Surah ‘An-Nisaa
سورة النساء

Tafsir : Al-Quranul Kareem
Surah ‘An-Nisaa | The Women
Chapter 4: Part Three
Revealed in: Madinah

Part One | Part Two | Part Three | Part Four

Decorative Lines

Bismillah

94

4:94.| O you who believe! When you go (to fight) in the cause of Allah, verify (the truth), and say not to anyone who greets you: “You are not a believer;” seeking the perishable goods of the worldly life. There is much more benefit with Allah. Even as he is now, so were you yourselves before, till Allah conferred on you His Favors, therefore, be cautious in discrimination. Allah is Ever Well-Aware of what you do.

Greeting With The Salam
Is a Sign of Islam

Allah says;

”O you who believe! When you go (to fight) in the cause of Allah, verify (the truth), and say not to anyone who greets you: “You are not a believer;” seeking the perishable goods of the worldly life.”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ikrimah said that Ibn Abbas said,

“A man from Bani Sulaym, who was tending a flock of sheep, passed by some of the Companions of the Prophet and said Salam to them. They said (to each other), `He only said Salam to protect himself from us.’ Then they attacked him and killed him.

They brought his sheep to the Prophet, and this Ayah was revealed,

(O you who believe!), … until the end of the Ayah.”

At-Tirmidhi recorded this in his (chapter on) Tafsir, and said, “This Hadith is Hasan, and it is also reported from Usamah bin Zayd.”

Al-Hakim also recorded it and said, “Its chain is Sahih, but they did not collect it.”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas commented;

(and say not to anyone who greets you: “You are not a believer),”

“A man was tending his sheep and the Muslims caught up with him. He said, `As-Salamu Alaykum.’ However, they killed him and took his sheep. Allah revealed the Ayah;

(And say not to anyone who greets you: “You are not a believer; seeking the perishable goods of the worldly life).”

Ibn Abbas said; “The goods of this world were those sheep.” And he recited, (Peace).”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Qa`qa bin Abdullah bin Abi Hadrad narrated that his father Abdullah bin Abi Hadrad said,

“The Messenger of Allah sent us to (the area of) Idam. I rode out with a group of Muslims that included Abu Qatadah, Al-Harith bin Rabi and Muhallam bin Juthamah bin Qays. We continued on until we reached the area of Idam, where `Amr bin Al-Adbat Al-Ashja`i passed by us on his camel.

When he passed by us he said Salam to us, and we did not attack him. Because of some previous problems with him, Muhallam bin Juthamah killed him and took his camel. When we went back to the Messenger of Allah and told him what had happened, a part of the Qur’an was revealed about us,

(O you who believe! When you go (to fight) in the cause of Allah), until, (Well-Aware).”

Only Ahmad recorded this Hadith.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said to Al-Miqdad, You killed a believing man who hid his faith with disbelieving people, after he had announced his faith to you. Remember that you used to hide your faith in Makkah before.

Al-Bukhari recorded this shorter version without a complete chain of narrators.

However a longer version with a connected chain of narrators has also been recorded.

Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

“The Messenger of Allah sent a military expedition under the authority of Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad and when they reached the designated area, they found the people had dispersed.

However, a man with a lot of wealth did not leave and said, `I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’

Yet, Al-Miqdad killed him, and a man said to him, `You killed a man after he proclaimed: `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. By Allah I will mention what you did to the Prophet.’

When they went back to the Messenger of Allah, they said, `O Messenger of Allah! Al-Miqdad killed a man who testified that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’

He said,

Summon Al-Miqdad before me. O Miqdad! Did you kill a man who proclaimed, “There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.” What would you do when you face, “There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah tomorrow!”

Allah then revealed;

O you who believe! When you go (to fight) in the cause of Allah, verify (the truth), and say not to anyone who greets you: “You are not a believer;” seeking the perishable goods of the worldly life.

There are much more profits and booties with Allah. Even as he is now, so were you yourselves before till Allah conferred on you His Favors, therefore, be cautious in discrimination.

The Messenger of Allah said to Al-Miqdad,

He was a believing man who hid his faith among disbelieving people, and he announced his faith to you, but you killed him, although you used to hide your faith before, in Makkah.”

Allah’s statement,

There is much more benefit with Allah.

… means, better than what you desired of worldly possessions which made you kill the one who greeted you with the Salam and pronounced his faith to you. Yet, you ignored all this and accused him of hypocrisy, to acquire the gains of this life.

However, the pure wealth with Allah is far better than what you acquired.

Allah’s statement,

”… so were you yourselves before, till Allah conferred on you His Favors.”

… means, beforehand, you used to be in the same situation like this person who hid his faith from his people.

We mentioned the relevant Hadiths above.

Allah said,

‘’And remember when you were few and were reckoned weak in the land.’’ (8:26)

Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr

commented about Allah’s statement, were you yourselves before),

“You used to hide your faith, just as this shepherd hid his faith.”

Allah said,

”… therefore, be cautious in discrimination, then said, Allah is Ever Well-Aware of what you do.”

Sa`id bin Jubayr stated, this part of the Ayah contains a threat and a warning.

95

4:95.| Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled, and those who strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit (at home). Unto each, Allah has promised good (Paradise), but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home), by a huge reward.

96

4:96.| Degrees of (higher) grades from Him, and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

The Mujahid and Those Who Do Not
Join Jihad are Not the Same,
(and Jihad is Fard Kifayah)

Allah says;

Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled, and those who strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit (at home).

Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ said, “When the Ayah, was revealed, the Messenger of Allah called Zayd and commanded him to write it. Then, Ibn Umm Maktum came and mentioned that he was blind.

Allah revealed,

”except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame).”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d As-Sa`di said,

“I saw Marwan bin Al-Hakam sitting in the Masjid. I came and sat by his side. He told us that Zayd bin Thabit told him that Allah’s Messenger dictated this Ayah to him, (Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled, and those who strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah).

Ibn Umm Maktum came to the Prophet as he was dictating that very Ayah to me. Ibn Umm Maktum said, `O Allah’s Messenger! By Allah, if I had power, I would surely take part in Jihad.’

He was a blind man. So Allah sent down revelation to His Messenger while his thigh was on mine and it became so heavy for me that I feared that my thigh would be broken.

That ended after Allah revealed,

‘’… except those who are disabled.”

This was recorded by Al-Bukhari.

At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn Abbas said,

(Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled),

… refers to those who did not go to the battle of Badr and those who went to Badr.

When the battle of Badr was about to occur, Abu Ahmad bin Jahsh and Ibn Umm Maktum said,

`We are blind, O Messenger of Allah! Do we have an excuse?’

The Ayah, (Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled) was revealed.

‘’Allah made those who fight, above those who sit in their homes not hindered by disability. (but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home), by a huge reward.’’

Degrees of (higher) grades from Him), above the believers who sit at home without a disability hindering them.”

This is the wording recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said, “Hasan Gharib”.

Allah’s statement,

(Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home))

… this is general. Soon after, the revelation came down with,

(except those who are disabled).

So whoever has a disability, such as blindness, a limp, or an illness that prevents them from joining Jihad, they were not compared to the Mujahidin who strive in Allah’s cause with their selves and wealth, as those who are not disabled and did not join the Jihad were.

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said;

There are people who remained in Al-Madinah, who were with you in every march you marched and every valley you crossed.

They said, “While they are still in Al-Madinah, O Messenger of Allah?”

He said,

Yes. Only their disability hindered them (from joining you).

Allah said,

Unto each, Allah has promised good,

… meaning, Paradise and tremendous rewards.

This Ayah indicates that Jihad is not Fard on each and every individual, but it is Fard Kifayah (which is a collective duty).

Allah then said,

‘’… but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home), by a huge reward.’’

Allah mentions what He has given them rooms in Paradise, along with His forgiveness and the descent of mercy and blessing on them, as a favor and honor from Him.

So He said;

Degrees of (higher) grades from Him, and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,

‘’There are a hundred grades in Paradise that Allah has prepared for the Mujahidin in His cause, between each two grades is the distance between heaven and Earth.’’

97

4:97.| Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves, they (angels) say (to them): “In what (condition) were you!” They reply: “We were weak and oppressed on the earth.” They (angels) say: “Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to emigrate therein!” Such men will find their abode in Hell – what an evil destination!

98

4:98.| Except the weak ones among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way.

99

4:99.| These are they whom Allah is likely to forgive them, and Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.

100

4:100.| He who emigrates in the cause of Allah, will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by. And whosoever leaves his home as an emigrant unto Allah and His Messenger, and death overtakes him, his reward is then surely incumbent upon Allah. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

The Prohibition of Residing
Among the Disbelievers
While Able to Emigrate

Allah says;

‘’Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves,’’

Al-Bukhari recorded that Muhammad bin Abdur-Rahman, Abu Al-Aswad, said,

“The people of Al-Madinah were forced to prepare an army (to fight against the people of Ash-Sham during the Khilafah of Abdullah bin Az-Zubayir at Makkah), and I was enlisted in it.

Then I met Ikrimah, the freed slave of Ibn Abbas, and informed him (about it), and he forbade me strongly from doing so (i.e., to enlist in that army), and then he said to me,

`Ibn Abbas told me that some Muslims used to go out with the idolators increasing the size of their army against the Messenger of Allah. Then, an arrow would hit one of them and kill him, or he would be struck on his neck (with a sword) and killed, and Allah sent down the Ayah,

‘’Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves.”

Ad-Dahhak stated that; this Ayah was revealed about some hypocrites who did not join the Messenger of Allah but remained in Makkah and went out with the idolators for the battle of Badr.

They were killed among those who were killed.

Thus, this honorable Ayah was revealed about those who reside among the idolators, while able to perform Hijrah and unable to practice the faith.

Such people will be committing injustice against themselves and falling into a prohibition according to the consensus and also according to this Ayah,

(Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves), by refraining from Hijrah.

They (angels) say (to them): “In what (condition) were you!”

… meaning, why did you remain here and not perform Hijrah!

They reply: “We were weak and oppressed on the earth.”

… meaning, we are unable to leave the land or move about in the earth.

They (angels) say: “Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to emigrate therein!”

Such men will find their abode in Hell – what an evil destination!

Abu Dawud recorded that; Samurah bin Jundub said that the Messenger of  Allah said,

‘’Whoever mingles with the idolator and resides with him, he is just like him.’’

Allah’s statement,

‘’Except the weak ones among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way. ‘’

…. is an excuse that Allah gives for this type of people not to emigrate, because they are unable to free themselves from the idolators. And even if they did, they would not know which way to go.

This is why Allah said,

(Who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way),

… meaning, they do not find the way to emigrate, as Mujahid, Ikrimah and As-Suddi stated.

Allah’s statement,

‘’These are they whom Allah is likely to forgive them,’’

means, pardon them for not migrating, and here, `likely’ means He shall,

… and Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said,

“While the Messenger of Allah was praying `Isha’, he said, `Sami` Allahu Liman Hamidah.’ He then said before he prostrated,

O Allah! Save Ayyash bin Abi Rabi`ah. O Allah!

Save Salamah bin Hisham. O Allah! Save Al-Walid bin Al-Walid. O Allah! Save the weak Muslims. O Allah! Be very hard on Mudar tribe. O Allah! Afflict them with years (of famine) similar to the (famine) years of the time of Prophet Yusuf.)”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu An-Nu`man said that Hammad bin Zayd said that Ayub narrated that Ibn Abi Mulaykah said that Ibn Abbas commented on the verse, (Except the weak ones among men),

“I and my mother were among those (weak ones) whom Allah excused.”

Allah’s statement,

He who emigrates in the cause of Allah, will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by. this encourages the believers to perform Hijrah and abandon the idolators, for wherever the believer emigrates, he will find a safe refuge to resort to.

Mujahid said that, (many dwelling places) means, he will find a way out of what he dislikes.

Allah’s statement,

(and plenty to live by). … refers to provision.

Qatadah also said that, (…will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by) means, Allah will take him from misguidance to guidance and from poverty to richness.

Allah’s statement,

And whosoever leaves his home as an emigrant unto Allah and His Messenger, and death overtakes him, his reward is then surely, incumbent upon Allah.

… means, whoever starts emigrating and dies on the way, he will acquire the reward of those who emigrate for Allah.

The Two Sahihs, along with the Musnad and Sunan compilers, recorded that Umar bin Al-Khattab said that the Messenger of Allah said,

The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions, and every person will be rewarded according to what he has intended. So, whoever emigrated to Allah and His Messenger, then his emigration is for Allah and His Messenger. And whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration is for what he emigrated for.

This Hadith is general, it applies to Hijrah as well as every other deed.

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that; a man killed ninety-nine people and completed the number one hundred when he killed a worshipper. He then asked a scholar if he has a chance to repent. The scholar said, “What prevents you from repentance!” The scholar told the killer to emigrate from his land to another land where Allah is worshipped.

When he left his land and started on the migration to the other land, death overtook him on the way.

The angels of mercy and the angels of torment disputed about the man, whereas the former said that he went out in repentance, while the latter said that he did not arrive at his destination.

They were commanded to measure the distance between the two lands and to whichever land he is closer to, he will be considered part of that land.

Allah commanded that the righteous land to move closer and the land of evil to move farther. The angels found that he died closer to the land that he intended to emigrate to by a hand-span, and thus the angels of mercy captured his soul.

In another narration, when death came to that man, he moved his chest towards the righteous village that he emigrated to.

And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

101

4:101.| And when you Darabtum in the land, there is no sin on you if you shorten the Salah if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial, verily, the disbelievers are ever unto you open enemies.

Salat Al-Qasr,
Shortening the Prayer

Allah said,

 ‘’And when you Darabtum in the land,’’

… meaning if you travel in the land.

In another Ayah, Allah said,

He knows that there will be some among you sick, others Yadribuna (traveling) through the land, seeking of Allah’s bounty…). (73:20)

Allah’s statement,

… there is no sin on you if you shorten the Salah (prayer), by reducing (the units of the prayer) from four to two.

Allah’s statement,

… if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial (attack you),

… refers to the typical type of fear prevalent when this Ayah was revealed.

In the beginning of Islam, and after the Hijrah, Muslims used to experience fear during most of their travels.

Rather, they restricted their movements to large or short military expeditions. During that era, most areas were areas of combatant enemies of Islam and its people. But when the prevalent circumstances cease, or a new situation is prevalent, decrees of this nature may not be understood, as Allah said;

”And force not your slave girls to prostitution, if they desire chastity.” (24:33)

And His saying;

”And your stepdaughters, under your guardianship, born of your wives whom you have gone into.” (24:23)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ya`la bin Umayyah said, “I asked `Umar bin Al-Khattab about the verse:

(there is no sin on you if you shorten the prayer. If you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial), `Allah granted Muslims safety now.’

Umar said to me, `I wondered about the same thing and asked the Messenger of Allah about it and he said,

A gift that Allah has bestowed on you, so accept His gift.”

Muslim and the collectors of Sunan recorded this Hadith.

At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih”.

Ali bin Al-Madini said, “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih from the narration of Umar, and it is not preserved by any other route besides this one, and its narrators are all known.”

Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah recorded that Abu Hanzalah Al-Hadha’ said,

“I asked Ibn Umar about the Qasr prayer and he said, `It consists of two Rak`ahs.’

I said, what about Allah’s statement, (if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial (attack you), `We are safe now.’

He said, `This is the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah.”’

Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said, “We went out with the Messenger of Allah from Al-Madinah to Makkah; he used to pray two Rak`ahs until we went back to Al-Madinah.”

When he was asked how long they remained in Makkah, he said, “We remained in Makkah for ten days.”

This was recorded by the Group.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Harithah bin Wahb Al-Khuza`i said, “I prayed behind the Prophet for the Zuhr and `Asr prayers in Mina, when the people were numerous and very safe, and he prayed two Rak`ahs.”

This was recorded by the Group, with the exception of Ibn Majah.

Al-Bukhari’s narration of this Hadith reads, “The Prophet led us in the prayer at Mina during the peace period by offering two Rak`ahs.”

Allah’s statement,

… verily, the disbelievers are ever unto you open enemies.

102

4:102.| When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in Salah, let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with you, taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which have not yet prayed, and let them pray with you, taking all the precautions and bearing arms.

‘’Those who disbelieve wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush, but there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves. Verily, Allah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers.’’

The Description of The Fear Prayer

Allah says;

”When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in Salah, let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with you, taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which have not yet prayed, and let them pray with you, taking all the precautions and bearing arms. Those who disbelieve wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush,”

The Fear prayer has different forms, for the enemy is sometimes in the direction of the Qiblah and sometimes in another direction.

The Fear prayer consists sometimes of four Rak`ahs, three Rak`ahs, as for Maghrib, and sometimes two Rak`ah like Fajr and prayer during travel.

The Fear prayer is sometimes prayed in congregation, but when the battle is raging, congregational prayer may not be possible. In this case, they pray each by himself, facing the Qiblah or otherwise, riding or on foot. In this situation, they are allowed to walk and fight, all the while performing the acts of the prayer.

Some scholars said that in the latter case, they pray only one Rak`ah, for Ibn Abbas narrated,

“By the words of your Prophet, Allah has ordained the prayer of four Rak`ah while residing, two Rak`ah during travel, and one Rak`ah during fear.”

Muslim, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah recorded it.

This is also the view of Ahmad bin Hanbal.

Al-Mundhiri said, “This is the saying of Ata, Jabir, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Al-Hakam, Qatadah and Hammad; and Tawus and Ad-Dahhak also preferred it.”

Abu Asim Al-Abadi mentioned that Muhammad bin Nasr Al-Marwazi said, the Fajr prayer also becomes one Rak`ah during fear.

This is also the opinion of Ibn Hazm.

Ishaq bin Rahwayh said, “When a battle is raging, one Rak`ah during which you nod your head is sufficient for you. If you are unable, then one prostration is sufficient, because the prostration is remembrance of Allah.”

The Reason behind Revealing this Ayah Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Ayyash Az-Zuraqi said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah in the area of Usfan (a well known place near Makkah), when the idolators met us under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid, and they were between us and the Qiblah. The Messenger of Allah led us in Zuhr prayer, and the idolators said, `They were busy with something during which we had a chance to attack them.’

They then said, `Next, there will come a prayer (`Asr) that is dearer to them than their children and themselves.’

However, Jibril came down with these Ayat between the prayers of Zuhr and `Asr, (When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in Salah (prayer)).

When the time for prayer came, the Messenger of Allah commanded Muslims to hold their weapons and he made us stand in two lines behind him. When he bowed, we all bowed behind him. When he raised his head, we all raised our heads.

The Prophet then prostrated with the line that was behind him while the rest stood in guard. When they finished with the prostration and stood up, the rest sat and performed prostration, while those who performed it stood up in guard after the two lines exchanged position.

The Prophet then bowed and they all bowed after him, then raised their heads after he raised his head. Then the Prophet performed prostration with the line that was behind him, while the rest stood in guard. When those who made prostration sat, the rest prostrated.

The Prophet then performed the Taslim and ended the prayer.

The Messenger of Allah performed this prayer twice, once in Usfan and once in the land of Banu Sulaym.”’

This is the narration recorded by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i, and it has an authentic chain of narration and many other texts to support it.

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “Once the Prophet led the Fear prayer and the people stood behind him. He said Allahu-Akbar and the people said the same. He bowed and some of them bowed.

Then he prostrated and they also prostrated. Then he stood for the second Rak`ah and those who had prayed the first Rak`ah left and guarded their brothers. The second party joined him and performed bowing and prostration with him. All the people were in prayer, but they were guarding one another during the prayer.”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said that; the Messenger of Allah led them in the Fear prayer. A group of them stood before him and a group behind him.

The Prophet led those who were behind him with one Rak`ah and two prostrations. They then moved to the position of those who did not pray, while the others stood in their place, and the Messenger of Allah performed one Rak`ah and two prostrations and then said the Salam. Therefore, the Prophet prayed two Rak`ah while they prayed one.

An-Nasa’i recorded this Hadith, while Muslim collected other wordings for it.

Collectors of the Sahih, Sunan and Musnad collections recorded this in a Hadith from Jabir.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Salim said that; his father said,

(When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in Salah (prayer)) refers to the Fear prayer.

The Messenger of Allah led one group and prayed one Rak`ah, while the second group faced the enemy. Then the second group that faced the enemy came and Allah’s Messenger led them, praying one Rak`ah, and then said the Salam. Each of the two groups then stood up and prayed one more Rak`ah each (while the other group stood in guard).”

The Group collected this Hadith with Ma`mar in its chain of narrators.

This Hadith also has many other chains of narration from several Companions, and Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah collected these various narrations, as did Ibn Jarir.

As for the command to hold the weapons during the Fear prayer, a group of scholars said that it is obligatory according to the Ayah.

What testifies to this is that Allah said;

‘’But there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves, meaning, so that when necessary, you will be able to get to your weapons easily. Verily, Allah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers.’’

103

4:103.| When you have finished the Salah, remember Allah standing, sitting down, and on your sides, but when you are free from danger, perform the Salah. Verily, Salah is kitaban on the believers at fixed hours.

104

4:104.| And don’t be weak in the pursuit of the enemy; if you are suffering (hardships) then surely they (too) are suffering (hardships) as you are suffering, but you have a hope from Allah (for the reward, i.e. Paradise) that for which they hope not; and Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.

The Order for Ample Remembrance
After the Fear Prayer

Allah says;

”When you have finished the Salah, remember Allah standing, sitting down, and on your sides,”

Allah commands Dhikr after finishing the Fear prayer, in particular, even though such Dhikr is encouraged after finishing other types of prayer in general. In the case of Fear prayer, Dhikr is encouraged even more because the pillars of the prayer are diminished since they move about while performing it, etc., unlike other prayers.

Allah said about the Sacred Months, (so wrong not yourselves therein), (9:36) even though injustice is prohibited all year long.

However, injustice is particularly outlawed during the Sacred Months due to their sanctity and honor.

So Allah’s statement,

‘’When you have finished Salah, remember Allah standing, sitting down, and on your sides,’’

… means, in all conditions,

But when you are free from danger perform the Salah. when you are safe, tranquil and fear subsides, (perform the Salah), by performing it as you were commanded; fulfilling its obligations, with humbleness, completing the bowing and prostration positions etc.

Allah’s statement,

”Verily, the Salah is Kitaban on the believers at fixed hours.”

… means, enjoined, as Ibn Abbas stated.

Ibn Abbas also said, “The prayer has a fixed time, just as the case with Hajj.”

Similar is reported from Mujahid, Salim bin Abdullah, Ali bin Al-Husayn, Muhammad bin Ali, Al-Hasan, Muqatil. As-Suddi and Atiyah Al-Awfi.

The Encouragement to Pursue
The Enemy Despite Injuries

Allah’s statement,

”And don’t be weak in the pursuit of the enemy,”

… means, do not weaken your resolve in pursuit of your enemy. Rather, pursue them vigorously, fight them and be wary of them.

… if you are suffering then surely they are suffering as you are suffering,

… meaning, just as you suffer from injuries and death, the same happens to the enemy.

In another Ayah, Allah said,

‘’If you suffer a harm, be sure a similar harm has struck the others.’’ (3:140)

Allah then said,

”… but you have a hope from Allah that for which they hope not,”

… meaning, you and they are equal regarding the injuries and pain that you suffer from. However, you hope for Allah’s reward, victory and aid, just as He has promised you in His Book and by the words of his Messenger. Surely, Allah’s promise is true.

On the other hand, your enemies do not have hope for any of this.

‘’So, it is you, not they, who should be eager to fight so that you establish the Word of Allah and raise it high. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.’’

… means, He is most knowledgeable and wise in all what He decides, decrees, wills and acts on concerning various worldly and religious ordainments, and He is worthy of praise in all conditions.

105

4:105.| Surely, We have sent down to you (O Muhammad ) the Book in truth that you might judge between men by that which Allah has shown you, so be not a pleader for the treacherous.

106

4:106.| And seek the forgiveness of Allah, certainly, Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

107

4:107.| And argue not on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Verily, Allah does not like anyone who is a betrayer, sinner.

108

4:108.| They may hide (their crimes) from men, but they cannot hide (them) from Allah; for He is with them (by His knowledge), when they plot by night in words that He does not approve. And Allah ever encompasses what they do.

109

4:109.| Lo! You are those who have argued for them in the life of this world, but who will argue for them on the Day of Resurrection against Allah, or who will then be their defender.

The Necessity of Referring
To What Allah has Revealed for Judgment

Allah says to His Messenger, Muhammad,

‘’Surely, We have sent down to you the Book in truth,’’

… meaning, it truly came from Allah and its narrations and commandments are true.

Allah then said,

… that you might judge between men by that which Allah has shown you,

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that;

Zaynab bint Umm Salamah said that Umm Salamah said that the Messenger of Allah heard the noise of disputing people close to the door of his room, and he went out to them saying, Verily, I am only human and I judge based on what I hear. Some of you might be more eloquent in presenting his case than others, so that I judge in his favor. If I judge in one’s favor concerning the right of another Muslim, then it is a piece of the Fire. So let one take it or leave it.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Umm Salamah said,

“Two men from the Ansar came to the Messenger of Allah with a dispute regarding some old inheritance, but they did not have evidence. The Messenger of Allah said,

You bring your disputes to me, but I am only human. Some of you might be more persuasive in their arguments than others. I only judge between you according to what I hear. Therefore, whomever I judge in his favor and give him a part of his brother’s right, let him not take it, for it is a part of the Fire that I am giving him and it will be tied around his neck on the Day of Resurrection.

The two men cried and each one of them said, `I forfeit my right to my brother.’

The Messenger of Allah said,

Since you said that, then go and divide the inheritance, and try to be just in your division.

Then draw lots, and each one of you should forgive his brother thereafter (regardless of who got the best share).”

… so be not a pleader for the treacherous.

And seek the forgiveness of Allah, certainly, Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

And argue not on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Verily, Allah does not like anyone who is a betrayer, sinner.

Allah’s statement,

”They may hide (their crimes) from men, but they cannot hide (them) from Allah,”

Chastises the hypocrites because they hide their evil works from the people so that they will not criticize them. Yet, the hypocrites disclose this evil with Allah, Who has perfect watch over their secrets and knows what is in their hearts.

This is why Allah said,

”…for He is with them (by His knowledge), when they plot by night in words that He does not approve. And Allah ever encompasses what they do. threatening and warning them.”

Allah then said,

”Lo! You are those who have argued for them in the life of this world,”

… meaning, suppose these people gain the verdict from the rulers in their favor in this life, since the rulers judge according to what is apparent to them.

… but who will argue for them on the Day of Resurrection against Allah,

However, what will their condition be on the Day of Resurrection before Allah, Who knows the secret and what is even more hidden Who will be his advocate on that Day Verily, none will support them that Day.

Hence, Allah’s statement,

… or who will then be their defender!

110

4:110.| And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

111

4:111.| And whoever earns sin, he earns it only against himself. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.

112

4:112.| And whoever earns a fault or a sin and then blames it on someone innocent, he has indeed burdened himself with falsehood and a manifest sin.

* * *

4:113.| Had not the grace of Allah and His mercy been upon you, a party of them would certainly have made a decision to mislead you, but they mislead none except their own selves, and no harm can they do to you in the least. Allah has sent down to you the Book, and the Hikmah, and taught you that which you knew not. And ever great is the grace of Allah unto you.

The Encouragement to Seek
Allah’s Forgiveness, and Warning
Those who Falsely Accuse Innocent People

Allah emphasizes His generosity and kindness, in that He forgives whoever repents to Him from whatever evil they commit.

Allah said,

”And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas commented about this Ayah,

“Allah informs His servants of His forgiveness, forbearing generosity and expansive mercy. So whoever commits a sin, whether minor or major,

(but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful), even if his sins were greater than the heavens, the earth and the mountains.”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ali said,

“Whenever I hear anything from the Messenger of Allah, Allah benefits me with whatever He wills of that. Abu Bakr told me, and Abu Bakr has said the truth, that the Messenger of Allah said,

No Muslim commits a sin and then performs ablution, prays two Rak`ahs and begs Allah for forgiveness for that sin, but He forgives him.

He then recited these two Ayat, !

”And whoever does evil or wrongs himself,” (4:110) and,

”And those who, when they have committed Fahishah or wronged themselves with evil.” (3:135)

Allah’s statement,

And whoever earns sin, he earns it only against himself.

is similar to His statement,

And no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another. (35:18)

So no one will avail anyone else. Rather, every soul, and none else, shall carry its own burden.

This is why Allah said,

And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.

… meaning, this occurs due to His knowledge, wisdom, fairness and mercy.

And whoever earns a fault or a sin and then blames it on someone innocent, he has indeed burdened himself with falsehood and a manifest sin.

Had not the grace of Allah and His mercy been upon you, a party of them would certainly have made a decision to mislead you, but they mislead none except their own selves, and no harm can they do to you in the least.

Allah has sent down to you the Book, and the Hikmah,

…. and taught you that which you knew not, before this revelation was sent down to you.

Similarly, Allah said,

”And thus We have sent to you (O Muhammad) a Ruh (a revelation, and a mercy) of Our command. You knew not what is the Book),” until the end of the Surah. (42:52-53)

Allah said,

”And you were not expecting that the Book (this Qur’an) would be sent down to you, but it is a mercy from your Lord.” (28:86)

So Allah said;

And ever great is the grace of Allah unto you (O Muhammad).

4:114.| There is no good in most of their secret talks save (in) him who orders Sadaqah, or goodness, or conciliation between mankind; and he who does this, seeking the good pleasure of Allah, We shall give him a great reward.

* * *

4:115.| And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger after the right path has been shown clearly to him, and follows other than the believers’ way, We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell what an evil destination!

Righteous Najwa, Secret Talk

Allah said,

”There is no good in most of their secret talks,”

… meaning, what the people say to each other.

 … save him who orders Sadaqah (charity), or goodness, or reconciliation between mankind;

… meaning, except for this type of talk.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Umm Kulthum bint Uqbah said that she heard the Messenger of Allah saying;

‘’He who brings about reconciliation between people by embellishing good or saying good things, is not a liar.’’

She also said,

“I never heard him allow what the people say (lies) except in three cases:

  • in war,
  • bringing peace between people and
  • the man’s speech (invented compliments) to his wife and her speech to her husband.”

Umm Kulthum bint Uqbah was among the immigrant women who gave their pledge of allegiance to the Messenger of Allah.

The Group also recorded this Hadith, with the exception of Ibn Majah.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Ad-Darda said that the Messenger of Allah said,

Should I tell you what is better than the grade of fasting, praying and Sadaqah?

They said, “Yes, O Allah’s Messenger!”

He said, Bringing reconciliation between people.

He also said, Spoiling the relationship (between people) is the destroyer.

Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith, and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih”.

Allah said,

”… and he who does this, seeking the good pleasure of Allah, with sincerity and awaiting the reward with Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored,”

We shall give him a great reward.

… meaning, an immense, enormous and tremendous reward.

The Punishment for Contradicting and Opposing the Messenger and Following a Path Other than That of the Believers

Allah’s statement,

”And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger after the right path has been shown clearly to him.”

… refers to whoever intentionally takes a path other than the path of the Law revealed to the Messenger, after the truth has been made clear, apparent and plain to him.

Allah’s statement,

”… and follows other than the believers’ way,”

… refers to a type of conduct that is closely related to contradicting the Messenger.

This contradiction could be in the form of contradicting a text (from the Qur’an or Sunnah) or contradicting what the Ummah of Muhammad has agreed on.

The Ummah of Muhammad is immune from error when they all agree on something, a miracle that serves to increase their honor, due to the greatness of their Prophet.

There are many authentic Hadiths on this subject.

Allah warned against the evil of contradicting the Prophet and his Ummah, when He said,

We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell — what an evil destination!

… meaning, when one goes on this wicked path, We will punish him by making the evil path appear good in his heart, and will beautify it for him so that he is tempted further.

For instance, Allah said,

”Then leave Me Alone with such as belie this Qur’an. We shall punish them gradually from directions they perceive not.” (68:44)

So when they turned away (from the path of Allah), Allah turned their hearts away. (61:5) and,

And We shall leave them in their trespass to wander blindly. (6:110)

Allah made the Fire the destination of such people in the Hereafter. Indeed, the path of those who avoid the right guidance will only lead to the Fire on the Day of Resurrection, as evident by Allah’s statements,

(It will be said to the angels): “Assemble those who did wrong, together with their companions (from the devils). (37:22) and,

”And the criminals, shall see the Fire and apprehend that they have to fall therein. And they will find no way of escape from there.” (18:53)

4:116.| Verily, Allah forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners (in worship) with Him, but He forgives whom He wills, sins other than that, and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allah, has indeed strayed far away.

* * *

4:117.| They invoke nothing but female deities besides Him (Allah), and they invoke nothing but Shaytan, a persistent rebel!

* * *

4:118.| Allah cursed him. And he (Shaytan) said: “I will take an appointed portion of your servants.”

* * *

4:119.| “Verily, I will mislead them, and surely, I will arouse in them false desires; and certainly, I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allah.” And whoever takes Shaytan as a Wali instead of Allah, has surely suffered a manifest loss.

* * *

4:120.| He (Shaytan) makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaytan’s promises are nothing but deceptions.

* * *

4:121.| The dwelling of such (people) is Hell, and they will find no way of escape from it.

* * *

4:122.| And those who believe and do righteous good deeds, We shall admit them to the Gardens under which rivers flow (i.e. in Paradise) to dwell therein forever. Allah’s promise is the truth; and whose words can be truer than those of Allah!

Shirk Shall not be Forgiven,
In Reality the Idolators
Worship Shaytan

We talked about Allah’s statement,

‘’Verily, Allah forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners (in worship) with Him, but He forgives whom He wills, sins other than that,’’

… before (Ayah 48) and mentioned the relevant Hadiths in the beginning of this Surah.

Allah’s statement,

”… and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allah, has indeed strayed far away.”

… means, he will have taken other than the true path, deviated from guidance and righteousness, destroyed himself in this life and the Hereafter, and lost contentment in this life and the Hereafter.

They invoke nothing but female deities besides Him (Allah),

Juwaybir said that Ad-Dahhak said about Allah’s statement,

“The idolators claimed that the angels are Allah’s daughters, saying, `We only worship them so that they bring us closer to Allah.’

So they took the angels as gods, made the shapes of girls and decided, `These (idols) resemble the daughters of Allah (i.e., the angels),

Whom we worship.”’

This is similar to Allah’s statements,

Have you then considered Al-Lat and Al-`Uzza! (53:19)

And they make the angels who themselves are servants of the Most Gracious (Allah) females. (43:19)

And they have invented a kinship between Him and the Jinn. (37:158)

Allah’s statement,

”… and they invoke nothing but Shaytan, a persistent rebel!”

… means, Shaytan has commanded them to do this and made it seem fair and beautiful in their eyes. Consequently, they are worshipping Shaytan in reality, just as Allah said in another Ayah, Did I not command you,

‘’O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytan.’’ (36:60)

”Allah said that, on the Day of Resurrection, the angels shall proclaim about the idolators who worshipped them in this life: Nay, but they used to worship the Jinn; most of them were believers in them.” (34:41)

Allah’s statement,

‘’Allah cursed him,’’

… means, He expelled him and banished him from His mercy and His grace.

And he (Shaytan) said: “I will take an appointed portion of your servants”

… means, a fixed and known share.

Muqatil bin Hayyan commented, “From every one thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine will go to the Fire and one to Paradise.”

… and surely, I will arouse in them false desires; tempting them to feign repentance, arousing false hopes in them, encouraging them to delay and procrastinate with righteous deeds, deceiving them.

… and certainly, I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, Qatadah and As-Suddi stated,

…. meaning, slitting their ears to designate them as Bahirah, Sa’ibah, and a Wasilah.

And indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allah.

According to Al-Hasan bin Abi Al-Hasan Al-Basri,

… means tattooing.

In his Sahih, Muslim recorded the prohibition of tattooing the face, which in one of its wordings states:

“May Allah curse whoever does this.”

It is also recorded in the Sahih that Ibn Mas`ud said, “May Allah curse those who have tattoos and those who do it, who pluck their (facial) hairs and the one who does it for them, and those who make spaces between their teeth for the purpose of beauty, changing what Allah has created.”

He then said,

“Why should not I curse whom the Messenger of Allah has cursed, when the Book of Allah commands it,” referring to the Ayah,

And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). (59:7)

Allah’s statement,

And whoever takes Shaytan as a Wali (protector or helper) instead of Allah, has surely suffered a manifest loss.

… means, he will have lost this life and the Hereafter.

Indeed, this is a type of loss that cannot be compensated or restored.

Allah’s statement,

He (Shaytan) makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; explains the true reality. Surely, Shaytan deceitfully promises his supporters and tempts them into believing that they are winners in this and the Hereafter.

This is why Allah said,

(and Shaytan’s promises are nothing but deceptions).

Allah states that on the Day of Return,

And Shaytan will say when the matter has been decided: “Verily, Allah promised you a promise of truth. And I too promised you, but I betrayed you. I had no authority over you, until,

(Verily, there is a painful torment for the wrongdoers). (14:22)

Allah’s statement,

… of such (people),

… refers to those who like and prefer what Shaytan is promising and assuring them of.

The dwelling of such (people) is Hell, as their destination and abode on the Day of Resurrection,

… and they will find no way of escape from it.

… meaning, they will not be able to avoid, avert, evade or elude the Hellfire.

The Reward of Righteous Believers Allah then mentions the condition of the content righteous believers and the perfect honor they will earn in the end.

Allah said,

And those who believe and do righteous good deeds,

… meaning, their hearts were truthful and their limbs obedient with the righteous acts they were commanded, all the while abandoning the evil they were prohibited from doing.

We shall admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise).

… meaning, they will think of where they want these rivers to flow and they will flow there,

… to dwell therein forever, without end or being removed from it.

‘’Allah’s promise is the truth,’’

… meaning, this is a true promise from Allah, and verily, Allah’s promise shall come to pass.

Allah then said,

”… and whose words can be truer than those of Allah!”

… meaning, none is more truthful in statement and narration than Allah. There is no deity worthy of worship, or Lord except Him.

The Messenger of Allah used to proclaim in his speech, The most truthful speech is Allah’s Speech, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. The worst matters are the newly invented (in religion), every newly invented matter is an innovation, and every innovation is a heresy, and every heresy is in the Fire.

4:123.| It will not be in accordance with your desires, nor those of the People of the Scripture, whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof, and he will not find any protector or helper besides Allah.

* * *

4:124.| And whoever does righteous good deeds, male or female, and is a believer, such will enter Paradise and not the least injustice, even to the size of a Naqir, will be done to them.

* * *

4:125.| And who can be better in religion than one who submits his face (himself) to Allah; and he is a Muhsin (a doer of good). And follows the religion of Ibrahim the Hanif (Monotheist). And Allah did take Ibrahim as a Khalil (an intimate friend)!

* * *

4:126.| And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is Ever Encompassing all things.

Success is Only Achieved by Performing Righteous Deeds, not Wishful Thinking

Allah says;

… It will not be in accordance with your desires, nor those of the People of the Scripture, whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof,

Qatadah said, “We were told that the Muslims and the People of the Scriptures mentioned their own virtues to each other.

People of the Scriptures said, `Our Prophet came before your Prophet and our Book before your Book. Therefore, we should have more right to Allah than you have.’

Muslims said, `Rather, we have more right to Allah than you, our Prophet is the Final Prophet and our Book supersedes all the Books before it.’

Allah sent down,

It will not be in accordance with your desires (Muslims), nor those of the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof, And who can be better in religion than one who submits his face (himself) to Allah; and he is a Muhsin.

Allah then supported the argument of the Muslims against their opponents of the other religions.”

Similar statements were attributed to As-Suddi, Masruq, Ad-Dahhak and Abu Salih.

Al-Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas commented on this Ayah (4:123)

“The followers of various religions disputed, the people of the Tawrah said, `Our Book is the best Book and our Prophet (Musa) is the best Prophet.’

The people of the Injil said similarly, the people of Islam said, `There is no religion except Islam, our Book has abrogated every other Book, our Prophet is the Final Prophet, and you were commanded to believe in your Books and adhere to our Book.’

Allah judged between them, saying,

‘’It will not be in accordance with your desires, nor those of the People of the Scripture, whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof.”

This Ayah indicates that the religion is not accepted on account of wishful thinking or mere hopes. Rather, the accepted religion relies on what resides in the heart and which is made truthful through actions. It is not true that when one utters a claim to something, he attains it merely on account of his claim. It is not true that every person who claims to be on the truth is considered as such, merely on account of his words, until his claim gains merit with proof from Allah.

Hence Allah’s statement,

It will not be in accordance with your desires, nor those of the People of the Scripture, whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof, meaning safety will not be acquired by you or them just by wishful thinking. Rather, the key is in obeying Allah and following what He has legislated through the words of His honorable Messengers.

This is why Allah said afterwards,

(whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof).

Similarly, Allah said,

‘’So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom, shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom, shall see it.’’ (99:7-8)

and it was reported that when these Ayat were revealed, they became hard on many Companions.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Aishah said, “I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I know the hardest Ayah in the Qur’an.’

He said, `What is it, O Aishah!’ I said,  (whoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof).

He said, That is what strikes the believing servant, even the problems that bother him.”

Ibn Jarir and Abu Dawud also recorded this Hadith.

Sa`id bin Mansur recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “When the Ayah,

(whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof) was revealed, it was hard on Muslims.

The Messenger of Allah said to them,

Be steadfast and seek closeness. Everything that afflicts the Muslim, even the thorn that pierces his skin and the hardship he suffers, will be an expiation for him.”

This is the wording collected by Ahmad through Sufyan bin Uyaynah.

Muslim and At-Tirmidhi also recorded it.

Allah’s statement,

‘’… and he will not find any protector or helper besides Allah,’’

Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said; “Unless he repents and Allah forgives him.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded it.

Allah then said,

‘’And whoever does righteous good deeds, male or female, and is a believer,’’

Allah mentions the recompense for evil actions and that He will surely inflict its punishment on the servant, either in this life, which is better for him, or in the Hereafter, we seek refuge with Allah from this end.

We also beg Allah for our well-being in this life and the Hereafter and for His forgiveness, mercy and pardon.

Allah then mentions His kindness, generosity and mercy in accepting the good deeds from His servants, whether male or female, with the condition that they embrace the faith.

… such will enter Paradise and not the least injustice, even to the size of a Naqir, will be done to them.

Allah stated that He will admit the believers into Paradise and will not withhold any of their righteous deeds, even the weight of a Naqir – speck on the back of a date-stone.

Earlier, we discussed the Fatil – the scalish thread in the long slit of a date-stone, and both of these, along with the Qitmir — the thin membrane over the date-stone were mentioned in the Qur’an.

Allah then said,

”And who can be better in religion than one who submits his face to Allah.”

… meaning, performs the good actions in sincerity for his Lord with faith and awaiting the reward with Allah.

… and he is a Muhsin, following the correct guidance that Allah legislated in the religion of truth which He sent His Messenger with.

These are the two conditions, in the absence of which no deed will be accepted from anyone;

  • sincerity and

The work is sincere when it is performed for Allah alone and it becomes correct when it conforms to the Shariah.

So, the deed becomes outwardly correct with following the Sunnah and inwardly correct with sincerity. When any deed lacks either of these two conditions, the deed becomes null and void.

For instance, when one lacks the pillar of sincerity in his work, he becomes a hypocrite who shows off for people. Whoever does not follow the Shariah, he becomes an ignorant, wicked person. When one combines both pillars, his actions will be the deeds of the faithful believers whose best deeds are accepted from them and their errors erased.

Consequently, Allah said,

And follows the religion of Ibrahim the Hanif (Monotheist).

… referring to Muhammad and his following, until the Day of Resurrection.

Allah said,

Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him, and this Prophet. (3:68) and,

Then, We have sent the Revelation to you (saying): “Follow the religion of Ibrahim the Hanif (Monotheist) and he was not of the Mushrikin. (16:123)

The Hanif, intentionally and with knowledge, avoids Shirk, he goes attentively to the truth, allowing no one to hinder him or stop him from it.

Ibrahim is Allah’s Khalil

Allah’s statement,

”And Allah did take Ibrahim as a Khalil (an intimate friend)! encourages following Ibrahim Al-Khalil, because he was and still is an Imam whose conduct is followed and imitated.

Indeed, Ibrahim reached the ultimate closeness to Allah that the servants seek, for he attained the grade of Khalil, which is the highest grade of love. He acquired all this due to his obedience to His Lord, just as Allah has described him,

”And of Ibrahim, the one who fulfilled,” (53:37)

”And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim tried him with (certain) commands, which he fulfilled).” (2:124)

”Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah, obedient to Allah, a Hanif, and he was not one of the Mushrikin.” (16:120)

Al-Bukhari recorded that `Amr bin Maymun said that; when Mu`adh came back from Yemen, he led them in the Fajr prayer and recited, (And Allah did take Ibrahim as a Khalil!)

One of the men present commented, “Surely, the eye of Ibrahim’s mother has been comforted.”

Ibrahim was called Allah’s Khalil due to his Lord’s great love towards him, on account of the acts of obedience he performed that Allah loves and prefers.

We should mention here that in the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that; when the Messenger of Allah gave them his last speech, he said,

O people! If I were to take a Khalil from the people of the earth, I would have taken Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah as my Khalil. However, your companion (meaning himself) is the Khalil of Allah.

Jundub bin Abdullah Al-Bajali, Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As and Abdullah bin Mas`ud narrated that the Prophet said, Allah has chosen me as His Khalil, just as He has chosen Ibrahim as His Khalil.

Allah’s statement,

And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth.

… means, everything and everyone are His property, servants and creation, and He has full authority over all of this. There is no one who can avert Allah’s decision or question His judgment.

He is never asked about what He does due to His might, ability, fairness, wisdom, compassion and mercy.

Allah’s statement,

‘’And Allah is Ever Encompassing all things.‘’

… means, His knowledge encompasses everything and nothing concerning His servants is ever hidden from Him. Nothing, even the weight of an atom, ever escapes His observation in the heavens and earth, nor anything smaller or bigger than that.

4:127.| They ask your legal instruction concerning women. Say: “Allah instructs you about them, and about what is recited unto you in the Book concerning the orphan girls whom you give not what they deserve and yet whom you desire to marry, and the children who are weak and oppressed, and that you stand firm for justice to orphans. And whatever good you do, Allah is Ever All-Aware  of it.

The Ruling Concerning Female Orphans

Allah says;

”They ask your instruction concerning women. Say: “Allah instructs you about them, and about what is recited unto you in the Book concerning the orphan girls whom you give not what they deserve and yet whom you desire to marry,”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Aishah said about the Ayah, “It is about the man who is taking care of a female orphan, being her caretaker and inheritor.

Her money is joined with his money to such an extent, that she shares with him even the branch of a date that he has. So he likes (for material gain) to marry her himself, and hates to marry her to another man who would have a share in his money, on account of her share in his money.

Therefore, he refuses to let her marry anyone else. So, this Ayah was revealed.”

Muslim also recorded it.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Aishah said, “The people asked Allah’s Messenger (about orphan girls), so Allah revealed,

(They ask your instruction concerning women. Say, “Allah instructs you about them and about what is recited unto you in the Book…”).

What is meant by Allah’s saying,

`And about what is recited unto you in the Book’ is the former verse (4:3) which said, (If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry (other) women of your choice.)” Aishah said,

“Allah’s statement,

”whom you desire to marry…”

… also refers to the desire of the guardian not to marry an orphan girl under his supervision when she lacks property or beauty.

The guardians were forbidden to marry their orphan girls possessing property and beauty without being just to them, as they generally refrain from marrying them (when they are neither beautiful nor wealthy).”

The basis of this is recorded in Two Sahihs.

Consequently, when a man is the caretaker of a female orphan, he might like to marry her himself. In this case, Allah commands him to give her a suitable dowry that other women of her status get. If he does not want to do that, then let him marry other women, for Allah has made this matter easy for Muslims.

Sometimes, the caretaker does not desire to marry the orphan under his care, because she is not attractive to his eye. In this case, Allah forbids the caretaker from preventing the female orphan from marrying another man for fear that her husband would share in the money that is mutually shared between the caretaker and the girl.

Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, the caretaker of a female orphan would cover her with his rope, and when he did that, no man would marry her. If she was beautiful and he desired to marry her, he married her and took control of her wealth. If she was not beautiful, he did not allow her to marry until she died, and when she died he inherited her money. Allah prohibited and outlawed this practice. ”

…  and the children who are weak and oppressed, He also said about Allah’s statement, that during the time of Jahiliyyah, they used to deny young children and females a share of inheritance. So Allah’s statement, (you give not what they deserve) thus prohibiting this practice and designating a fixed share for each, (To the male, a portion equal to that of two females..) whether they were young or old, as Sa`id bin Jubayr and others stated.

… and that you stand firm for justice to orphans.

Sa`id bin Jubayr said about Allah’s statement, “Just as when she is beautiful and wealthy you would want to marry her and have her for yourself, so when she is not wealthy or beautiful, marry her and have her for yourself.”

Allah’s statement,

And whatever good you do, Allah is Ever All-Aware of it. encourages performing the good deeds and fulfilling the commandments, and states that Allah is knowledgeable of all of this and He will reward for it in the best and most perfect manner.

4:128.| And if a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part, there is no sin on them both if they make terms of peace between themselves; and making peace is better. And human souls are swayed by greed. But if you do good and have Taqwa, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.

* * *

4:129.| You will never be able to do perfect justice between wives even if it is your ardent desire, so do not incline too much to one of them so as to leave the other hanging. And if you do justice, and do all that is right and have Taqwa, then Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

* * *

4:130.| But if they separate (by divorce), Allah will provide abundance for everyone of them from His bounty. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Wise.

The Ruling Concerning
Desertion on the Part of the Husband

Allah says;

‘’And if a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part,’’

Allah states, and thus legislates accordingly, that sometimes, the man inclines away from his wife, sometimes towards her and sometimes he parts with her.

In the first case, when the wife fears that her husband is steering away from her or deserting her, she is allowed to forfeit all or part of her rights, such as provisions, clothing, dwelling, and so forth, and the husband is allowed to accept such concessions from her. Hence, there is no harm if she offers such concessions, and if her husband accepts them.

This is why Allah said,

‘’,,, there is no sin on them both if they make terms of peace between themselves,’’

He then said,

‘’… and making peace is better, (than divorce).’’

Allah’s statement,

‘’And human souls are swayed by greed.’’

… means, coming to peaceful terms, even when it involves forfeiting some rights, is better than parting.

Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Ibn Abbas said, “Sawdah feared that the Messenger of Allah might divorce her and she said, `O Messenger of Allah!

Do not divorce me; give my day to Aishah.’ And he did, and later on Allah sent down, (And if a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part, there is no sin on them both).

Ibn Abbas said, “Whatever (legal agreement) the spouses mutually agree to is allowed.”

At-Tirmidhi recorded it and said, “Hasan Gharib”.

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Aishah said that; when Sawdah bint Zam`ah became old, she forfeited her day to Aishah, and the Prophet used to spend Sawdah’s night with Aishah.

There is a similar narration also collected by Al-Bukhari.

Al-Bukhari also recorded that A’ishah commented;

(And if a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part), that it refers to, “A man who is married to an old woman, and he does not desire her and wants to divorce her. So she says, `I forfeit my right on you.’ So this Ayahwas revealed.”

Meaning of “Making Peace is Better

Allah said,

And making peace is better.

Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah refers to,

“When the husband gives his wife the choice between staying with him or leaving him, as this is better than the husband preferring other wives to her.”

However, the apparent wording of the Ayah refers to the settlement where the wife forfeits some of the rights she has over her husband, with the husband agreeing to this concession, and that this settlement is better than divorce.

For instance, the Prophet kept Sawdah bint Zam`ah as his wife after she offered to forfeit her day for Aishah. By keeping her among his wives, his Ummah may follow this kind of settlement. Since settlement and peace are better with Allah than parting,

Allah said,

‘’… and making peace is better.’’

Divorce is not preferred with Allah.

The meaning of Allah’s statement, But if you do good and have Taqwa, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.

if you are patient with the wife you dislike and treat her as other wives are treated, then Allah knows what you do and will reward you for it perfectly.

Allah’s statement,

”You will never be able to do perfect justice between wives even if it is your ardent desire,”

Ibn Abbas, Ubaydah As-Salmani, Mujahid, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim stated, … means,

”O people! You will never be able to be perfectly just between wives in every respect.”

Even when one divides the nights justly between wives, there will still be various degrees concerning love, desire and sexual intimacy.

Imam Ahmad and the collectors of the Sunan recorded that Aishah said,

“The Messenger of Allah used to treat his wives equally and proclaim,

O Allah! This is my division in what I own, so do not blame me for what You own and I do not own, (referring to his heart).

This was the wording that Abu Dawud collected, and its chain of narrators is Sahih.

Allah’s statement,

‘’… so do not incline too much to one of them, ‘’

… means, when you like one of your wives more than others, do not exaggerate in treating her that way. so as to leave the other hanging. referring to the other wives.

Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that;

Mu`allaqah (hanging) means, “She is neither divorced nor married.”

Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said, Whoever has two wives and inclines to one of them (too much), will come on the Day of Resurrection with one of his sides dragging.

Allah’s statement,

”And if you do justice, and do all that is right and have Taqwa, then Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

The Ayah states: If you do justice and divide equally in what you have power over, while fearing Allah in all conditions, then Allah will forgive you the favoritism that you showed to some of your wives.

Allah then said,

”But if they separate (divorce), Allah will provide abundance for everyone of them from His bounty. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Wise.”

This is the third case between husband and wife, in which divorce occurs. Allah states that if the spouses separate by divorce, then Allah will suffice them by giving him a better wife and her a better husband.

The meaning of, (And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Wise.) is: His favor is tremendous, His bounty is enormous and He is All-Wise in all His actions, decisions and commandments.

4:131.| And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And verily, We have recommended to the People of the Scripture before you, and to you that you have Taqwa of Allah. But if you disbelieve, then unto Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, and Allah is Ever Rich (free of any needs), Worthy of all praise.

* * *

4:132.| And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as Disposer of affairs.

* * *

4:133.| If He wills, He can take you away, O people, and bring others. And Allah is Ever All-Potent overthat.

* * *

4:134.| Whoever desires the rewards of this life, then with Allah is the reward of this worldly life and of the Hereafter. And Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.

The Necessity of Taqwa of Allah

Allah says;

‘’And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth.’’

Allah states that He is the Owner of the heavens and earth and that He is the Supreme Authority over them.

Hence Allah’s statement,

‘’And verily, We have recommended to the People of the Scripture before you, and to you,’’

… meaning, We have recommended to you what We recommended to the People of Scriptures; that you have Taqwa of Allah.

Taqwa of Allah, by worshipping Him Alone without partners.

Allah then said,

But if you disbelieve, then unto Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth.

In another Ayah, Allah said that Musa said to his people, “If you disbelieve, you and all on the earth together, then verily, Allah is Rich (free of any need), Owner of all praise.” (14:8)

Allah said,

So they disbelieved and turned away. But Allah was not in need (of them). And Allah is Rich (free of any need), Worthy of all praise. (64:6)

…. and Allah is Ever Rich (free of any needs), Worthy of all praise.

… meaning, He is far too Rich than to need His servants, and worthy of all praise in all His decisions and commandments.

The meaning of Allah’s statement,

‘’And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.’’

He has perfect watch over every soul, knowing what it deserves, He is the Watcher, and Witness of all things.

Allah’s statement,

”If He wills, He can take you away, O people, and bring others. And Allah is Ever All-Potent over that.”

… means, He is able to take you away and replace you with other people if you disobey Him.

In a similar Ayah, Allah said,

‘’And if you turn away, He will exchange you for some other people and they will not be your likes.’’ (47:38)

Allah’s statement,

”Whoever desires the rewards of this life, then with Allah is the reward of this worldly life and of the Hereafter.”

… means, O those whose ultimate desire is this life, know that Allah owns the rewards of this life and the Hereafter. Therefore, if you ask Allah for both, He will enrich you, award you and suffice for you.

As Allah said,

”But of mankind there are some who say: “Our Lord! Give us in this world!” and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter.”

”And of them there are some who say: “Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!” For them there will be allotted a share for what they have earned),” (2:200-202)

”Whosoever desires (by his deeds) the reward of the Hereafter, We give him increase in his reward.” (42:20)

”Whoever desires the quick-passing (transitory enjoyment of this world), We readily grant him what We will for whom We like,” until,

”See how We prefer one above another (in this world).” (17:18-21)

So Allah said here,

‘’And Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.’’

4:135.| O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor, Allah is a better Protector to both. So follow not the lusts, lest you may avoid justice; and if you Talwu or Tu`ridu, it, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.

Commanding Justice and
Conveying the Witness for Allah

Allah commands;

”O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah,”

Allah commands His believing servants to stand up for justice and fairness and not to deviate from it, right or left. They should not fear the blame of anyone or allow anyone to prevent them from doing something for the sake of Allah. They are also required to help, support and aid each other for Allah’s sake.

Allah’s statement,

 (as witnesses to Allah) is

similar to His statement,

”And establish the testimony for Allah.” (65:2)

Testimony should be delivered precisely, for the sake of Allah, thus making the testimony correct, truly just, and free of alterations, changes or deletions.

This is why Allah said,

‘’… even though it be against yourselves, ‘’

… meaning, give correct testimony, and say the truth when you are asked about it, even if harm will effect you as a consequence. Indeed, Allah shall make a way out and give relief for those who obey Him in every matter.

Allah’s statement,

‘’… or your parents, or your kin,’’

… means, even if you have to testify against your parents and kin, do not compromise for their sake. Rather, give the correct and just witness even if they are harmed in the process, for the truth presides above everyone and is preferred to everyone.

Allah’s statement,

‘’…. be he rich or poor, Allah is a better Protector to both.’’

… means, do not favor someone (in your testimony) because he is rich, or feel pity for him because he is poor, for Allah is their caretaker, a better Protector of them than you, and has better knowledge of what is good for them.

Allah’s statement,

”So follow not the lusts, lest you may avoid justice;”

…. means, let not desire, lust or the hatred you have against others, lure you into injustice in your affairs. Rather, stand for justice in all situations.

Allah said;

‘’And let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety.’’ (5:8)

When the Prophet sent Abdullah bin Rawahah to collect the tax on the fruits and produce of the Jews of Khyber, they offered him a bribe so that he would go easy on them.

He said; “By Allah! I have come to you from the dearest of the creation to me (Muhammad), and you are more hated by me than an equivalent number of apes and swine. However, my love for him (the Prophet) and hatred for you shall not prevent me from being just with you.” On that, they said, “This (justice) is the basis which the heavens and earth were created.”

We will mention this Hadith later in Surah Al-Ma’idah (Surah 5) Allah willing.

Allah’s statement afterwards,

”… and if you Talwu or Tu`ridu.”

According to Mujahid and several others among the Salaf, … means, “Distort your testimony and change it.”

Talwu, includes distortion and intentional lying.

For instance, Allah said,

”And verily, among them is a party who Yalwuna (distort) the Book with their tongues (as they read).” (3:78)

Tu`ridu, includes hiding and withholding the testimony.

Allah said,

”Who hides it, surely, his heart is sinful.” (2:283)

The Prophet said,

The best witness is he who discloses his testimony before being asked to do so.

Allah then warned,

”Verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do. and will reward or punish you accordingly.”

4:136.| O you who believe! Believe in Allah, and His Messenger, and the Book (the Qur’an) which He has sent down to His Messenger, and the Scripture which He sent down to those before; and whosoever disbelieves in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, then indeed he has strayed far away.

The Order to Have Faith after Believing

Allah says;

”O you who believe! Believe in Allah, and His Messenger,”

Allah commands His faithful servants to adhere to all the elements of faith, its branches, pillars and cornerstones.

This is not stated as mere redundancy, but from the view of completing faith and the continual maintenance of it.

For instance, the believer proclaims in every prayer,

(Guide us to the straight way) which means, make us aware of the straight path and increase us in guidance and strengthen us on it.

In this Ayah Allah commands the believers to believe in Him and in His Messenger, just as He said elsewhere,

”O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah, and believe in His Messenger.” (57:28)

Allah’s statement,

‘’… and the Book which He has sent down to His Messenger, refers to the Qur’an, while, and the Scripture which He sent down to those before (him),’’

… refers to the previously revealed divine Books.

Allah then said,

and whosoever disbelieves in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, then indeed he has strayed far away.

… meaning, he will have deviated from the correct guidance and strayed far away from its path.

4:137.| Verily, those who believe, then disbelieve, then believe (again), and (again) disbelieve, and go on increasing in disbelief; Allah will not forgive them, nor guide them on the (right) way.

* * *

4:138.| Give to the hypocrites the tidings that there is for them a painful torment.

* * *

4:139.| Those who take disbelievers for friends instead of believers, do they seek honor with them! Verily, then to Allah belongs all honor.

* * *

4:140.| And it has already been revealed to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in talk other than that; certainly in that case you would be like them. Surely, Allah will collect the hypocrites and disbelievers all together in Hell.

Characteristics of the Hypocrites
and Their Destination

Allah says;

”Verily, those who believe, then disbelieve, then believe (again), and (again) disbelieve, and go on increasing in disbelief;”

Allah states that whoever embraces the faith, reverts from it, embraces it again, reverts from it and remains on disbelief and increases in it until death, then he will never have a chance to gain accepted repentance after death. Nor will Allah forgive him, or deliver him from his plight to the path of correct guidance.

This is why Allah said,

”Allah will not forgive them, nor guide them on the (right) way.”

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that his father said that Ahmad bin Abdah related that Hafs bin Jami said that Samak said that Ikrimah reported that Ibn Abbas commented; (and go on increasing in disbelief),

“They remain on disbelief until they die.” Mujahid said similarly.

Allah then said,

‘’Give to the hypocrites the tidings that there is for them a painful torment.’’

Hence, the hypocrites have this characteristic, for they believe, then disbelieve, and this is why their hearts become sealed.

Those who take disbelievers for friends instead of believers, Allah describes the hypocrites as taking the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, meaning they are the disbelievers’ supporters in reality, for they give them their loyalty and friendship in secret.

They also say to disbelievers when they are alone with them, “We are with you, we only mock the believers by pretending to follow their religion.”

Allah said, while chastising them for being friends with the disbelievers, do they seek honor, with them, Verily, then to Allah belongs all honor.

Allah states that honor, power and glory is for Him Alone without partners, and for those whom Allah grants such qualities to.

Allah said,

”Whosoever desires honor, then to Allah belong all honor,” (35:10) and,

”But honor belongs to Allah, and to His Messenger, and to the believers, but the hypocrites know not. (63:8)

The statement that honor is Allah’s Alone, is meant to encourage the servants to adhere to their servitude to Allah and to be among His faithful servants who will gain victory in this life and when the Witnesses stand up to testify on the Day of Resurrection.

Allah’s statement,

”And it has already been revealed to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in talk other than that; certainly in that case you would be like them.”

The Ayah means; if you still commit this prohibition after being aware of its prohibition, sitting with them where Allah’s Ayat are rejected, mocked at and denied, and you sanction such conduct, then you have participated with them in what they are doing.

So Allah said, (But if you stayed with them)

(certainly in that case you would be like them), concerning the burden they will earn.

What has already been revealed in the Book – as the Ayah says — is the Ayah in Surah Al-An`am, which was revealed in Makkah,

‘’And when you see those who engage in false conversation about Our verses (of the Qur’an) by mocking at them, stay away from them.’’ (6:68)

Muqatil bin Hayyan said that;

this Ayah (4:140) abrogated the Ayah in Surah Al-An`am, referring to the part that says here, (But if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them), and Allah’s statement in Al-An`am,

Those who fear Allah, keep their duty to Him and avoid evil, are not responsible for them (the disbelievers) in any case, but (their duty) is to remind them, that they may have Taqwa. (6:69)

Allah’s statement,

‘’Surely, Allah will collect the hypocrites and disbelievers all together in Hell.’’

… means, just as the hypocrites participate in the Kufr of disbelievers, Allah will join them all together to reside in the Fire for eternity, dwelling in torment, punishment, enchained, restrained and in drinking boiling water.

4:141.| Those who wait and watch about you; if you gain a victory from Allah, they say: “Were we not with you!” But if the disbelievers gain a success, they say (to them): “Did we not gain mastery over you and did we not protect you from the believers!” Allah will judge between you (all) on the Day of Resurrection. And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers.

Hypocrites Wait and Watch
What Happens to Muslims

Allah says;

”Those who wait and watch about you;”

Allah states that the hypocrites watch and await the harm that occurs to the believers, awaiting the time when the Muslim circumstances and religion are dissolved and the state of Kufr takes over.

… if you gain a victory from Allah, triumph, aid and booty, …  they say, “Were we not with you’!’ trying to come closer to the believers with this statement.

However, But if the disbelievers gain a success, by gaining victory over the believers sometimes, just as occurred during Uhud, for surely, the Messengers are tested, but the final victory is theirs.

… they say (to them), “Did we not gain mastery over you and did we not protect you from the believers!”

… meaning, did we not help you in secret and try our best to confuse the believers and weaken their resolve, until you gained victory over them!

This statement of the hypocrites is an attempt to strengthen relations with the disbelievers, because they pretend to be friends with both parties so that they will be safe from their harm, due to their weak faith and lack of certainty.

Allah said,

‘’Allah will judge between you (all) on the Day of Resurrection.’’

… meaning, by what He knows about you, O hypocrites. Therefore, do not be deceived by being shaded under the protection of Islamic Law in this life, which is such only out of Allah’s wisdom. Surely, on the Day of Resurrection, your pretending shall not benefit you, because on that Day, the secrets of the souls will be disclosed and the contents of the hearts will be collected.

Allah said,

‘’And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers.’’

Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Yasi Al-Kindi said, “A man came to Ali bin Abi Talib and said, `What about this Ayah,

(And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers),

Ali said, `Come closer, come closer. Allah will judge between you on the Day of Resurrection, and He will not grant victory for the disbelievers over the believers.”’

Ibn Jurayj recorded that Ata’ Al-Khurasani said that Ibn Abbas said that,

(And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers),

“Will occur on the Day of Resurrection.”

As-Suddi recorded that Abu Malik Al-Ashjai said that; it occurs on the Day of Resurrection.

As-Suddi said that; “way” means, proof.

It is possible that; the meaning of, `and never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers’, is in this life by being unable to exterminate the believers completely, although they sometimes gain victory over some Muslims.

However, the Final Triumph will be for the believers in this life and the Hereafter.

Allah said,

”Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in the worldly life.” (40:51)

This provides a rebuttal to the wishes of the hypocrites for the destruction of the believers, and their loyalty to the disbelievers, fearing for themselves if they are victorious.

In another Ayah, Allah said,

”And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease (of hypocrisy), they hurry to their friendship, until, (Regretful).” (6:52)

4:142.| Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up for Salah, they stand with laziness and to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allah but little.

* * *

4:143.| (They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these nor to those; and he whom Allah sends astray, you will not find for him a way.

The Hypocrites Try to Deceive
Allah and Sway Between
Believers and Disbelievers

In the beginning of Surah Al-Baqarah we mentioned Allah’s statement,

(They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe). (2:8)

Here, Allah states,

”Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them.”

There is no doubt that Allah can never be deceived, for He has perfect knowledge of the secrets and what the hearts conceal. However, the hypocrites, due to their ignorance, scarce knowledge and weak minds, think that since they were successful in deceiving people, using Islamic Law as a cover of safety for themselves, they will acquire the same status with Allah on the Day of Resurrection and deceive Him too.

Allah states that on that Day, the hypocrites will swear to Him that they were on the path of righteousness and correctness thinking that such statement will benefit them with Allah.

For instance, Allah said,

 ‘’On the Day when Allah will resurrect them all together; then they will swear to Him as they swear to you.’’ (58:18)

Allah’s statement,

”but it is He Who deceives them,” means,

He lures them further into injustice and misguidance. He also prevents them from reaching the truth in this life and on the Day of Resurrection.

Allah said,

‘’On the Day when the hypocrites  men and women  will say to the believers: “Wait for us! Let us get something from your light!” It will be said: “Go back to your rear! Then seek a light!” until,

”And worst indeed is that destination.” (57:13-15)

A Hadith states;

Whoever wants to be heard of, Allah will make him heard of, and whoever wants to be seen, Allah will show him.

Allah’s statement,

”And when they stand up for Salah, they stand with laziness.”

This is the characteristic of the hypocrites with the most honored, best and righteous act of worship, the prayer. When they stand for prayer, they stand in laziness because they neither truly intend to perform it nor do they believe in it, have humility in it, or understand it. This is the description of their outward attitude!

As for their hearts, Allah said,

… to be seen of men,

… meaning, they do not have sincerity when worshipping Allah. Rather, they show off to people so that they gain closeness to them. They are often absent from the prayers that they can hide away from, such as the Isha prayer and the Dawn prayer that are prayed in darkness.

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said;

The heaviest prayers on the hypocrites are the Isha and Dawn prayers. If they know their rewards, they will attend them even if they have to crawl.

I was about to order someone to pronounce the Adhan for the prayer, then order someone to lead the prayer for the people, then order some men to collect fire-wood (fuel); then I would burn the houses around men who did not attend the (compulsory congregational) prayer.

In another narration, the Prophet said,

By Him, in Whose Hand my soul is, if anyone of them had known that he would get a bone covered with good meat or two (small) pieces of meat between two ribs, he would have turned up for the prayer, and had it not been that the houses have women and children in them, I would burn their homes around them.

Allah’s statement,

‘’And they do not remember Allah but little.’’

… means, during the prayer they do not feel humbleness or pay attention to what they are reciting. Rather, during their prayer, they are inattentive, jesting and avoid the good that they are meant to receive from prayer.

Imam Malik reported that Al-Ala’ bin Abdur-Rahman said

that Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah said,

This is the prayer of the hypocrite, this is the prayer of the hypocrite, this is the prayer of the hypocrite.

He sits watching the sun until when it goes down between the two horns of the devil, he stands up pecks out four Rak`ahs (for Asr) without remembering Allah during them except little.

Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i also recorded it. [At-Tirmidhi said “Hasan Sahih”.]

Allah’s statement,

‘’(They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these,’’

… means that the hypocrites are swaying between faith and disbelief.

So they are neither with believers inwardly or outwardly nor with disbelievers inwardly or outwardly. Rather, they are with the believers outwardly and with the disbelievers inwardly. Some of them would suffer fits of doubt, leaning towards these sometimes and towards those sometimes.

 ‘’Whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still.’’ (2:20)

Mujahid said; ((They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these), “The Companions of Muhammad, nor to those: the Jews.”

Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Umar said that;

”The Prophet said, The example of the hypocrite is the example of the sheep wandering between two herds, sometimes she goes to one of them, and sometimes the other, confused over whom she should follow.” [Muslim also recorded it.]

This is why Allah said afterwards,

… and he whom Allah sends astray, you will not find for him a way.

… meaning, whomever He leads astray from the guidance,

(For him you will find no Wali (guiding friend) to lead him (to the right path)) (18:17) because,

”Whomsoever Allah sends astray, none can guide him.” (7:186)

So the hypocrites whom Allah has led astray from the paths of safety will never find a guide to direct them, nor someone to save them. There is none who can resist Allah’s decision, and He is not asked about what He does, while they all will be asked.

4:144.| O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as friends instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest Sultan against yourselves!

* * *

4:145.| Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depth (grade) of the Fire; no helper will you find for them.

* * *

4:146.| Except those who repent, do righteous good deeds, depend on Allah, and purify their religion for Allah, then they will be with the believers. And Allah will grant the believers a great reward.

* * *

4:147.| Why should Allah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him. And Allah is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.

The Prohibition of Wilayah
With the Disbelievers Allah

”O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as friends instead of believers.”

Allah forbids His believing servants from taking the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers. This includes being friends and associates of the disbelievers, advising them, being intimate with them and exposing the secrets of the believers to them.

In another Ayah, Allah said,

”Let not the believers take the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that, will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself.” (3:28)

… meaning, He warns you against His punishment if you fall into what He has prohibited.

This is why Allah said here,

‘’Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest Sultan against yourselves!’’

… meaning, proof against you that warrants receiving His torment.

Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Abbas commented; (manifest Sultan),

“The word Sultan in the Qur’an means proof.”

There is an authentic chain of narration for this statement, which is also the saying of Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and An-Nadr bin Arabi.

The Hypocrites and the Friends of Disbelievers are in the Lowest Depth of the Fire, Unless they Repent

Allah then states that,

”Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire;”

on the Day of Resurrection due to their tremendous Kufr.

Al-Walibi (Ali bin Abi Talhah) said that Ibn Abbas said, (in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire),

… means, in the bottom of the Fire.

Other scholars said that; the Fire has ever lower depths just as Paradise had ever higher grades.

Ibn Jarir recorded that Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that,

(Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire),

“Inside coffins of Fire that surround them, for they are closed and sealed in them.”

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that when Ibn Mas`ud was asked about the hypocrites, he said, “They will be placed in coffins made of fire and they will be closed in them in the lowest depth of the Fire.”

… no helper will you find for them. to save them from their misery and painful torment.

Allah then states that whoever among the hypocrites repents in this life, Allah will accept his repentance and sorrow, if his repentance were sincere and he then follows it by performing righteous deeds, all the while depending on his Lord.

Allah said,

Except those who repent (from hypocrisy), do righteous good deeds, depend on Allah, and purify their religion for Allah, replacing showing off with sincerity, so that their good deeds will benefit them, even if they were minute.

… then they will be with the believers. on the Day of Resurrection.

And Allah will grant to the believers a great reward.

Allah then states that He is too Rich to need anyone and that He only punishes the servants because of their sins.

”Why should Allah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him.”

by correcting your actions and having faith in Allah and His Messenger.

”And Allah is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.”

Allah appreciates those who appreciate Him, and has knowledge of those whose hearts believe in Him, and He will give them perfect reward.

4:148.| Allah does not like that the evil should be uttered in public except by him who has been wronged. And Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Knower.

* * *

4:149.| Whether you disclose a good deed or conceal it, or pardon an evil, verily, Allah is Ever Pardoning, All-Powerful.

The Permission to Utter Evil in Public, For One Who Was Wronged

Allah says;

”Allah does not like that the evil should be uttered in public except by him who has been wronged. And Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Knower.”

Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah,

(Allah does not like that the evil should be uttered in public),

“Allah does not like that any one should invoke Him against anyone else, unless one was wronged. In this case, Allah allows one to invoke Him against whoever wronged him.”

Hence Allah’s statement,

”(except by him who has been wronged). Yet, it is better for one if he observes patience.”

Al-Hasan Al-Basri commented,

“One should not invoke Allah (for curses) against whoever wronged him. Rather, he should supplicate, `O Allah! Help me against him and take my right from him.”’

In another narration, Al-Hasan said,

“Allah has allowed one to invoke Him against whoever wronged him without transgressing the limits.”

Abdul-Karim bin Malik Al-Jazari said about this Ayah;

“When a man curses you, you could curse him in retaliation. But if he lies about you, you may not lie about him.

”And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no way (of blame) against them.” (42:41)

Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

Whatever words are uttered by those who curse each other, then he who started it will carry the burden thereof, unless the one who was wronged transgresses the limit.

Allah said,

‘’Whether you disclose a good deed, or conceal it, or pardon an evil; verily, Allah is Ever Pardoning, All-Powerful.

Meaning when you, mankind, admit to a good favor done to you, or conceal it, and forgive those who wrong you, then this will bring you closer to Allah and increase your reward with Him.

Among Allah’s attributes is that He forgives and pardons His servants, although He is able to punish them.

Hence Allah’s statement,

(Verily, Allah is Ever Pardoning, All-Powerful).

It was reported that some of the angels who carry Allah’s Throne praise Him saying,

“All praise is due to You for Your forbearing even though You have perfect knowledge (in all evil committed).”

Some of them supplicate,

“All praise is due to You for Your forgiving even though You have perfect ability (to punish).”

An authentic Hadith states,

No charity shall ever decrease wealth, and Allah will only increase the honor of a servant who pardons, and he who is humble for Allah’s sake, then Allah will elevate his grade.

To be continues….

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