of Allah and he decided that the Diyah of the fetus should be to free a male or a female slave. He also decided that the Diyah of the deceased is required from the elders of the killer’s tribe.”

This Hadith indicates that in the case of what appears to be intentional murder, the Diyah is the same as that for killing by virtual mistake.

The former type requires three types of Diyah, just like intentional murder, because it is somewhat similar to intentional murder.

Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that Abdullah bin Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah sent Khalid bin Al-Walid to Banu Jadhimah and he called them to Islam, but they did not know how to say, `We became Muslims.’

They started saying, `Saba’na, Saba’na (we became Sabians).

Khalid started killing them, and when this news was conveyed to the Messenger of Allah, he raised his hands and said,

O Allah! I declare my innocence before You of what Khalid did.

The Messenger sent Ali to pay the Diyah of those who were killed and to compensate for the property that was destroyed, to the extent of replacing the dog’s bowl.

This Hadith indicates that the mistake of the Leader or his deputy (Khalid in this case) is paid from the Muslim Treasury.

Allah said,

”… unless they remit it,”

meaning, the Diyah must be delivered to the family of the deceased, unless they forfeit their right, in which case the Diyah does not become necessary.

Allah’s statement,

‘’If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is prescribed);’’

… means, if the murdered person was a believer, yet his family were combatant disbelievers, then they will receive no Diyah. In this case, the murderer only has to free a believing slave.

Allah’s statement,

”…and if he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance,”

… meaning, if the family of the deceased were from Ahl Adh-Dhimmah or with whom there is a peace treaty.

 … then compensation (blood money) must be paid to his family, and a believing slave must be freed. then they deserve his Diyah; full Diyah if the deceased was a believer, in which case the killer is required to free a believing slave also.

And whoso finds this beyond his means, he must fast for two consecutive months. without breaking the fast (in the days of) the two months. If he breaks the fast without justification, i.e. illness, menstruation, post-natal bleeding, then he has to start all over again.

Allah’s statement,

‘’.. to seek repentance from Allah.’’

… means, this is how the one who kills by mistake can repent, he fasts two consecutive months if he does not find a slave to free.

And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise, we mentioned the explanation of this before.

Warning Against Intentional Murder After Allah mentioned the ruling of unintentional murder, He mentioned the ruling for intentional murder.

Allah said,

‘’And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein; and the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him.’’

This Ayah carries a stern warning and promise for those who commit so grave a sin that it is mentioned along with Shirk in several Ayat of Allah’s Book.

For instance, in Surah Al-Furqan, Allah said,

‘’And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah, nor kill such person as Allah has forbidden, except for just cause.’’ (25:68)

Allah said,

‘’Say: “Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him.’’ (6:151)

There are many Ayat and Hadiths that prohibit murder.

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said, Blood offenses are the first disputes to be judged between the people on the Day of Resurrection.

In a Hadith that Abu Dawud recorded, Ubadah bin As-Samit states that the Messenger of Allah said, The believer will remain unburdened in righteousness as long as he does not shed prohibited blood. When he sheds forbidden blood, he will become burdened.

Another Hadith, states,

The destruction of this earthly life is less significant before Allah than killing a Muslim man (or woman).

Will the Repentance of those who Commit Intentional Murder, be Accepted

Ibn Abbas held the view that; the repentance of one who intentionally murders a believer, will not be accepted.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Jubayr said, “The people of knowledge of Al-Kufah differed on this subject, I traveled to Ibn Abbas to ask him about it.

He said, `This Ayah,

‘’And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell) was the last revealed (on this subject.’’ and nothing abrogated it.”

Muslim and An-Nasa’i also recorded it.

However, the majority of scholars of the earlier and later generations said that; the killer’s repentance can be accepted. If he repents, and goes back to Allah humbly, submissively, and performing righteous deeds, then Allah will change his evil deeds into good deeds and compensate the deceased for his loss by rewarding him for his suffering.

Allah said,

”And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah,” until,

”Except those who repent and believe, and do righteous deeds.” (25:68-70)

The Ayah we just mentioned should not be considered abrogated or only applicable to the disbelievers (who become Muslim), for this contradicts the general, encompassing indications of the Ayah and requires evidence to support it. Allah knows best.

Allah said,

‘‘Say: “O My servants who have transgressed against themselves! Despair not of the mercy of Allah.’’ (39:53)

This Ayah is general, covering all types of sins, including Kufr, Shirk, doubt, hypocrisy, murder, sin, and so forth.

Therefore, everyone who repents sincerely from any of these errors, then Allah will forgive him.

Allah said,

‘‘Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills.’’ (4:48)

This Ayah is general and includes every sin except Shirk, and it has been mentioned in this Surah, both after this Ayah and before it, in order to encourage hope in Allah, and Allah knows best.

It is confirmed in the Two Sahihs, that; an Israeli killed one hundred people then he asked a scholar, “Is it possible for me to repent?”

So he replied, “What is there that would prevent you from repentance?”

So he told him to go to another land where Allah was worshipped. He began to emigrate to it but died on the way, and the angel of mercy was the one to take him.

Although this Hadith is about an Israeli, it is even more suitable for the Muslim community that their repentance be accepted.

Indeed, Allah relieved Muslims from the burdens and restrictions that were placed on the Jews, and He sent our Prophet with the easy Hanifiyyah way (Islamic Monotheism).

As for the honorable Ayah,

(And whoever kills a believer intentionally),

Abu Hurayrah and several among the Salaf said that; this is his punishment, if Allah decides to punish him. And this is the case with every threat that is issued for every sin.

For instance, there could be good deeds that this person has done that would prevent him from being punished for that, and Allah knows best.

Even if the murderer inevitably enters the Fire — as Ibn Abbas stated because his repentance was not accepted, or he did not have good deeds to save him, he will not remain there for eternity, but only for a long time.

There are Mutawatir Hadiths stating that the Messenger of Allah said, Whoever has the least speck of faith in his heart shall ultimately depart the Fire.