by Shahid Athar, M. D.
Date delivered: 632 A.C., 9th day of Dhul al Hijjah, 10 A.H. in the ‘Uranah valley of Mount Arafat. After praising, and thanking God, he said: “O People, listen well to my words, for I do not know whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and TAKE THESE WORDS TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BE PRESENT HERE TODAY.
O People, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Treat others justly so that no one would be unjust to you. Remember that you will indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds.
God has forbidden you to take usury (riba), therefore all riba obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital , however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. God has judged that there shall be no riba and that all the riba due to `Abbas ibn `Abd al Muttalib shall henceforth be waived.
Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived and the first such right that I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabi`ah ibn al Harith ibn `Abd al Muttalib.
O Men, the Unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calendar in order to make permissible that which God forbade, and to forbid that which God has made permissible. With God the months are twelve in number. Four of them are sacred, three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Sha`ban. Beware of the devil, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.
O People, it is true that you have certain rights over your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under God’s trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers. It is your right and they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste…
O People, listen to me in earnest, worship God (The One Creator of the Universe), perform your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your financial obligation (zakah) of your wealth. Perform Hajj if you can afford to.
All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves.
Remember, one day you will appear before God (The Creator) and you will answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.
O People, NO PROPHET OR MESSENGER WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEW FAITH WILL BE BORN.
Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I am leaving you with the Book of God (the QUR’AN*) and my SUNNAH (the life style and the behavioral mode of the Prophet), if you follow them you will never go astray.
All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness O God, that I have conveyed your message to your people.
*The Qur’an: Revealed to Prophet Muhammad during the period from 610-632 AC.
The first five verses revealed are:
- Read in the name of your Lord, Who created.
- Created man out of a clot that clings (in the womb).
- Read and your Lord is the Most Bountiful.
- Who taught by the pen.
- Taught man that which he knew not.
The Last Sermon Confirms the Main Points from the Quran
by Shahid Athar, M. D.
“Oh Prophet, We have sent you as a witness, news bearer and a warner and as someone who invites people to God by His permission and a shining Lamp” (33:45-46).
Prophet Muhanimad (PBUH) who was sent to mankind as a news bearer and a wamer for he spoke the truth and did not invent something of his own. The purpose of this article is to confirm the statements made by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) during his farewell address during the last pilgrimage (10 AH).
After praising and thanking God, the Messenger said, “Oh people, listen to my words carefully for I know not whether I will meet you on such an occasion again.”
TRUST AND ACCOUNTABILITY
Sermon: “Oh people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Remember that you will indeed appear before God and answer for your actions.”
Quran: “If anyone killed a person unless it is for a murder or spreading mischief on earth it would be as it he killed the whole mankind, and if anyone who saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of whole mankind” (5:32). “Then on that day not a soul will be wronged in the least and you shall but be prepaid in the needs of your past deeds” (36:54).
Sermon: “Return the things kept with you as trust (amanah) to their rightful owners.”
Quran: “If one of you entrusts (something) the one who has been entrusted with it should hand over his security and he should heed God and not hide any testimony. Anyone who hides it-has a sinfull heart” (2:283).
Sermon: “All dues of interest shall stand cancelled and you will have only your capital back. Allah has forbidden interest, and I cancel the dues of interest payable to may uncle Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib.”
Quran: “You who believe fear God and write off anything that remains outstanding from lending at interest if you are (true) God and His Messenger If you repent you may retail your principal do not wrong and you will not be wronged” (2:278).
TREATMENT OF WIFE (SPOUSE)
Sermon: “Oh people, your wives have a certain right over you and you have a certain right over them. Treat them well and be kind to them for they are your committed partners and commited helpers.
Quran: “Provide for them the rich according to his income and the poor according to his means, a provision according to the custom. This is an obligation for those who act kindly” (2:236). “Treat them politely even if you dislike them,. Perhaps you dislike something in which God has placed much good” (4:19).
WARNING ABOUT SATAN
Sermon: “Beware of Satan, he is desperate to divert you from the worship of God so beware of him in matters of your way of life.”
Quran: “Verily Satan is an enemy to you so treat him as an enemy. He only invites his followers that they may become companions of the blazing fire” (35:6).
Sermon: “Oh you people listen carefully. All the believers are brothers. You are not allowed to the things belonging to another Muslim unless he give it to you willingly.”
Quran: “Believers are but brothers so set things right between your brothers and fear God so that you may find mercy” (49: 1 0).
SUPERIORITY IS ONLY IN PIETY AND SUBMISSION
Sermon: “Oh people, no one is higher than the other unless he is higher in obedience to God. No Arab is superior to a non-Arab except in piety.”
Quran: “The most honored among you in the sight of God is (he who is) the most righteous of you and God has full knowledge and is will acquainted (with all things)” (49:134). “Who can be better in religion than he who submits his whose self to God, does good and follows the ways of abraham for God did take Abraham for a friend” (4:125).
IN ORDER TO BE SUCCESSFUL WE MUST OBEY BOTH GOD AND HIS MESSENGER
Sermon: “Oh people, reflect on my words. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my example and if you follow these, you will not fail.”
Quran: “And obey God and the Messenger so that you may receive mercy” (3:132).
OBSERVE THE PILLARS OF ISLAM
Sermon: “Listen to me carefully. Worship God and offer prescribed prayer, observe fasting in the month of Ramadan and pay the poor-due.”
Quran: “And establish the prescribed prayer, practice regular charity and bow down with those who bow down” (2:43). “Oh you who believe, fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you that you may learn self-restraint” (2:183).
DUTIES REGARDING THOSE WORKING UNDER US
Sermon: “Oh people, be mindful of those who work under you. Feed and clothe them as you feed and clothe yourselves.”
Quran: “Act kindly just as God treated you kindly” (28:77). “God has favored some of you over their provisions to those whom their right hand controls so that they become equal (partners) in it. Would they thus disclaim God’s favor” (16:71).
MUHAMMAD WAS THE LAST PROPHET
Sermon: “Oh people, no prophet or messenger will come after me and no new faith will emerge.”
Quran: “Muhammad is not the father of any of you men but he is God’s Messenger and the Seal of Prophets. God is aware of everything” (33:40).
OUR DUTY IS TO SPREAD THE MESSAGE OF THE PROPHET (QURAN)
Sermon: “All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again (and people did).
Quran: “Oh Messenger, communicate whatever has been sent down to you by your Lord. If you do not do so, you will not have conveyed his message” (5:67).
Sermon: Have I conveyed the Message of God to you? asked the Prophet facing towards the heavens. The audience answered in one voice, “You have, God is the witness.”
Quran: As the Messenger finished the following revelation came to him, “Today I have perfected your religion for you, completed my favors upon you and have chosen for you Islam as the way of life for you” (5:3).