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Umm Haram bint Milhan

Umm Haram (big)

Umm Haram bint Milhan
{أم حرام بنت ملحان}

By: Muhammad Ali Qutub
Sahaabiyaat: Female Companions of the Prophet

{أم حرام بنت ملحان هي صحابية تعرف أيضا بشهيدة البحر وراكبة البحر}

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Umm Haram

There is a connection between the story of Umm Haram and Umm Sulaym because they were sisters, brought together by their Islaam and Eemaan, as well as their love for Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him). Their life after Islaam is a testimony to this fact and proves their selfless sacrifice in the way of their love for Islaam. Furthermore, they were among the most prominent women of Madeenah in terms of virtue and piety.

Their house, which is referred to as being “Milhan’s house”, was one of the dearest houses to the Prophet (peace be upon him). We have already seen this in the biography of Umm Sulaym and how it was highly respected by the Noble Messenger (peace be upon him) as well as the Companions. This was due to many reasons, such as the fact that she gave her son in service to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and her participation in the battlefields of Jihaad.

We also looked at the life Umm al-Fadhl, the mother of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbaas and her services towards the Noble family of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).

Now we will inshaa’Allah study the life of Umm Haram. Allah Willing, we will realise that like her sister, she too was very active in her service of Islaam.

No wonder the Prophet (peace be upon him) commended these sisters when he referred to them as being, “The Believing Sisters.”

Her Husband

Umm Haram (may Allah be pleased with her) was married to the great companion ‘Ubaadah ibn as-Saamit (may Allah be pleased with him).

‘Ubaadah was one of the first Ansari men to participate in the Pledge of ‘Aqabah. He was one of the chiefs of his clan and he was one of those who took part in the Battle of Badr. Such was his love for Islaam that he never failed to attend any battle or campaign with the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). He was also one of the shining heroes in the battle of Apostasy and later fell a martyr in the Battle of Yarmook.

‘Ubadah was the first teacher and judge in Palestine; a position Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with her) had wisely appointed him to. He witnessed the conquest of Egypt and was the leader of one quarter of the contingent.

His first marine war was in order to conquer Cyprus. It was in this war that Umm Haram participated. Inshaa’Allah, we will mention how she participated in this war in a little while.

Her Personality

Before we mention Umm Haram’s (may Allah be pleased with her) participation in Jihaad, I would like to give you a brief glimpse of her personality and her role around the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).

The family house of Milhan was in Quba. They lived among palm dates and plantations, springs of palatable water and pleasant breezes and lived an honourable life and upright life.

When the Prophet (peace be upon him) arrived in Qubaa from Makkah, people were competing with one another to host the the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) in their homes. He stayed for some days in the dwellings of Banu ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf while his mosque, the first mosque in Islaam was being built.

Quba was therefore the first place the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) halted at when he was travelling towards Madeenah as an emigrant. Therefore, he had an attachment to this place and while living in Madeenah would visit it every now and then.

Whenever the Messenger of Allah visited Quba, he would visit the houses of his companions and take a siesta there. He would hold discussions with them and teach them. All of them would rush to serve him and present different types of food and sweet to him.

Milhan’s house, which was the house of Umm Sulaym and Umm Haram, was a familiar house to the Prophet (peace be upon him) in this regard. We have already mentioned that whenever he would be asked about his frequent visits to their house he would respond by stating that he did so as a consolation for the family, and would add, “Their brother was killed while fighting on my side.” It was therefore out of a sense of obligation by the Prophet (peace be upon him) that these visits were made.

Here, I feel it is necessary to mention the how their brother Haram ibn Milhan (may Allah be pleased with him) was martyred. This is because from this event we can come to see the high level of eemaan the members of this household possessed.

Haram was among the delegates of reciters that were treacherously killed by ‘Amar ibn at-Tufayl on the day of Bi’r Ma’oonah. These reciters were seventy in number, and were all enclosed and killed. They were among the greatest companions of the Prophet in terms of knowledge and piety. Their martyrdom caused the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) much grief as Haram (may Allah be pleased with him) was a man of great faith, courage, decency and knowledge. We can see this in his response towards martyrdom. When he was going to be struck by swords and spears, he screamed as loud as he could,

“I won, by the Lord of the Ka’bah!”

It is as he was undergoing a very difficult test, or as if it was a market in which he was selling, purchasing and gaining profits. When some of the polytheist asked each another about what Haram meant by his statement, someone answered,

“He meant Paradise.”

This is why it is not strange that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was the first person to visit their household, acknowledge its right, appreciate its virtue and console its inhabitants.

During one of his visits, Umm Haram cheerfully received the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). She then served him his favourite food after which the Prophet (peace be upon him) then went to a section of her home to take a siesta. After a short nap he awoke smiling. Umm Haram asked him as to why he was smiling to which he replied,

“Some people among my followers were shown to me riding over the green sea like kings over their thrones.”

Umm Haram, wisely taking hold of the opportunity made a request:

“O Messenger of Allah invoke Allah that He makes me one of them.”

The Messenger of Alalh (peace be upon him) said, “You will be among the first.”

After this many years passed and Umm Haram continued to wait, knowing full well that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) never lied.

Umm Haram accompanied her husband Ubadah ibn as-Samit – the great companion and the knowledgeable Mujaahid -wherever he went. Especially since he had joined the Syrian army under the command of Abu ‘Ubaydah and ‘Amar ibn Abdullah ibn al-Jarrah, ‘Ubadah took part prominently in all the battles until the Muslims conquered the entire Syrian territories.

Then a request came to Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) from the people of Palestine. They need a scholar who could teach them the matters of their religion and a judge who could arbitrate between them and settle their disputes. In order to demonstrate his confidence in ‘Ubaadah and show his recognition of his virtues, knowledge and status, ‘Umar appointed him as the teacher and judge for the Palestinians.

‘Ubadah and his wife Umm Haram then began living in Palestine. ‘Ubadah discharged his duties in the best manner, which made him a popular and well-known Sahaabi. The people highly respected his views and his decision-making.

Throughout this period, Umm Haram was a righteous wife to a righteous husband. She was never moved by the position of her husband neither was she deluded by this world and its beauties. Rather, she remained as she was when she came out of her humble home in Quba.

Oftentimes, she would remember the dream that the Prophet (peace be upon him) had had when taking a siesta in her home and his supplication for her to be one of the first ones to ride over the green sea, fighting in the way of Allah and holding-high the banner of Islaam.

She would deeply reflect, imagine and anticipate the coming of that momentous day. She would then snap-back to reality, waiting for Allah’s decree and the actualisation of Prophet’s (peace be upon him) prophecy.

‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas left Palestine to conquer Egypt as the presence of the Romans there was becoming a great threat to the Muslims in Syria. He consulted the leader of the faithful ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab and the latter issued his consent.

‘Amr went deep into the land of Egypt and fought the Roman army in a number of wars and defeated them. When he came to the Babylon fortress in old Egypt, he laid siege on it and the siege lasted for a long time.

At one point, ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) had to request the leader of the faithful, ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) for reinforcements. An army was sent as a reinforcement, a fourth of which was commanded by ‘Ubaadah.

Umm Haram accompanied her husband in this battle. The chivalrous ‘Ubaadah was put to a meritorious test in the land of Egypt, strategically moving about, fighting in the way of Allah until the Romans were defeated and driven out. After the victory ‘Ubaadah went to Damascus, which is situated in Syria and began living there.

Mu’aawiyah ibn Abi Sufiyan (may Allah be pleased with him) was then its governor. He became worried about the bays of Damascus which were being intermittently attacked by the Roman army.

Mu’aawiyyah knew that the Cyprus Island was the marine station for Roman ships which were attacking Syrian harbours. He sent a message to the Caliph ‘Umar explaining the situation to him and asking permission to invade Cyprus and conquer it. ‘Umar refused the request, for he opposed jeopardizing the lives of Muslims, who may have to plunge into the sea.

Then when ‘Uthmaan became caliph, Mu’aawiyyah repeatedly make the same request. Mu’aawiyyah was encouraged in doing so by his blood relationship with ‘Uthmaan, for both of them were from the Umayyad clan.

Finally, ‘Uthmaan gave in to Mu’awiyyah’s persistent requests and permitted him to launch the offensive. But he warned him that he should not force any Muslims under his control to participate in the war, rather the participation must be optional.

skybluishWith the help of experts, Mu’aawiyyah began getting the necessary ships ready for the war until he had amassed a large army. He then called out to the people and made an announcement, as a way of encouraging the people, that both he and his wife were going to lead the marine campaign to Cyprus.

In those days Damascus, the headquarters of the Syrian governorate was full of different civilizations and cultures. It was hugely populated by people, especially the Prophet’s companions. These companions didn’t seek luxury or enjoyment but only knowledge and guidance. They were only interested in spreading the teachings of the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace be upon him). Some of these eminent companions were Aboo Dharr, ‘Ubaadah ibn as-Saamit (the husband of Umm Haram), as well as others.

Hardly had the announcer of the governor announced Hayya ‘ala al-Jihaad (come unto Jihad!) that the Muslims started jamming into the ships, glorifying Allah and proclaiming His oneness, hoping for His reward and not fearing anything other than Him.

The peerless Companions of the Messenger of Allah left their places in the Masjid, bade farewell to their homes and joined the flag of Islaam.

Throughout the journey Umm Haram was full of energy, ambition and youthfulness. She was excited and overjoyed to be able to join this great battle. Before leaveing, she busied herself getting the necessary things ready.

She remembered the face of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) smiling, gladdening her and supplicating for her to be one of the first to mount the green sea to fight in the cause of Allah.

On the appointed day she saw people gathering like sea waves at the seaport, bidding farewell to the Mujaahidoon and waving at them. They were invoking Allah to make them victorious and to return them home safe and sound.

Umm Haram was there, standing at the edge of the ship, her eyes full of tears which rolled down her cheeks. She was whispering to herself,

“You said the truth, O Messenger of Allah!”

imagesMu’aawiyyah Ibn Abi Sufiyan (may Allah be pleased with him) then commanded the army to sail on. The ships were detached from the anchors and sailed through the waves in the Name of Allah. The Sahaabah were like kings over their thrones!

It was just how the Messenger of Allah had described, those who would board ships and with whom the ships would storm the waves while they would be aboard like kings over their thrones!

Umm Haram had a beautiful feeling. While aboard the ship, she would sometimes see herself as if she was in a high place looking down at the bottom of a mountain, and sometimes she would see the waves rising high above her, all of which was within moments and in succession. She kept saying to herself,

“You said the truth, O Messenger of Allah!”

O Messenger! May the please and blessing of Allah be upon you! You did not see what you prophesied with your eyes, neither did you study it from a book; you did not receive the knowledge of it from a scholar or a teacher! Glorified be He who taught you the knowledge of the earlier and later generations! Glory be to the One who made you say the truth!

The ship finally arrived at the Cyprus coasts. The soldiers surged out, unloaded their luggage and prepared themselves for Jihaad, after already having defeated a Roman guard-boat which had tried to impede their way. The Muslims then began planning how to creep into the heart of the Island.

Umm Haram had lead a momentous life in Madeenah and different parts of the world, such as Hijaaz, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and then back to Syria and lastly in Cyprus. It was a life full of thrilling events, an extensive life full of long journeys.

It all started with a testimony that none has the right to be worshiped except Allah and that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the Messenger of Allah and ended with martyrdom in the path of Allah! Yes, It was a life that began with the Shahaadah (Testimony of Faith) and ended with Shahaadah (Martyrdom). What a beautiful life and what an excellent death!!

While in Cyprus, Umm Haram was riding on an animal. The horse shied, was extremely frightened and then jumped violently. Umm Haram fell off of it and died shortly thereafter smiling and was buried where she fell. May Allah be pleased with her and please her!

Today, centuries after this memorable event, the grave of Umm Haram, the righteous and martyred Muslim woman, still stands in the land of Cyprus for all to see. There is a Masjid nearby testifying that Umm Haram was really one of the first (i.e. to die there) and that indeed the Messenger of Allah (may the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said the truth!

Female Companions of the Prophet:

  • Asmaa’ Bint Umays
  • Umm Haraam Bint Malhaan
  • Hind bint Utbah 11 February
  • Asma bint Abi Bakr 11 February
  • Khawlah Bint Tha’labah
  • Khadijah (RA): Girl Power Well Before the 21st Century
  • Umm Amarah: The Prophet’s Shield at Uhud
  • Zaynab the Great 08 March 2011
  • Umm Manee, Asma bint Amr (the Mother of Mu’aadh ibn Jabal) 08 March 2011
  • Shayma, the Prophet’s Foster Sister
  • Ruqayyah, the Lady of the Two Migrations
  • Khadeejah bint Khuwaylid
  • Fatimah Bint al-Khattab
  • Al-Khansa (Tamadur bint Amr ibn Shareed)
  • Umm Waraqah, the Martyr
  • Umm Ma’bad, ‘Aatikah bint Khalid
  • Umm Kulthoom bint Uqba
  • Umm Haani’ and Nab’ah
  • Rufaydah al-Aslamiyah
  • Umm Kulthum, the Daughter of Abu Bakr
  • Fatimah Bint al-Khattaab
  • Umm Kulthum bint Uqba
  • Faatimah az-Zahraa’
  • Faatimah az-Zahraa’
  • Faatimah az-Zahraa’
  • Umm Sulaym bint Milhan
  • Umm Habeebah, Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan
  • Umm Habeebah, Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan
  • The Wife of Julaybeeb: Outstanding Compliance
  • Nusaybah, the Mother of Habib
  • Prophet Muhammad & Lady Aishah
  • Umm Salamah, Hind al-Makhzoomiyyah
  • Umm Sulaym bint Milhan
  • Fatimah bint Muhammad
  • Barakah, Umm Ayman
  • Asma bint Abu Bakr
  • Aishah bint Abi Bakr
  • Umm Salamah, Hind al-Makhzoomiyyah
  • Zaynab bint Khuzaymah
  • Zaynab bint Jahsh Al-Asadiyah
  • Umm al-Fadhl
  • Safiyah bint Huyay ibn Akhtab
  • Sawdah, Aaishah and Umm Roomaan
  • Safiyah Bint Abdul Muttalib
  • Mariyah the Copt
  • Juwayriyah bint al-Harith
  • Haleemah as-Sa’diyah
  • Hafsah Bint Umar al-Khattaab
  • Asma bint Umays

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Source: Idealmuslimah.com

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Hind bint Utbah: هند بنت عتبة

Hind bint ‘Utbah
هند بنت عتبة

Sahabiyyat: Hind bint ‘Utbah – هند بنت عتبة
The Female Compaions of Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him)

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The Wife of Abu Sufyan Ibn Harb

Hind bint ‘Utbah (هند بنت عتبة) was an Arab woman who lived in the late 6th and early 7th centuries CE; she was the wife of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, a powerful man of Mecca, in western Arabia. Both Abu Sufyan and Hind originally opposed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. She was the mother of Muawiyah I, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty, and of Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan, who was one of Muhammad’s wives.

Her status as a Sahaba (companion of Muhammad) remains questioned because of actions she took against the Muslim community before her conversion, particularly an incident of alleged battlefield cannibalism.

Life

She was born in Mecca, daughter of one of the most prominent leaders of the Quraysh, ‘Utba ibn Rabi’ah. She had two brothers: Abu-Hudhayfah ibn ‘Utbah and Walid ibn ‘Utbah. Her paternal uncle Shaibah ibn Rabī‘ah was also one of the chief adversaries of Islam who eventually was killed by ‘Ali in the Battle of Badr.

It is not known exactly when she married Abu Sufyan, one of the leading authorities in the tribe of Quraysh, but it is most probable that the marriage occurred in her early years of youth. But before that, she was married to Fakīhah ibn Mughīrah of Banu Makhzūm.

Controversies from Shia Sources

Hind is infamous in Islamic history for her exultation at the defeat of the Muslims at the Battle of Uhud when she ate the liver of Muhammad’s slain uncle Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib. Although she later converted to Islam, the founder of the Umayyad Caliphate was thus later slandered to be an illegitimate son of a cannibal. Even in the modern age, arguments continue to be raised about whether Hind bint ‘Utbah was a Sahaba or not because of her pre-Islamic actions.

In the earlier Sunni reference Istiʻib fī Maʻrifat al-Ashab, Islamic scholar Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr (978-1071) lists summaries for the biographies of the Sahaba, and Hind is indeed mentioned as one of Muhammad’s Sahaba.

Alleged claims about adultery

Shiʻi scholars quote earlier sources which claim that Hind had relations with men other than her husband Abu Sufyan, and that her son Mu’awiya might have been the result of any of those illegitimate relations.

In relation to the birth of Muawiya, four men were viewed to have been his father Umar ibn Walid, Musafir Abu Umar, Abu Sufyan and another fourth individual.

Other scholars say that she became pregnant from Abu Sufyan out of wedlock and Abu Sufyan was bribed to marry her.

When in the time of Fath Makka (conquest of Mecca), Abu Sufyan’s wife Hind went to Muhammad to embrace Islam, and she asked him what her duties as a Muslim woman would be. So among the others, Muhammad told her that a Muslim woman must not steal or commit adultery. Hind then replied in a shock “And do free women (wives who are not slaves) also steal and commit adultery?

Claims that Hind ate the liver of Hamza.

During the Battle of Uhud, Mūsá ibn ‘Uqbah narrated that Wahshi gouged out the liver of Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and took it to Hind bint ‘Utbah and she spat it out Ibn Kathir mentions this in his Al-Bid‘ayah wa n-Nihaayah (4/43).

Ibn Ishaq narrated with a broken isnād that Hind was the one who gouged the liver of Hamza.

Earlier hostility against Muslims

From 613 to 622, Muhammad preached the message of Islam publicly, in Mecca. As he gathered converts, he and his followers faced increasing persecution. In 622 they emigrated to the distant city of Yathrib, now known as Medina. They were at war with the Meccans and attacked Meccan caravans.

The Meccans sent out a force to defend the caravans. The Meccans and the Muslims clashed at the Battle of Badr. The Muslims defeated the Meccans and Hind’s father, brother and uncle were all slaughtered in that battle. Hind’s anger at the Muslims was of the greatest and most intense; she kept wailing publicly in the open desert and pouring dust over her face and her clothes, while lamenting her deceased relatives; and she did not stop not until her husband Abu Sufyan urged her to weep no more and promised her to avenge the death of her father and brother.

She is claimed to have been the one responsible for inciting Wahshy ibn Harb to murder Muhammad’s uncle Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, who was claimed responsible for the death of her father and brother, and she offered Wahshi his freedom and her jewelry in return if he managed to murder Hamza and bring back his heart to her.

Wahshi eventually did so by hiding behind a tree and striking Hamza with a spear which left him dead; Wahshi then split open Hamza’s belly and took out his raw heart and brought it back to Hind as promised. Hind was claimed to have tasted the raw heart as a prominent sign of revenge, but was said to have not relished it and immediately spat it out.

One of the earliest chronicles of Islamic history, Ibn Ishaq’s Sirah Rasul Allah, a life of Muhammad, says that Hind accompanied the Meccan forces that went to besiege the Muslims in Medina. At the Battle of Uhud, Hind and her women sang and danced, urging on their warriors. The Muslims were forced to flee and, according to Ibn Ishaq, Hind and the others mutilated the Muslim corpses, making garlands of ears and noses.

According to Ibn Ishaq, after the battle, Hind cut open the body of Muhammad’s uncle Hamza, whom she believed responsible for the death of her relatives, cut out his heart, and gnawed on it. According to Ibn Ishaq, she couldn’t swallow it and spat it out. Ibn ‘Abdu l-Barr states in his book “al-Isti’ab” that she cooked Hamza’s heart before eating it. This report has been widely copied by Muslim historians.

After the incident at the Battle of Uhud, however, Hind accepted the message of Islam and is now considered to be among the ranks of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad by Sunni Muslims.

References

  • a b Answering-Ansar.org :: Mu’awiya
  • Tazkira Khawass Page 62 Chapter Zikr al-Khwarij — al-Isti’ab fi Tamyeez al-Sahab Chapter 8 Kitab al-Kuna.
  • Sīrah ibn Hishām: 3/133

Umm Waraqah bint ‘Abdullah

Sahabiyyat - Umm Waraqah bint Abdullah bint Harith (RA)

Sahabiyyat|
Umm Waraqah bint ‘Abdullah bin Harith Ansariah

The Female Companoins of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
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The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Umm Waraqah! Dwell in your House, Allah will give you the death as a martyr.” 

The Ansar of Al-Madinah were standing on the outskirts of their city, looking with impatient eyes towards the road approaching from Makkah.

Men, women, girls and boys, the young and the old were waiting for the arrival of their beloved Prophet (pbuh) who was migrating from his city to theirs at their invitation and at the command of Allah إو. Suddenly someone showed, “Here they come!” And all the young girls and women burst into a song of praise of Allah . and a welcome to His Messenger.

Among these Ansari women was Umm Waraqah bint ‘Abdullah. She was a learned, scholarly, pious and modest lady, who was well known among the women Companions as one who spent her nights and days in prayer and meditation. She used to recite the Noble Qur’an beautifully; it was second nature for her to spend a lot of time meditating on the meaning of its Verses.

The Prophet (pbuh) valued her highly and he told her to lead the family in congregational prayers. The courtyard of the house was converted into a mosque; with the permission of the Prophet (pbuh) they had a Mu’ththin to give the call to prayers. ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Khallad says that he saw the Mu’ththin, who was a very aged man. Thus Umm Waraqah bint ‘Abdullah was by the Prophet ه to be an

Imam and lead the prayer for ladies.

Besides her thirst for knowledge of the Qur’an, Shari’ah (Islamic legeslation) and Ahadith, Umm Waraqah had a burning desire to die a martyr in the cause of Islam. When it was announced that the army should prepare to leave for the battle of Badr, Umm Waraqah went to the Prophet . and volunteered her services to tend to the wounded in the battlefield. She told him that it was her earnest desire to die in the cause of Islam. The Prophet (pbuh) could see her enthusiasm and ardour, but he told her to stay at home and she would attain martyrdom there. She went back happily because it was her duty to yield to the command of the Messenger of Allah.

The Prophet (pbuh) would sometimes take along some of his Companions and visit the house of Umm Waraqah. He would tell them to accompany him to the house of the lady who was a living martyr. He would ask about her welfare, rest for awhile and then offer supplications to Allah for her well being and return. Allah . revealed to his beloved Messenger that Umm Waraqah would die the death of a martyr in her own home. Nobody could understand how this would take place with her sitting in her house, but they were sure it would definitely happen, as this news had been given to them by their Truthful Prophet.

Umm Waraqah herself was waiting every moment to see how this auspicious event, which would be the fulfillment of her greatest dream, take place. She waited patiently, for it would give her eternal life and a place in Paradise. When would it take place? How exactly would it take place? What shape would it take? How would it be possible to become a martyr sitting in the house? Lost in these thoughts she passed her nights and days. The Prophet (pbuh) passed. Abu Bakr Siddique succeeded and he also passed away; ‘Umar Farooq became the Caliph.

Umm Waraqah had two slaves irking for her, a girl and a man. She told them that after her death they would be free. One day they got together and decided that they were tired of waiting for this old lady to die. They planned that they would kill her while she lay asleep and escape to freedom. They were so tempted by the thought of freedom that ،hey forgot to consider their future as well as life in the Hereafter.

In the dead night as Umm Waraqah lay in a deep sleep, they killed her, covered her body with a sheet and crept away from the house silently. As day broke and the sun came up, the neighbours missed the sound of the beautiful recitation of the Noble Qur’an by Umm Waraqah which used to fill the air early in the dawn.

When they entered the house they were shocked to see her lying in the steep of death. Then they saw that both the slaves – man and the girl – were missing. They realised that they must be the criminals. ‘Umar bin Khattab ه ordered that people should be sent out to search for them. Finally when they were found hiding. When they were brought before the Caliph in the court, they admitted their guilt and were put to death.

Thus the Prophet (pbuh) was proved right, that Umm Waraqah would die a martyr’s death in her own home, and attain Paradise.

“Verily, the pious will be in the midst of Gardens and Rivers. In a seat of truth, near the Omnipotent King (Allah, the One, the All-Blessed, the Most High, the Owner of Majesty and Honour).” (54:54-55)

Umm Munthir Salama bint Qais

Sahabiyyat - Salama Bint Qais Umm Munthir (RA)

Umm Munthir Salama bint Qais

The Female Companions of Prophet Muhammad’s Era

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The Prophet pbuh | Said:

“Those who participated in the pledge of Rizwan are the holders of Paradise.” Umm Al-Munthar Salama participated in the Pledge of Rizwan, so she is the holder of Paradise”.

Umm Munthir was a notable daughter of the tribe of Banu Najjar. And she was the sister of a very eminent Companions, Saleet bin Qais. He participated in the battles of Badr. She had the privilege of being a member of the congregation, when the Ayah regarding the change of Qiblah or direction of prayer, was revealed during the middle of prayer. She was also a distant aunt of the Prophet (pbuh) who had great regard for her tribe. Whenever a member of the tribe fell ill he would visit them.

One of the men of the Banu Najjar tribe was sick. He went to see him and addressing him as maternal uncle, asked him to recite the words,

‘None has the right to be worshipped except Allah.’

The man said that he was not his maternal uncle, but his paternal uncle.

The Prophet (pbuh) smiled and said all he had to do was to recite foe Kalimah once.

He asked if it would be better and more beneficial for him. He said that it would be not just better but very much better. His life would be better both in this world and in foe Hereafter.

Umm Munthir Salama bint Qais was the great lady who had accepted foe invitation of Mus’ab bin ‘Umair to accept Islam. She came to be known by her son’s name as Umm Munthir. Her  original name was Salami bint Qais. Her two sisters, Umm Sulaim bint Qais and ‘Umairah bint Qais also accepted Islam and swore allegiance to it in the presence of the Prophet (pbuh).

In no time the women of Al-Madinah were accepting Islam and pledging allegiance personally to the Prophet (pbuh) When the women requested that they wanted to do so in the Prophet’s presence, he agreed, though he did not touch their palms, when swearing them in. But he made some conditions before swearing them in. He told the women that they should abstain completely from the following six things.

  1. They should not accept any other but Al^h as worthy of worship.
  2. They should not steal.
  3. They should not commit adultery.
  4. They should not kill their children.
  5. They should not slander or accuse a person falsely.
  6. They should not be disobedient to the commands recommended by Allah.

Umm Munthir prelates that when the Ansari women gathered to take the pledge, she was among them. They repeated all the six points with the Prophet (pbuh) when they swore allegiance to Islam.

The Prophet (pbuh) also told them they should not deceive their husbands.

Umm Munthir Salama bint Qais was married to Qais bin Sa’sa’ bin Wahab; so her father’s name was Qais and so was her husband’s. But she came to be known by her son’s name as Umm Munthir.

After the Battle of Ahzab the war of Banu Quraidhah took place. In this battle the Mujahideen besieged Banu Quraidhah for twenty-five[1]

______________________________________

[1] By some accounts the siege lasted fifteen days.

days. Since they were allies of the Aws, the Jews of Banu Quraidhah appealed to their leader, Sa’d bin Mu’adh, for his judgement on the egoistic and arrogant Banu Quraidhah and how they should be punished. Sa’d bin Mu’adh declared that the warmongers among them should be beheaded, their children should be taken prisoner and their property should be confiscated. The sentence meted out by him was carried out. At the time he gave his judgement he was lying injured in the tent which had been put up in the courtyard of the Prophet’s Mosque.

Realising that the situation was critical Rafa’ah bin Samwal Qurdhi appeated to Umm Munthir Salama to give him refuge, and appeal to the Prophet (pbuh) for his safety. He said that he would not forget this favor for the rest of his life. Feeling sorry for him, Umm Munthir Salama gave him shelter and requested the Prophet (pbuh) to accept him since she had given him refuge. He agreed and fixed a bail for Rafa’ah.

Thus he was saved from certain death. One day Umm Munthir Salama told the Prophet (pbuh) that her refuge prayed regularly and also ate camel meat. He smiled and answered that if he said his prayers it would be benefit him; but if he remained loyal to his own faith and did not accept Islam it would be of no use. Some time later Rafa’ah converted to Islam swearing the oath of allegiance.

This great act of goodness would certainly be recorded among her other good deeds. If she had not given him refuge and if she had not appealed for his life to the Prophet % he might have died as a disbeliever and gone to the eternal Fire of Hell in the Hereafter.

Among Banu Quraidhah there was a lady, Rehanah bint Zaid bin ‘Amr, whom the Prophet (pbuh) took as a slave for his household. According to some accounts he married her and she became one of the Mothers of the Believers. The wedding ceremony took place in the house of Umm Munthir. When the Prophet. came back from his Farewell Pilgrimage, she passed away and had been buried in Jannatul Baqi’.

The Prophet (pbuh) sometimes used to visit Umm Munthir Salami bint Qais. He would have his lunch and rest for a while there. She used to cook very well and the Prophet (pbuh) enjoyed eating at her place. She would make special dishes on Fridays because he would drop in with some of the Companions for a meal.

Umm Munthir was one of those fortunate fourteen hundred Companions of the Tree at the Bait’ Ridhwan for whom Allah. promised Paradise. As the Hadith in Sahih Muslim says,

‘’No one among them, who swore allegiance under the tree will go to Jahannum.’’

Umm Munthir left this world when both Allah and His Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) were well pleased with her.

Allah will be pleased with them and they with Him.

Sumayyah bint Khayyat

Sumayyah
bint Khayyat
سمية بنت خياطّ

Sahabiyyat:
Sumayyah bin Khayyat
About: Female Companions of
Prophet Muhammad’s Era (pbuh)

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First Woman
Martyr of Islam

Sumayyah bint Khayyat (Arabic: سمية بنت خياطّ‎, died 615 C.E.) is known in the Islamic traditions as the first person in history to be martyred for having adopted the faith of Islam, in pre-Hijra Mecca. Sumayyah was the wife of Yasir ibn Amir and the mother of Ammar ibn Yasir, both well-known early entrants to the faith. The earliest reference to the incident is found in Ibn Ishaq’s (died 761) biography of Muhammad, Siratu Rasulullah (Meaning: Biography of the Messenger of God).

History

By 615 C.E, five years after Muhammad’s declaration of prophethood, persecution of followers of the new faith came to an active phase when the weakest members of the young community, such as the African slave Bilal, were subjected to torture and the local leaders proclaimed a ban of trade with the Muslims, prohibiting citizens of Mecca from providing food and medicine to members of the new movement. These were followed by the murder of Sumayyah by a Meccan tribal chief Abu Jahl.

The name ‘Sumayyah’

The name of the person Sumayyah is not explicitly mentioned in Ibn Ishaq. It is a deduction from the reference to her son as Ammar “ibn” Sumayya, meaning Ammar “son-of” Sumayya, in Ibn Ishaq.

Sumayyah bint Khayyat

The Prophet (pbuh) said:

“O People of Yasir! Be patient because your destination is Paradise.”

Three brothers set out from Yemen to go to Makkah. They heard about this city and wanted to experience its culture and to partake of its various social activities. One was named Yasir and the other two were named Harith and Malik. The latter two left to return home to Yemen after some time, but Yasir liked live there so much that he decided to stay on permanantly.

According to the custom of the time he got the sponsorship and support of Abu Huthaifah bin ‘Abdullah Makhzoomi, and became his companion and partaer. As they got to know each other better, they took a liking to each other. Abu Huthaifah had a very intelligent and sensible slave girl in his house, Sumayyah. In due course of time she got married to Yasir.

It was a happy marriage and soon they had a son whom they named ‘Ammar. Abu Huthaifah was a very kind, loving and generous man, and he liberated the family from his bondage; but he continued to keep good terms with them and very often helped them with cash as well. Yasir had two more sons, whom he named ‘Abdullah and Hareeth. The latter was murdered before the advent of Islam, and with this tragedy it seemed ill fortune started to haunt the family.

Sumayyah bint Khayyat was one of the first seven people to be enlightened by Islam and swear allegiance to foe Prophet ه She is among the foremost of foe greatest women Companions. Islam is unique in foe sense that a person’s value does not depend on colour, race, language, sex or nationality. The norms are purity of heart and goodwill towards all.

As Allah says.

Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who most pious.” (49:13)

Thus, a person who wishes for his fellow human beings what he wishes for himself, who is kind to his fellow human beings for the sake of Allah is the one who fulfills the conditions of the test set by Him.

The Seven People Who First
Accepted Islam Were The Following

  1. Abu Bakr Siddique
  2. ‘Ali bin Abi Talib
  3. Khadijah bint Khuweylat
  4. Zaid bin Harithah
  5. Sumayyah bint Khayyat
  6. ‘Ammar bin Yasir
  7. Bilal bin Abi Rabah

The Quraish of Makkah could harm the Prophet (pbuh) because of the power and position of his uncle Abu Talib. Abu Bakr Siddique was also a very powerful man because of the wealth of his fribe and his own personal influence. But the common Muslim, whether man or woman was not spared any imaginable torture or torment.

Sumayyah bint Khayyat, her husband and her son ‘Ammar were very often the targets for the cruelty of the Quraish. On one occasion as the Prophet (pbuh) was passing by the marketplace he saw all three members of the family being put through the worst form of torture possible. But he was so helpless, that there was no way he could rescue them. He could only console them and said,

‘Be patient family of Yasir؛, for your final destination is Paradise.’

‘Uthman also narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) used to say these words to comfort the family. Once ‘Ammar managed to escape and reach the Prophet (pbuh) He then asked him when this persecution of the innocent Muslims would end, and when they would he able to breathe peacefully. He said that things were going way beyond all limits. The Prophet (pbuh) then comforted him with a prayer to Allah . to protect and save the family of Yasir from the fire of Hell.

Abu Jahl gave Sumayyah bint Khayyat the worst kind of punishment, but she did not waver even for a second and remained as steady as a rock. He tried to pressure her, cajole with her and threaten her to recant, but she bluntly refused. He could not accept the fact that she could resist him so stubbornly, and in out of ragh thrust his spear into her. This proved to be a fatal blow, and she died.

Thus, Sumayyah bint Khayyat had the distinction of being the first woman martyr of Islam. This incident took place seven years before the Hijrah. Then her husband also fell victim to the torture of the Quraish, and he also died. After the martyrdom of both the parents,’Ammar took a special place in the affections of the Prophet (pbuh) He used to address him lovingly as Ibn Sumayyah. He often spoke of the family of Yasir in the highest terms of praise.

‘Abdullah bin Mas’ood says the Prophet (pbuh) once said that when dissensions and disputes appeared among the people Ibn Sumayyah would always stand by the right and just.

This family sacrificed their lives, all in order to nourish the truth, and also to earn rewards for the Hereafter. It is about people like these that Allah says,

Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and’ their properties for (the price) that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah’s cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Taurat and the Injeel and the Qur’an. And who is truer to His covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain that you have concluded. That is the supreme success.” (9:111)

Fatimah bint Asad: فاطمة بنت أسد

Fatimah bint Asad
فاطمة بنت أسد

Sahabiyyat | Female Companions of the Prophet Mohammad’s era

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The Mother of Ali Ibn Abi Talib

Fatima bint Asad (Arabic: فاطمة بنت أسد‎, Fāṭimah bint ʾAsad) was the mother of the fourth caliph of Islam Imam Ali bin Abi Talib, and the mother-in-law of Muhammad’s daughter, Fatima Zahra bint Muhammad. Besides Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib, she had three other sons, Ja`far ibn Abī Tālib who was a famous General (he led the forces of Islam in the battle of Mu’tah, during which he was martyred), Talib ibn Abi Talib, and Aqeel ibn Abi Talib.

When Muhammad grew up and proclaimed his prophethood she stood by him. She was exceptionally fond of her son Ja’far, but she bore the separation from him and his wife, Asma bint Umais, when they migrated to Abyssinia on Muhammad’s orders with the first group of migrant Muslims.

Fatima, being one of the first to swear allegiance to Islam and its concept of the Oneness of Allah, faced the economic and social boycott of the Nonbelievers of the Mecca for three years. She was also a member of the privileged group who migrated to Medina.

When Muhammad began to preach she converted to Islam. When Muhammad’s grandfather, Shaiba ibn Hashim, died, the guardianship of Muhammad passed on to Abu Talib ibn Shaiba ibn Hashim. His wife, Fatima, looked after him, loving him as if he were her own. He remembered in his later life that she would go hungry to feed him. He respected her so highly that whenever she visited him he would stand up and receive her with great love, addressing her as mother.

Fatima Looked After Muhammad
Dring His Youth

Anas bin Malik says that when Muhammad heard Fatima bint Asad had died, he immediately went to her house sat beside her body and prayed for her soul.

“My dear mother, may God keep you under His Protection. Many times you went hungry in order to feed me well. You fed me and clothed me on delicacies that you denied yourself. God will surely be Happy with these actions of yours. And your intentions were surely meant to win the Goodwill and Pleasure of God and success in the Hereafter.”

He gave his shirt to be used as part of her shroud. When the grave was prepared Muhammad himself slept in it and placed her into the grave. Thus, she was one of the few people whose graves were examined by Muhammad. Fatimah is buried in Jannatul Baqee’ cemetery in Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

She had four sons; Talib ibn Abu Talib, Aqeel ibn Abu Talib, Ja’far ibn Abu Talib, Ali ibn Abu Talib and two daughters; Fakhitah bint Abu Talib and Jumanah bint Abu Talib.

Fatimah bint Asad
رضي الله عنها

The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said:

“I gave my shirt to he used as a part of her shroud, so that she would he dressed the dress of Paradise.”

Fatimah bint Asad was the mother of ‘Ali bin Abu Talib and the mother-in-law of the Prophet’s daughter Fatimah bint Muhammad (pbuh) Her grandsons, Hasan and Husain are to be the leaders of the youths of Paradise. Besides ‘Ali she had two other sons. One was Ja’far Tayyar who was a famous General. He led the forces of Islam in the battle of Mu’tah and was martyred in the same battle.

The Prophet (pbuh) was an orphan child, his father died before his birth; his mother also died when he was very young. His paternal uncle, Abu Talib, had in a sense adopted him. And Fatimah bint Asad, Abu Talib’s wife, looked after him like her own. She protected him as closely as the heart is in the human breast.

When he grew up and proclaimed himself to be the Prophet and Last Messenger of Allah, she still stood by him. All the relentless persecution did not deter her in any way. She was exceptionally fond of her son Ja’far, but for the sake of Islam she bore the separation from him and his wife, Asma’ bint ‘Omais when they migrated to Abysiniah on the Prophet’s orders with the first group of migrant Muslims.

Fatimah bint Asad being one of the first to swear allegiance to Islam and its concept of the Oneness of Allah faced the economic and social boycott of the Shi’ab Abi Talib for those three terrible years. She was also a member of the privileged group who migrated to Al-Madinah. Her family could be traced to the Hashmi dynasty, as could the Prophet’s.

Fatimah bint Asad bin Hashim bin Abd Munaf bin Qasi Hashmi, that was her lineage. ‘Abdul Muttalib, who was a very discriminating man had assessed her nature, her intelligence and her capabilities from the very beginning and proposed for her for his son, Abu Talib. When the Prophet (pbuh) was told by Allah to spread the Message of Islam among his kith and kin, it was Fatimah bint Asad who immediately accepted this invitation and swore allegiance and entered the fold of Islam.

When the Prophet’s grandfather, ‘Abdul Muttalib, passed away, the guardianship of the orphan Muhammad passed on to Abu Talib. His wife, Fatimah bint Asad, looked after him, loving him as if he were her own. He remembered in his later life that she would go hungry to feed him. He respected her so highly that whenever she visited him he would stand up and receive her with great love, addressing her as ‘Mother’.

His uncle too loved him deeply. Muhammad (pbuh) in his childhood was so well mannered and so fastidious about his personal cleanliness that Abu Talib would hold him up as an example to his other children. Normally boys would be dirty and tousled from playing rough games with the other boys, but Muhammad was always dignified with a neat appearance.

People were impressed when they saw him. Abu Talib liked all the children to eat together because he felt that whenever Muhammad (pbuh) ate with other children, food would be sufficient and when the children ate alone they would remain hungry. Abu Talib often told his nephew that he was specially blessed, as there was plenty when he was around.

Fatimah bint Asad did not spare any pains and looked after the Prophet (pbuh) in his infancy, boyhood and youth. Once in his childhood he accompanied his uncle on a business trip to Syria. Some very unusual and surprising incidents took place on the journey, and Abu Talib described these to his wife Fatimah bint Asad when they came back. She was also very moved and impressed.

The same was the case with Maisarah, the slave of Khadijah. He was amazed at some, the strange signs he witnessed on that first business trip to Syria with tam. His courtesy, his humane treatment of people, his business acumen, the enormous profit made as well as some of the strange supernatural happenings, the prediction of the monk, Nestor, all these he narrated to Khadijah.

Nestor, a Jewish monk, noted for his knowledge of religion had predicted that he would be exalted to prophethood by Allah. Maisarrah told her about the Prophet (pbuh) and his reputation for honesty and intelligence. She was impressed by what she heard and the more she came to know Muhammad M the more she liked and respected him. And, finally, she proposed marriage, rejecting the offers of marriage from the foremost leaders of the Quraish.

When the Prophet (pbuh) placed the invitation to a religion with a new and rational perspective before the Quraish of Makkah, the worshippers of all the false idols in the Ka’bah were infuriated. They could not dream that the Prophet (pbuh) would dismiss their gods as useless helpless creatures, and they became his bitter enemies for propagating a new faith that did away with their traditional and inherited practices. They adopted a very antagonistic attitude and swore to crush him and Islam.

During this period they resorted to the most cruel and sadistic forms of torture to make the converts give up the new faith and return to their old barbaric practices and rituals. It was only the power and influence of Abu Talib that prevented them from doing any harm to Muhammad He stood by him with all his love and carried out the responsibilities of guardian faithfully by giving him his protection. No enemy could dare to do anything to him as long as he was under the mantle of his uncle’s protection.

Fatimah bint Asad cooperated with Abu Talib wholeheartedly and she was a mother pure and simple where the safety and well being of Muhammad (pbuh) was concerned. No wonder he loved and respected her so highly. Considering the dangerous conditions which developed for the Muslims in Makkah, he thought it whetter that the Muslims migrate to Abyssiniah where the ruler Najashi was known to be tolerant and hospitable. The leader of this first group of migrants was Ja’far bin Abi Talib the brother of ‘Ali and the favorite son of Fatimah bint Asad. She loved him more than the others because he resembled Muhammad (pbuh) very much, and was extremely intelligent.

He seemed to have inherited the family’s mastery over language and was also an eloquent speaker who could win people over to his viewpoint. It was with this same skill that he had won over Najashi when the Quraish appealed to him to surrender the Muslims to them.

The Quraish now decided to restrict the Muslims to one small area, besiege them and boycott them. Social and economic sanctions were imposed, and these three years were perhaps the toughest that the followers of Islam faced. Economically, it was certainly the worst ever. Children could be heard on all sides sobbig with hunger, and the elders looked on helplessly with tears in their eyes. To satisfy their hunger they started eating the leaves of trees and grass; they even sucked on wet skins to slake their thirst.

Fatimah bint Asad passed this terrible period with fortitude and patience, and did not waver in the smallest degree. Ten years after the first revelation to Muhammad (pbuh) appointing him the Messenger of Allah this harsh siege was finally lifted. It was in the same year that the Prophet’s wife and most faithful supporter, Khadijah اpassed away. The pangs of separation from her were very strong for the Prophet He had not yet recovered from her loss, when he was dealt another terrible blow – his best ally, Abu Talib, also passed away. This year is known as’The Year of Sorrows’ in Islamic history.

The torture and torment, atrocities and cruelties reached such proportions that Allah ٠ finally ordered the Prophet to migrate to AI- Madinah. Fatimah bint Asad was among these migrants. When the Prophet’s daughter Fatimah married ‘Ali there were two Fatimah in the family, a mother-in-law and daughter-in-law. ‘Ali ه narrated how one day the Prophet gave him a very large expensive sheet and told him to divide it between the Fatimahs. At that time there were four Fatimahs in the family.

  • Fatimah bint Asad
  • Fatimah bint Muhammad
  • Fatimah bint Hamzah
  • Fatimah bint Shaibah, who was the wife of ‘Aqeel bin Abi Talib the brother of ‘Ali, ‘Ali says he did as the Prophet (pbuh) old torn and divided it among the four Fatimahs in his family.

Anas bin Malik says that when the Prophet (pbuh) got news of the death of Fatimah bint Asad he immediately went to her house, sat beside her and prayed for her.

  • ” My dear mother, may Allah keep you under His Protection. Many times you went in order to feed me well. You fed me and clothed me on delicacies that you denied yourself. Allah will surely be happy with these actions of yours. And your intentions were surely meant to win the goodwill and pleasure of Allah and success in the Hereafter.”

He gave his shirt to be used as part of her shroud, saying he prayed to Allah to forgive her and give her the dress of Paradise.

When the grave was prepared the Prophet (pbuh) himself examined it and with his own hands placed her into the grave.

Thus Fatimah bint Asad was one of the few blessed people in whose graves the Prophet himself examined. Their names are given below:

  • Khadijah
  • ‘Abdullah Mazni – very well known as zulbajàdain.
  • Fatimah bint Asad.
  • His son, born by Khadijah, who died in his infancy.

Fatimah bint Asad is that great lady for whom he gave the glad tidings that she would be blessed with a place in Paradise. He said that he shrouded her with his shirt, praying that Allah would give her the dress of Paradise. Allah pleased with them and they pleased Allah.

Ameen!

Juwayriah Bint al-Harith

Juwayriah Bint al-Harith
جويرية بنت الحارث‎

Sahabiyat: Ummuhàtul-Mu’minnin
(Female Companions of the Prophet Mohammad’s era)

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Juwayriah

Juwayriyya bint al-Harith (Arabic: جويرية بنت الحارث‎ juwayriyya bint al-ḥārith, born c. 608) was a wife of Muhammad, and a Mother of the Believers. She married Muhammad, the Islamic prophet when he was 58 years old and she was 20, thus placing the marriage in 628.

Family

She was the daughter of al-Hārith ibn Abi Dirar, the chief of Banu Mustaliq, who was defeated with his tribe in a battle.

Fight between Muslims and Banu Mustaliq

Her tribe Banu Mustaliq was preparing to go launch an attack on Madinah, but the Muslims caught wind of their plan and quickly raised a defense force of 700 men who marched forward to the strategic point of Al-Marisa’. The Muslim army then sent a message to Banu Mustaliq to accept Islam, and in doing so abandon their hostilities and continue to live in peace and security in their own land. Instead of accepting this offer Banu Mustalaq declared war and shot one of the Muslim soldiers with an arrow, at which point wild fighting broke out.

Juwayriya captured as slave, freed & married

After minimal casualties, the Muslim forces were victorious. Among the many captives was Juwayriya, whose husband, Mustafa bin Safwan, had been killed in the battle. She initially fell among Muhammad’s companion Thabit b. Qays b. Al-Shammas. Troubled by this, Juwayriya sought a deed of redemption from Muhammad. Muhammad proposed to marry her and as a result freed her from the bondage of Thabit b. Qais and consequently ameliorated the condition of her captured tribe.

This incident was described in more detail:

“At the first opportunity [after her capture] she went to the Prophet, and pleaded her case with him. She told him that she was the daughter of a chieftain and used to command and because of her unfortunate circumstance she found herself in this helpless position. From a throne made of gold she had fallen into dust. …How could she possibly live the life as a slave? She pleaded with the Prophet, to take notice of the pitiful and desperate condition in which she found herself.

The Prophet, was moved by her sorrowful plea and asked her if she would like to live as a free woman and be part of his household if he paid her ransom. She had never in her dreams expected this offer. Moved deeply by this unexpected elevation in her status, she exclaimed she would be more than happy to accept.”

Some time later her father and all the men of her tribe who had been freed also accepted Islam as their religion.

Consequently she was married to Muhammad, the Islamic prophet when he was 58 years old and she was 20, thus placing the marriage in 628. After her marriage, it is mentioned that she was very pious and spent most of her time engrossed in prayer.

Death & burial

She died at the age of sixty-five in the 50th year after migration and was buried with the other wives of the Prophet in Jannatul Baqi’.

Her qualities

Juwayriya was described as being very beautiful and refined:

  • She was brought up in the lap of luxury, and had all the refinements and graces of a princess. Intelligent and wise, she mastered language and literary style. This was an accomplishment much prized by contemporary Arabs.
  • All who saw [Juwayriya] were stunned by her exceptional beauty. Brought up as she had been in one of the foremost families of the time, she was not only beautiful but graceful, elegant, and eloquent.
  • When Muhammad’s wife ‘Aisha first saw her it is said she exclaimed that Juwayriyah was “as beautiful as a fairy.

Legacy

Juwayriyah bint Al-Harith reported, the Mother of the Believers: The Prophet came out from my apartment in the morning as I was busy in performing the dawn prayer. He came back in the forenoon and found me sitting there. The Prophet said, “Are you still in the same position as I left you. I replied in the affirmative.

Thereupon the Prophet said,

“I recited four words three times after I had left you. If these are to be weighed against all you have recited since morning, these will be heavier. These are:

سُبْحَانَ اللهِ وَ بِحَمْدِهِ عَدَدَ خَلقِهِ وَرِضَا نَفْسِهِ وَزِنَةَ عَرْشِهِ وَ مَدَادَ كَلِمَاتِهِ

Subhan-Allahi wa bihamdihi, `adada khalqihi, wa rida nafsihi, wa zinatah `arshihi, wa midada kalimatihi

Allah is free from imperfection and I begin with His praise, as many times as the number of His creatures, in accordance with His Good Pleasure, equal to the weight of His Throne and equal to the ink that may be used in recording the words (for His Praise).” -Muslim

The Wives of the Prophet | Peace Be Upon Him

The next wife of the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) after Zainab bint Jahash bint Rubaab Al-Asadiyyah (may Allah be pleased with her) was Juwayriah bint al-Harith ibn Diraar (may Allah be pleased with her). Her father was the chieftain the Banu Mustaliq, a branch of the Banu Khuza’a tribe residing in the region of Hijaaz. A cursory glance at the circumstances surrounding the marriage of the prophet to Juwayriah would indicate that the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) would have taken into consideration the influential back round of Juwayriah when considering to marrying her.

Coupled with the fact that her father’s tribe had a strong allegiance with Abu Sufyaan; marrying into such a prominent family would have had a greatly beneficial impact on the Ummah, as hostilities between the two tribes would be neutralized as well as paving the way for the Muslims to tactfully conquer Makkah. Such fine details of the Seerah undoubtedly illustrate the legendary leadership qualities of the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam).

After the defeat of Uhud, many tribes, including that of Khuzaa’a, sought to opportunistically attack and defeat the Muslims. For this reason the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) initiated acute military engagements with these surrounding tribes in order to ward off the threat and to further facilitate the spread of Islam.

It was around the end of the 4th Hijri year or the beginning of 5th that the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) dispatched a regiment of Mujahideen to launch a pre-emptive strike against Khuzaa’a located near the well of Muraisee’. Allah granted victory to the Muslims in this battle which resulted in the acquisition of much war booty. Approximately 600 people were taken as captives; one of which was Juwayriah bint al-Haarith (the daughter of the chief) whose name was Barraa at the time.

The prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) knowing the status of this woman separated her from the other captives and delegated Thabit ibn Qays (may Allah be pleased with him) to look after her for the time being. Other reports indicate that she became a slave girl to Thaabit and that after seeing the beauty of Islam and the truth of the prophethood she accepted Islam under his care. Her lifestyle must have changed considerably as she went from being the daughter of a chieftain to a slave in a foreign land; a change that clearly was very hard on her.

It is reported that she came to the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) and said: O Prophet, you know what calamity has befallen me; I am the daughter of the chief and I have asked Thaabit to free me in exchange for money (kitaaba[1]). The Prophet replied by saying, “Should I inform you of something which is better than that. I will pay this kitaba for you and then you may marry me” i.e. I will help you to free yourself by paying this amount off.

Juwayriah (may Allah be please with her) was pleased by the prophets proposal and accepted it. Due to the fact that the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) proposed to her it is seems likely that she was indeed a Muslim at this time and this notion is further supported by Juwayriah’s own address to the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) as “O Prophet”.

However, according to another story, which is more probable, after the arrest of his daughter, al-Haarith the father of Juwairiyah, approached the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) and asserted that his daughter should not be made a slave, as she was the daughter of the chieftain, and that she should be freed. The prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) said that it would be better to leave the matter to the choice of his daughter.

Al-Haarith then went to his daughter and told her that the holy prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) had left the matter to her free will, and that he hoped that she would not bring disgrace to him. To his dismay she replied that she preferred to remain in the service of the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam). Thereafter the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) married her. Ibn as-S’ad mentions in his famous book ‘al-Tabaqat’ that the father of Juwayriah paid her ransom amount, and when she became free, the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) married her.

As a result of this marriage all the prisoners of war who were now slaves, numbering around 600, were manumitted by the Muslims as they did not like that any member of the family in which the holy Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) was married be made a slave. The prisoners became known as the in-laws of the prophet.

It was for this reason that Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said, “I have never known a woman who has been the cause of so much Barakah being showered on her people as Juwayriah (may Allah be pleased with her).”

By marrying Juwayriah, the Banu Mustaliq were able to enter Islam with honour, and have the humiliation of their recent defeat tacitly removed thus neutralising the need for counter engagement for tribal vengeance.

 There is not much else reported about Juwayriah except that she was an extremely beautiful woman who was pious and bashful. She was steadfast in performing acts of worship to her Lord. She would often sit in her prayer place remembering her Lord after Fajr until mid-noon.

She has two ahadith which are reported in as-Saheehayn. There is the hadith narrated by Abu Aiyub from Juwayriah bint Al-Haarith,

 The Prophet visited her on a Friday and she was fasting. He asked her, “Did you fast yesterday?” She said, “No.” He said, “Do you intend to fast tomorrow?” She said, “No.” He said, “Then break your fast.” Through another series of narrators, Abu Aiyub is reported to have said, “He ordered her and she broke her fast.”[2]

It should be noted that the majority of the scholars of Islam (may Allah have mercy on them all) said that it is makrooh to single out Friday for fasting and that if one chooses to fast on that day he should either follow it up with a fast on Saturday or fast one day before on thursday. However the Maalilkies and Hanafees opposed this view.

The second hadith she narrated is found in Saheeh Muslim.

 Juwayriah reported that Allah’s messenger (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) came out from (her apartment) in the morning as she was busy in observing her dawn prayer in her place of worship. He came back in the forenoon and she was still sitting there. He said to her: You have been in the same seat since I left you? She said: Yes. Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (sallallahu alayhi wassalam) said: I recited four words three times after I left you and if these were to be weighed against what you have recited since morning they would outweigh them. They are:

سبحان الله وبحمده عدد خلقه ورضا نفسه وزنة عرشه ومداد كلماته

“Hallowed be Allah and praise is due to Him according to the number of His creation and according to the pleasure of His Self and according to the weight of His Throne and according to the ink (used in recording) words (for His Praise).”[3]

Our mother (may Allah be pleased with her) Juwayriah bint al-Haarith passed away in 56 H.

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  1. Kitabah: when a slave buys back his/her freedom from his master in consideration of a sum of money and has completed payment of the amount. The kitabah is lawful, in accordance with the agreement between the slave and his master over an amount of money to be paid by installments which can be large or small. As mentioned in surah an-Noor:33
  2. Al-Bukhari- 207
  3. Muslim- 6575

Zaynab bint Khuzayma

Sahabiyyat - Zaynab Bint Khusaymah (RA)

Zaynab bint Khuzayma | زينب بنت خزيمة

Sahabiyat: Ummuhàtul-Mu’minnin
”Female Companions of the Prophet Mohammad time”

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Compassion And Pity” For The Poor

Born in 595, Zaynab bint Khuzayma (Arabic: زينب بنت خزيمة‎, Umm al-Masakin, Mother of the Poor) was the fifth wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. As a result of her early death, less is known about her than any of his other wives.

Life:

Typically described as being in her late 20s, although occasionally said to be 48, she was described as “beautiful”. She was known for her “compassion and pity” for the poor.

Zaynab was first married to Tufail bin Harith, who either divorced her or died shortly afterward. Zaynab then married her first husband’s brother, Ubaydah ibn al-Harith. In 624, her husband died of wounds received in the Battle of Badr, and she began to live in poverty. Ibn Kathir, in his 14th century Sira, referred to Zaynab’s first husband as being Husayn bin al-Harith, and her second marriage to Jahsh bin Ri’ab, who was killed at the Battle of Uhud.

There are conflicting reports whether she was shunned and sought her for marriage, or that she turned down many offers of marriage. Some even suggest she had a third husband, who also died.

Marriage to Muhammad:

The following year shortly after his marriage to Hafsa bint Umar, Muhammad approached her with a mahar of either 400 dirhams or 12 ounces of gold, and offered to marry her. There has been debate about how the marriage was proposed, in Ibn Kalbi’s al-Isaba, he claimed that Muhammad proposed to her directly – while Ibn Hashim wrote that her uncle, Quobaisa bin Arm al-Hilali had arranged the marriage proposal.

It was said the marriage, which took place during the month of Ramadan, was meant to assure his followers that their deaths in battle would not mean their families would starve and be neglected. She was the first of his wives to come from outside the Quraysh tribe.

At one point, a poor man came to her house to beg for some flour, and she gave him the last of her own, and went without food that night. Muhammad was moved by her compassion, and told his other wives about it and preached that “if you have faith in Allah…he would provide for your sustenance, even as he doeth for the birds, who leave their nest hungry in the morning, but return full at night”.

Death:

Jannat al-Baqi cemetery, where Zaynab is buried.

She died less than two years later, some suggest as little as two months, the only one of Muhammad’s wives to die before him, other than his first wife Khadijah. It has been suggested she died during the month of Rabi’ al-thani, four years after the Hijra.

She was buried in Jannat al-Baqi, carried into her grave by Muhammad.

After her death, her household in Muhammad’s circle remained empty for a notable period of time, before his sixth wife, Umm Salama was moved in, and noted “He married me and moved me to the chamber of Zaynab bint Khuzayma, the Mother of the Poor”.

Zaynab bint khuzayma:

Zaynab bint Khuzayma, may Allah be pleased with her, was married to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in Ramadan, 4 AH, soon after his marriage to Hafsa when he was fifty-six years old and she was thirty years old. After she had been made a widow when her husband was martyred at Badr, she offered herself in marriage to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who accepted her proposal and married her.

Zaynab bint Khuzayma was so generous to orphans and the poor that she came to be known as the ‘Mother of the Poor’. She died only eight months after her marriage, may Allah be pleased with her, and although not a great deal is known about her today, there will be many who will testify to her generosity on the Last Day.

Zaynab bint Jahsh (ra)

Sahabiyyat - Zaynab Bint Jahsh (RA)

Zaynab bint Jahsh
زينب بنت جحش‎

Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) ERA.
Sahabiyat: Ummuhàtul-Mu’minnin
(Female Companions of the Prophet Mohammad time)

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Zaynab bint Jahsh

Zaynab bint Jahsh (Arabic: زينب بنت جحش‎, born c. 593) was a wife of Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers. Prior to this, she was briefly married to Muhammad’s adopted son, Zayd ibn Harithah for about a year. She was also Muhammad’s first cousin. Muhammad’s father Abd Allah ibn Abd al Muttalib was the brother of Zaynab’s mother Umaimah bint Abd al-Muttalib.

Early life:

Her brother, Ubayd-Allah ibn Jahsh, went on the migration to Abyssinia and there left Islam for Christianity. His wife, Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan, later married Muhammad.

”She had a sister named Hammanah bint Jahsh.”

Marriage with Zayd ibn Harithah

After her migration to Medina, she became part of the newly founded Muslim community. There, Muhammad proposed to Zaynab’s family the marriage of his freed slave and adopted son, Zayd ibn Harithah. While Zayd was a former slave. Zayd was son of Harithah ibn Shurahbil, a person of the Kalb tribe, and his mother, Su’da bint Tha’labah, was from the Bani Ma’n, a branch of the Tay tribe. When he was eight years old, she took him along to her parents.

There the people of Bani Qain bin Jasr raided their camp, plundered their goods and took some men as captives, which Zayd was included. Then they sold Zayd at the fair of ‘Ukaz near Ta’if. His buyer was Hakim ibn Hizam, a nephew of Khadija. Hakim brought him to Makkah and presented him to his paternal aunt. When Muhammad married Khadija he found Zayd in her service and was so impressed by his good manners and conduct that he asked him of her.

Zaynab had an aristocratic lineage, thus having a higher social status. On these grounds her brothers rejected the proposal and she disapproved of it.

Muhammad, however, was determined to eliminate such class distinctions under pre-Islamic Arab custom. He also wanted to establish the legitimacy and right to equal treatment of the adopted.

Montgomery Watt discusses other reasons for Zaynab’s initial disapproval. He points out that Zayd, despite his social status, was held quite high in Muhammad’s esteem. Thus, Watt concludes that one reason for Zaynab’s disapproval was that she may have wanted to marry Muhammad herself.

Whatever the reasons, Muhammad insisted on the marriage. When Qur’an 33:36 was revealed, Zaynab acquiesced and married Zayd in the year 626. However, Zayd divorced Zaynab and their marriage lasted just over a year.

Marriage with Muhammad (pbuh)

According to the English translation of the book, The Wives of the Messenger of Allah by Muhammad Swaleh Awadh, it states that she was married to Muhammad in Dhul Qa’adah, in the fifth year of Hijra. Since Zaynab was the wife of Muhammad’s adopted son, pre-Islamic practices frowned upon such her marriage with the prophet.

The marriage was used by Munafiqs of Medina in an attempt to discredit Muhammad on two fronts, one of double standards as she was his fifth wife, while everyone else was restricted to four, and marrying his adopted son’s wife.. This was exactly what Muhammad feared and was initially hesitant in marrying her. The Qur’an, however, confirmed that this marriage was valid. Thus Muhammad, confident of his faith in the Qur’an, proceeded to reject the existing Arabic norms.When Zaynab’s waiting period from her divorce was complete, Muhammad married her.

We read in Sura Al-Ahzab 33:3733:37,

Behold! Thou didst say to one who had received the grace of Allah and thy favour: “Retain thou (in wedlock) thy wife, and fear Allah.” But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make manifest: thou didst fear the people, but it is more fitting that thou shouldst fear Allah.

Then when Zaid had dissolved (his marriage) with her, with the necessary (formality), We joined her in marriage to thee: in order that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the Believers in (the matter of) marriage with the wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have dissolved with the necessary (formality) (their marriage) with them. And Allah’s command must be fulfilled.

In Pre Islamic Arabia adoption was common and Zayd was given to him as a slave by his wife Khadija. Muhammad freed him and took him to Kaaba in Mecca and declared Zayd his son (thus becoming one who received Muhammad’s grace). With coming of Islam all relations of adoption were nulled. And Muhammad himself started calling Zayd Zayd ibn Harithah instead of Zayd bin Muhammad (Zayd was known as Zayd bin Muhammad i.e. son of Muhammad).

Since Zayd’s background was a slave, and Muhammad wanted to lift the social status of freed slaves (like Zayd) he asked for Zaynab’s hand in marriage for Zayd. Zaynab was Muhammad’s first cousin, daughter of his aunt Umaima bint Abdul Muttalib. Zaynab had initially refused to marry Zaid because of his slave background and the same displeasure had come from her brother, ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh. However on insistence of Muhammad, Zaynab and everyone else agreed.

The marriage was a failure as Zaynab found it extremely difficult to accept a freed slave as her husband. Zayd got tired of her and the bitterness had left him with no desire for her eventually leading to their divorce.Zaynab being Muhammad’s first cousin was no stranger for him, he had seen her hundreds of time in his aunt Umaima bint Abdul Muttalib’s house for over thirty years before she became Zayd’s wife.

Death:

She was the first of Muhammad’s wives to die after him. She died during the caliphate of Umar bin Khattab in the 23rd year of Hijra. However, other narrators say she died in the 21st year of Hijra.

Zaynab bint Jahsh

She was the daughter of Umaimah bint ‘Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim, who was the Messenger of Allah’s paternal aunt. Her brother was the distinguished general, ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh. Another brother was a noted author of religious poetry, Abu Ahmad bin Jahsh. Her sister was another famous women Companion, Hamnah bint Jahsh. Her paternal uncles were the Leader of the Martyrs’ Hamzah bin ‘Abdul Muttalib, and ‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib, who was renowned for his works of charity. Her paternal aunt was Safiyyah bint ‘Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim.

She was born about thirty years before the Hijrah of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), She was influenced by the teachings of her brother, ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh, to convert to Islam. Beautiful, intelligent, wise and of noble birth she was the envy of many.

The increasing popularity and influence of Islam roused a towering rage among the Quraysh; the new converts faced indescribable tortures. Some were made to lie on beds of coal, while others some were dragged naked across the burning desert sands. Still others were wrapped up in straw mats and strung over smoke, to suffocate them. Everyday saw new methods of the art of torturing these people who had sworn allegiance to the Allah.

Jahsh family set out

The sole purpose was that they should give up the belief and practices of Islam. Makkah became too small to hold both them and the Quraysh. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) exhorted his followers and friends to be patient and brave, but finally he gave them orders to migrate; first to Abyssinia and then to Al-Madinah. Under the leadership of ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh, the Jahsh family set out. The caravan included the blind poet Ahmad bin Jahsh, who was admired for his linguistic mastery. He wrote an epic poem depicting in detail the tortures inflicted by the Quraysh, the reasons for migration and the heroic deeds of the Muslims. This poem is considered to be a masterpiece of Arabic literature.

Time passed peacefully in Al-Madinah, and the ties between the immigrants and the Ansar, the original inhabitants created an atmosphere of brotherly love and affection. It seemed they were members of one united family. The best individual in the society was neither master nor slave, neither man nor woman, neither rich nor poor, but a God-fearing person of good character and morals.

In the context of such an ideal society the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) suggested to his cousin Zaynab that he had decided to get her engaged to Zayd bin Harithah, his adopted son and a freed slave. When Zaynab heard this she was stunned; she told him that she was from a noble family and she was neither keen nor willing to marry a freed slave. She was doubtful if they could get along with each other. He answered that he had chosen Zayd for her and she should accept him. Before Zaynab could answer him, an Ayah was revealed to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). This was Ayah of Surat At-Ahzab,

“It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disbelieves Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed into a plane error.” [Noble Quran 33:36]

Thus Zaynab and Zayd were married, but separated as they were from totally different social backgrounds, and their marital life was far from peaceful.

Zaynab was biased and from the very beginning the relations were always strained. Zayd felt that the respect and importance that a husband should get from his wife was never given to him. Disappointed in his marriage, he went to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and told him that he was very upset as he and Zaynab seemed totally incompatible. The advice that he received from his mentor, Allah has incorporated in the Noble Quran,

“Keep your wife to yourself, and fear Allah.” [Noble Quran 33:37]

But in spite of all the best efforts the marriage did not work out, and finally he divorced Zaynab.

Allah Wanted to Abolish
This Uncivilized Custom

Arabs thought it was wrong for a man to marry the widow or divorcee of his adopted son. Allah wanted to abolish this uncivilized custom, so He sent the Angel Jibril to tell the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in secret that Zaynab would one day be his wife. He was very distressed as it was against the accepted norm of behavior. He feared social censure and was very ashamed and embarrassed at the implications. But the decision had been made in the heavens by Allah and soon he received the revelation,

“And (remember) when you said to him (Zayd bin Harithah) on whom Allah has bestowed grace (by guiding him to Islam) and you have done favour (by manumitting him): “Keep your wife to yourself, and fear Allah.” But you hid in yourself that which Allah will make manifest, you did fear the people (i.e., their saying that Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) married the divorced wife of his manumitted slave) whereas Allah had a better right that you should fear Him. So when Zayd had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them. And Allah’s Command must be fulfilled.” [Noble Quran 33:37]

The Mothers of the believers

When Zaynab completed her period of waiting, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) sent her a proposal through Zayd bin Harithah. When he went to her, she was kneading dough; keeping his back turned to her, he gave her the Prophet’s message, that he wanted her to join the select group of the Mothers of the believers. She said she could not answer immediately, but would have to consult her Maker. She began praying to Allah for guidance. She was still in the middle of her prayer, when the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) received a revelation that the marriage had already been performed in the Heavens by Allah Himself. After this Heavenly order, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) immediately went to Zaynab without observing any of the formalities that were observed with acquaintances and friends. He did not inform her in advance nor did ask for permission. There are some exceptional points to be noted regarding this marriage.

”Only the order of the Quran was based as a guardian or a witness.”

It abolished a barbaric custom that equated a blood relationship with an adoptive one; in which the father could not marry an adopted son’s ex-wife or widow. Zaynab used to say very proudly to the other Mother of the Believers that her marriage had been performed not by her family but by Allah above the Heavens with His beloved Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

When the hypocrites criticized the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) for this marriage, Allah replied,

“There is no blame on the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in that which Allah has made legal for him. That has been Allah’s way with those who have passed away of (the Prophets of) old. And the Command of Allah is a decree determined. Those who convey the Message of Allah and fear Him, and fear none save Allah. And Sufficient is Allah as a Reckoner.” [Noble Quran 33:38-39]

And to clarify the finer points still further he revealed Ayat which again are part of Surat Al-Ahzab,

“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.” [Noble Quran 33]

On this occasion Allah revealed the order clarifying the position of adopted sons as,

“Nor has he made your adopted sons your real sons. That is but your saying with your mouths. But Allah says the truth, and He guides to the (Right) Way. Call them (the adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just with Allah.” [Noble Quran 33-5]

On the occasion of this wedding Allah revealed revelation regarding Hijab and also made it clear that no man could marry any of the Mothers of the Believers after the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). These two commands were revealed in Ayat of the same Surat,

“O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet’s houses, unless permission is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse without sitting for a talk. Verily, such (behavior) annoys the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), and he is shy of (asking) you (to go); but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah’s Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily, with Allah that shall be an enormity.” [Noble Quran 33]

‘A’ishah to be a Truly God-fearing
Lady of Exemplary Character

‘A’ishah says that in terms of values and position, Zaynab was her equal. She said she had never seen any other person who was so eager to get closer to Allah to gain nearness to Him she was more charitable than most, and her generous behavior with relatives was impeccable. When ‘A’ishah was wrongfully accused, the whole of Al-Madinah was polluted with taunts and filthy talk; in fact even the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was disturbed. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked Zaynab what her opinion was of ‘A’ishah.

The noble character of this lady is revealed in her answer; she promptly said she did not wish to be involved, and did not want to defile and taint her ears, her eyes and her tongue with such terrible accusations. Swearing by Allah she said, she found ‘A’ishah to be a truly God-fearing lady of exemplary character. She found in her the most wonderful traits of integrity, sincerity and honesty.

She said she had not seen in her anything but goodness and virtue. ‘A’ishah narrated that Zaynab very easily could have taken advantage of the situation and passed derogatory remarks about her, for after all, in a sense they were rivals. ‘A’ishah says she never forgot the fact that she stood by her at the worst time in her life when almost the whole world had turned against her.

On one occasion Zaynab called Safiyyah a Jewess and this deeply distressed the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). In fact he was so upset that he stopped talking to her. Zaynab felt guilty and realized that she committed a grave mistake and offended the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

Finally she requested ‘A’ishah to advocate her case with him and tell him that she was sincerely repentant; she was the only one who could talk to him in such a direct manner. When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) visited ‘A’ishah, she looked for an opportune moment and brought up the subject, pleading the case for Zaynab. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) forgave her and family life returned to normal in the household.

Death of Zaynab

When Zaynab passed away ‘A’ishah recalled an occasion when the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), said that among the Mother of the Believers, she would meet him first who had the longest arms. Zaynab was short compared to the others and naturally her arms were also shorter. All the ladies took this statement literally and started measuring their arms. It was only upon the death of Zaynab that they realized what this meant. It really meant that the person with the longest arms was the most generous or liberal person, who only thought of how she could benefit others.

There was an implicit prophesy in this statement, which became clear when Zaynab passed away. It meant she would meet him in Paradise before the others. And she passed away before any of the other wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). ‘A’ishah says Zaynab worked with her own hands, and what she thus earned she spent on works of charity. She said she was a God-fearing, straight-forward lady who practiced abstinence. All her actions were aimed at pleasing Allah. Sometimes she could lose her temper, but then she was quick to repent and ask for forgiveness. She was very pure at heart and never carried resentments and grudges.

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) had a very organized routine. After the ‘Asr prayers he would visit the different apartments to inquire about the well being of the ladies of his household. He was always very just in the attention he paid to them and the amount of time he spent with each one of them. Once Zaynab received some special honey from a relative, and it so happened that this was the Prophet’s favourite.

Whenever she offered it to him he would spend some time longer in her apartment, as it took time to really flavor and enjoy it. The other wives felt impatient and restless waiting for their turn with him. So ‘A’ishah, Sawdah, and Hafsah worked out a plan. Each of them would tell him that there was a peculiar smell in his mouth. And if all of them said the same thing he would certainly believe them and realize that the only thing which could have given him bad breath would have been the honey he just had.

Since he was very concerned about personal hygiene, he would definitely stop eating the honey. Of course the three Mothers of the Believers did what they did, not out of spite, but because they loved him and wanted him to come to them sooner. In fact Allah has Himself spoken of them in the highest terms of respect in the Quran.

“O wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) you are not like any other women.” [Noble Quran 33]

And it happened as they planned; the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) developed a distaste for honey and decided he would never eat it again. In the case of an ordinary human being this may not have been a problem. But the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was swearing not to have something that actually was not forbidden by Allah ; this could lead to any follower of his also forswearing something not forbidden by Allah. So Allah rebuked him,

“O Prophet! Why do you forbid (for yourself) that which Allah has allowed to you, seeking to please your wives? And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Noble Quran 66]

As a result the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) broke the oath he had taken and performed the penance for this in accordance with the injunctions of Allah.

The Little Mosque

Zaynab made a little mosque in a corner of her house and used to spend a lot of time there in prayer and meditation. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) would also pray there sometimes. She believed strongly in asking Allah for counsel through prayer and supplication, before taking any action. All her life’s major decisions were made in this way. In fact even when the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) proposed she turned to prayer for guidance.

This righteous lady died during the caliphate of ‘Umar Faruq at the age of fifty-three. When she realized she was about to meet her Maker, she told the people around her that she already prepared a shroud for herself. If ‘Umar Faruq sent one for her, one should be used and the other given away in charity. She was such a modest lady that a curtain was drawn in front of her dead body, even though it was wrapped in a shroud.

‘Umar Faruq led the funeral prayers and all her close relatives – Usamah bin Zayd, Muhammad bin’ Abdullah bin Jahsh, ‘Abdullah bin Abi Ahmad bin Jahsh and Muhammad bin Talhah bin ‘Abdullah got down into the grave to lower her gently into her final resting place in Jannatul Baqi’.

She was so generous and soft-hearted that the poor and distressed of the city broke into tears when they heard they lost their benefactress and patron. On her death she left a house which was bought by Walid bin ‘Abdul Malik for fifty thousand Dirhams and included by him in the precincts of the Prophet’s Mosque at Al-Madinah.

“O the one in (complete) rest and satisfaction! Come back to your Lord – well pleased and well pleasing. Enter you then among My (honored) servants, and enter you My Paradise.” [Noble Quran 89-30]

Umm Immarah Nusaybah: نسيبة بنت كعب – أم عمارة

Sahabiyyat - Rumaysa Ibn Milhan - Umm Immarah (RA)

Umm Immarah Nusaybah |نسيبة بنت كعب – أم عمارة

Sahabiyat: Nusaybah bint Ka’ab Umm Immarah
Female Companions of the Prophet Mohammad’s Era

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Um Immarah Nusaybah | The Brave Worrier

Nusaybah bint Ka’ab (also Umm Ammarah) was an early convert to Islam. A member of the Banu Najjar tribe living in Medina, Nusaybah was the sister of Abdullah bin K’ab, and the mother of Abdullah and Habib ibn Zayd al-Ansari.

When 74 leaders, warriors, and statesmen of Medina descended on al-Aqabah to swear an oath of allegiance to Islam following the teaching of the new religion by Mus`ab ibn `Umair in the city, Nusaybah and Umm Munee Asma bint Amr bin ‘Adi were the only two women to personally pledge directly to the prophet Muhammad.

The latter’s husband, Ghazyah bin ‘Amr, informed Muhammad that the women also wanted to give their bayah in person, and he agreed . She returned to Medina and began teaching Islam to the women of the city. This bayah or pledge was the de facto handing over of power to Muhammad over the city, by its key figures.

Her two sons, both later killed in battle, were from her first marriage to Zaid bin ‘Asim Mazni. She later married bin ‘Amr, and had another son Tameem and a daughter Khawlah.

Battle of Uhud

Further information: Battle of Uhud

Initially, Nusaybah was attending the Battle of Uhud like other women, and her intention was to bring water to the soldiers, while her husband and two sons fought. But after the Muslim archers disobeyed their orders and began deserting their high ground believing victory was at hand, the tide of the battle changed, and it appeared that defeat was imminent. When this occurred, Nusaybah entered the battle, carrying a sword and shield.

She shielded Muhammad from the arrows of the enemy, and received several wounds while fighting.

When a horse-mounted Quraish attacked her, she pulled on the horse’s bridle and plunged her sword into its neck, toppling the horse on top of its rider. Witnessing this, Muhammad then yelled for Abdullah to help his mother and the pair dispatched the struggling rider. The pair then circled around Muhammad, throwing stones at the advancing Quraish troops, until Muhammad noticed Nusaybah’s wounds and ordered her son to bandage them, and praised their heroism.

Abdullah was wounded himself, as a Quraish cut across his left arm, and Nusaybah treated him and told him not to lose courage. Picking her sword back up, she was complimented by Muhammad on her own courage and he pointed out the man who had wounded her son. Advancing to him, she cut his leg off with a blow of her sword, and he fell to the ground where he was killed by other fighters.

Nusaybah’s twelfth wound, cut across her shoulder by a Quraish named Ibn Qumiah, left her unconscious on the battlefield. When she awoke after the battle, her first inquiry was whether Muhammad had survived. The wound was not healed until the following year.

In Popular Culture

Faisal Tehrani named the central figure of his novel 1511HKombat as Hajjah Nusaybah. He once stated that he named the character thus because both of them showed limitless courage, as well as being visionary that far exceeds their own generation.

Her name is Ummu ‘Immarah Nusaybah bint ka’ab ibn ‘Amr al-Ansaariyyah, who was known as Umm `Immarah. She was married to Zaid ibn `Asem before Islam and has given birth to her sons Habeeb and `Abdullah. Later, she was married to the believing Mujahid Ghuzayyah ibn `Amr who fathered Tamim and Khawlah.

With distinguishable achievements attributed to her name, She is known for participating in significant events surrounding the Muslims at that time, including the battle of Uhud where she used herself as a human shield in protection of the Prophets, peace be upon him, life. Her life boasts, with Allahs grace, of Iman, courage and heroism, making her a fine example and role model for her sisters in Islam to follow for generations to come.

Ibn Hajar, may Allah have mercy on him, says: She (Umm `Imarah) witnessed the pledge of `Aqabah and she also pledged allegiance. She participated in the battles of Uhud, Hudaybiyah and Khaybar and participated in `Umrah Al-

Qadaa`. She also witnessed the victory of Makkah and participated in the battles of Hunayn and Yamamah.

Known as the second Aqabah pledge, Nusyabh bint Ka’ab, may Allah be pleased with her, was only one of two women, who joined a group of 73 men to travel to Makkah and pledge allegiance to the Prophet, peace be upon him, to believe in Allah alone and not to associate other with Him, they also pledged themselves to jihad in complete obedience to the Prophet in ease, hardship and harsh circumstances.

The following narration gives an insight of the true responsibility of this pledge and how this woman, along with her fellow companions, fulfilled and shouldered the responsibility that this pledge required. The uncle of the Prophet, al-‘Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib was first to speak at the historic meeting which changed the whole course of the struggle between Islam and paganism. He said: “ O you people of the Khazraj […] all of you know the position that Muhammad holds among us. We have protected him from our people as much as we could. He is honoured and

respected among his people. He refuses to join any part except you. So, if you think you can carry out what our promise while inviting him to your town, and if you can defend him against the enemies, then assume the burden that you have taken. But if you are going to surrender him and betray him after having him away with you, you had better leave him now because he is respected and well defended in his own place.”

Ka’ab (the narrator of the hadith) replied “We have heard your words and now, O messenger of Allah, it is for you to speak and take from us any pledge that you want regarding your Lord and yourself.” Imam Ahmad recorded from Jaabir, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated: “We said ‘O Messenger of Allah! To what shall we pledge?’ The Prophet, peace be upon him, answered:

  1. To listen and obey in all difficulty and ease.
  2. To spend in plenty as well as in scarcity
  3. To enjoin good and forbid evil
  4. In Allah’s service, you will fear the censure of none.
  5. To aid me when I come to you, and protect me from anything you protect yourself, your spouses and children from, then paradise is install for you.’”

It was a definite response showing full determination, courage and deep faith to shoulder the great and fearsome responsibility and bear it series consequences. Allah’s messenger, peace be upon him then preached the faith and the pledge was taken.

Nusaybah bint Ka’ab, may Allah be pleased with her, proved truthful to her pledge on more than one occasion the most outstanding, being the event at Uhud where true heroism shined through, for she shielded the Prophet, peace be upon him, with her own body in a moment of mishap on part of the Muslim army. Nusyabah, may allah be pleased with her, went out carrying water, offering medical aid to the wounded and tendering to their needs.

But as the battle raged, and the Muslims, who initially had the upper hand suddenly found themselves in a vulnerable position due to a hasty mistake they made, found themselves suddenly weakened. Chaos thus broke out, leaving the Messenger, peace be upon him, unprotected and his life consequently at stake.

In attempt to make the Muslim army regroup and work their way through the hills of Uhud, towards the encompassed army, The Messenger raised his noble voice calling unto his companions “O servants of Allah.” He did that knowing that it would reach the idolaters before his companions, risking his life in this delicate situation. The idolater heard his voice and taking advantage of his vulnerable position; they concentrated their attack on the Prophet and looked forward to killing him with all their power before any of his companions ran to his aid.

As soon as the companion’s did arrive, they encircled the messenger with their bodies and weapons and were alert enough to prevent the enemies from reaching him, among them, Nusaybah bint Ka’ab. Her heroism on this day a plan example to those, both men and women, who wish to emulate her, for when she saw the Messenger, peace be upon him, in trouble, whose molar teeth was broken and he was injured in the face, she, along with a group of other companions, helped to form a human shield around the Messenger.

Umm `Imarah narrated what happened in Uhud saying, “I went out in the forenoon with a water vessel in my hand. I came to the Messenger of Allah, while he was with his Companions and the Muslims were about to win the war. But

when Muslims were later defeated, I moved to the side of the Messenger of Allah (whose molar teeth was broken and he was injured in the face). I engaged in fighting and started protecting the Messenger of Allah, with the sword while shooting arrows until I was wounded.”

Umm Sa`d bint Sa`d ibnAr-Rabi`who reported this speech said: “And I saw a deep and hollow injury in her shoulder.”

This deep injury was caused by the enemy of Allah, Ibn Qami’ah who tried to kill the Prophet, but Umm`Imarah defended the Prophet and received a heavy strike by sword, then she attacked Ibn Qami’ah by striking him by sword repeatedly. In addition to thirteen other wounds, she suffered this deep wound which she continued to nurse for the rest of her life until she died.

She stood firm defending the Messenger of Allah, and he saw her around him defending him gloriously. She took a shield from an escapee, then some knight from the enemies was moving closer to her and hit her with his sword, but she used the shield cleverly then hit the hock of the horse and the knight fell down. At that time the Prophet called upon her son to help her until they both killed that knight. The compassionate Prophet said, “May Allah bless

this house hold! May Allah be merciful toward you!” He also said, “The stance of Nusaybah bint Ka`ab is better than so-and-so” Umm `Imarah received this call, not only with her ears, but with her entire being and feelings. She also felt it with all her senses and from within her love of faith that flourished in her heart. She then said: “O Messenger of Allah, invoke Allah to make us your companions in Paradise.”That was the goal she was aspiring for in this world and in the Hereafter.

Therein, the Prophet, supplicated for her saying, “O Allah, make them (Umm `Imarah and her family) my companions in Paradise.”Umm `Imarah said: “After this supplication, I do not care about whatever happens.” Commenting on her bravery and sacrifice `Umar ibn Al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates to us from the Messenger of Allah, his noble saying, “Whenever I turned left or right on the Day of Uhud, I could always see her (Umm `Imarah) fighting in my defense.”

The supplication of the Prophet actualized on the entire household of Umm `Imarah. Her sons `Abdullah and Habeeb were martyred in the way of Allah. She also had an invocation directly from the Messenger of Allah, and from his noble heart, that served as a provision for her in the remaining years of her life and as a light throughout the darkness of nights and days and with which she dispelled the darkness of events, making her a radiating model.

Besides the medal that Umm `Imarah carried since the battle of Uhud and the invocation that the Prophet made for her, Such determined also extended to after the death of the prophet, During the time of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq’s (radiyallahu ‘anhu) Khilaafah Where she went to seek permission to join the expedition of Khaalid bin Walid against Musaylamah al-Kadhdhaab (The Liar), who claimed to be a Prophet in the battle of Yamaamah.

Abu Bakr (radiyallahu ‘anhu) said, ‘We know your worth in war, so go out in the name of Allaah.’ She was wounded in eleven different places and had her hand cut off. Her son Habeeb was also tortured at the hands of Musaylamah and was martyred at that expedition.

After the battle was over it was Khaalid ibn Waleed who came to treat her hand with hot oil to seal the wound and stop her bleeding. The hot oil was even more painful than having her hand cut off. The scholarly aspect of Umm `Imarah ‘s life also had its place and importance. She was a narrator of Hadith with excellent memory.

Some of her narrations contained Islamic jurisprudence. For example, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i, and Ibn Majah reported in their Sunan on the authority of Umm `Imarah that the Messenger of Allah, visited her and she presented some food to him. The Prophet told her, “Eat” She said: “I am fasting.” The Prophet then said: “If food is eaten in the house of a fasting person, the angels will invoke blessing on him.”

Al-Waqidi reported that Umm `Imarah said: “Men were shaking the hands of the Messenger of Allah, in the night of (the pledge of) `Aqabah while Al-`Abbas (his uncle) was holding the Prophet’s hand. When it was only me and Umm Manee`, my husband, Ghuzayyah ibn `Amr, said: “O Messenger of Allah, these are two women who came with us to pledge their allegiance to you.” The Prophet said: “I have accepted their pledge to what I accepted your pledge to, for I do not shake women’s hands. ’”

At-Tirmidhi narrated that she came to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and said: “I see that everything is directed to men, and that women are not mentioned at all” so, the verse (For Muslim men and women, for believing men and women…) (Al-Ahzab 33:35) was revealed.

As aforementioned, Umm ‘Immarah also witnessed and participated in Hudaybiyah and Khaybar and participated in `Umrah Al-Qadaa`. She also witnessed the victory of Makkah and participated in the battle of Hunayn. As mentioned previously, she was also tested through her son Habeeb who was tortured at the hands by Muslaymaan the Liar, after

defyingly refusing to accept his claim of Prophethood. As a result Habeeb had his limbs cut piece by piece while he was tied up. He uttered nothing but a testimony to the Oneness of Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger. He remained in that state until he breathed his last.

Sawda Bint Zam`a (RA)

Sahabiyyat - Sawda Bint Sam'a(RA)

Sawda bint Zam’a| سودة بنت زمعة

Sahabiyat: Ummuhàtul-Mu’minnin
(Female Companions of the Prophet Mohammad time)

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Sawda Bint Zam`a | سودة بنت زمعة

”Raddiya Allahu Anhà”

Sawda bint Zamʿa ibn Qayyis ibn ʿAbd Shams (Arabic: سودة بنت زمعة‎) was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and considered by Muslims to be a Mother of the Believers. She was of the Quraysh tribe on her father’s side.

Migration to Abyssinia

Sawda bint Zam’a was the first woman to immigrate to Abyssinia with her first husband As-Sakran bin Amr, after being persecuted by the polytheists of Mecca. Her husband died either on the way back to Mecca or after arriving.[who?] Sakran left Abyssinia by sea with Waqqas to preach.

Sawda had a son by Sakran named Sakran ibn Amr ibn Abd Shams who fell a martyr fighting in the Battle of Jalula in 637 AD.

Marriage to Muhammad

Muhammad gave permission to Khawla to speak to Abu Bakr and to Sawda on the subject of their marriage. Muhammad married her in Shawwal, in the tenth year of His Prophethood, a few days after the death of Khadijah. She was older than Muhammad.

Later life, widowhood

After Muhammad’s death, Sawda received a gift of money, which she spent on charity. Muawiyah I, the first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty bought her house in Medina for 180,000 dirhams. She died in Medina in October 674.

Sawda bint Zam’a, may Allah be pleased with her had been the first woman to immigrate to Abyssinia in the way of Allah. Her husband ha died and she was now living with her aged father. She was middle-aged, rather plump, with a jolly, kindly disposition, and just the right person to take care of the Prophet’s household and family.

Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gave permission to Khawla to speak to Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and to Sawda on the subject. Khawla went straight to Sawda and said, “Would you like Allah to give you great blessing, Sawda?” Sawda asked, “And what is that, Khawla?” She said, “The Messenger of Allah has sent me to you with a proposal of marriage!” Sawda tried to contain herself in spite of her utter astonishment and then replied in a trembling voice, “I would like that! Go to my father and tell him that.”

Khawla went to Zam’a, ad gruff old man, and greeted him and then said, “Muhammad son of Abdullah son of Abdul Muttalib, has sent me to ask for Sawda in marriage.” The old man shouted, “A noble match. What does she say?” Khawla replied, “she would like that.” He told her to call her.

When she came, he said, “Sawda, this woman claims that Muhammad son of Abdullah son of Abdul Muttalib has sent me to ask for you in marriage. It is a noble match. Do you want me to marry you to him?” She accepted, feeling it was a great honor. Sawda went to live in Muhammad’s house and immediately took over the care of his daughters and household, while Aisha bint Abu Bakr became betrothed to him and remained in her father’s house playing with her dolls.

There was great surprise in Mecca that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) would choose to marry a widow who was neither young nor beautiful. The Prophet, however, remembered the trials she had undergone when she had immigrated to Abyssinia, leaving her house and property, and crossed the desert and then the sea for an unknown land out of the desire to preserve her deen. During the next two years, the Quraish increased their spiteful efforts to destroy the Prophet and his followers, in spite of the clear signs that confirmed beyond any doubt that Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was indeed the Messenger of Allah.

When he described this miraculous journey to the people of Mecca, they just laughed at him. Only Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, his closest companion and future father in law, accepted the Prophet’s account of his miraculous journey immediately: “If he had said this,” he said, when some scornful Meccans first gave him the news, “then it is true!”

As the enmity of the Quraish increased, (and while Aisha was still a small girl), Allah prepared the way for the future growth of the Muslim community in a place called Yathrib. During the time of pilgrimage in Mecca one year, twelve men from Yathrib, a small city of two hundred miles to the north of Mecca, secretly pledged allegiance to the Prophet, swearing to worship no gods other than Allah, nor to steal, nor to tell lies, nor to commit adultery, nor to kill their children, nor to disobey the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). They returned to Yathrib, accompanied by a Muslim called Mus’ab ibn Umayr, who taught them all that he had learned from the Prophet.

As a result, the numbers of Muslims in Madina began to increase, and when the time of the pilgrimage came again, this time seventy five people from Yathrib- three of whom were women: Umm Sulaym, Nsayba bint Ka’b and Asma bint Amr – pledged allegiance in Mecca to the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) this time also swearing that the would defend and protect him, even to the death if need be. After this, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gave his followers permission to emigrate to Yathrib, and slowly but surely, in twos and threes, the Muslims began to leave Mecca.

The leaders of the Quraish realized what was happening, and decided to kill the Prophet before he had a chance to join them. However, Allah protected the Prophet, and on the very night before the morning on which they had planned to kill him, the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) slipped out of Mecca and hid in a cave called Thawr, which was to the south of Mecca.

Everybody knows what happened when the people who were hunting for them came to the cave: They found a wild dove nesting in the tree that covered the mouth of a cave, across which a spider had spun its web. Anyone entering the cave would have frightened away the dove and broken the spid’s web, they thought, so they did and not bother to look inside it. Their pursuers were so close that if one of them had glanced down at his feet, he would have discovered them. By the decree of Allah, the Prophet and Abu Bakr were safe!

Once the Quraish had given up the search, the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) circled round the Mecca and rode northwards. Only one man, a warrior called Suraqa ibn Jusham, suspected their whereabouts and set off in hot pursuit, thirsting of the reward that the Quraish had offered to anyone who captured the two men for them. As soon as he as within shouting distance of the travelers, however, his horse suddenly began to sink into the sand, and, realizing that if he did not turn back, then the desert would simply swallow up both him and his steed, he gave up his pursuit, asked them to forgive him and returned home.

After a long, hard journey Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) reached Yathrib amidst scenes of great rejoicing. Their time in Mecca had just come to an end, and their time in Medina had just begun – for Madina is the name that was now given to Yathrib, Madina al Munawarra, which means ‘the illuminated city’, the city that was illuminated by the light of the Prophet Muhammad and his family and his Companions, may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him and on all of them.

The journey of the Prophet Muhammad and Abu Bakr is called the hijrah, and it is at this point that the dating of the Muslims begins, for it was after the hijrah that the first community of Muslims rapidly grew and flowered and bore fruit. When she was older, sawda said that she would like to give her night with the prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to Aisha, of whom she was very fond. She lived on until the end of the time of Umar ibn al Khattab. She and Aisha always remained very close.

Rumaysa bint Milhan – Umm sulaim

Sahabiyyat - Rumaysa Ibn Milhan - Umm Sulaim (RA)

Sahabiyyat | Umm Sulaim

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) ERA.
Sahabiyat: Ummuhàtul-Mu’minnin
(Female Companions of the Prophet Mohammad time)
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Rumaysa bint Milhan ”Umm sulaim”

Rumaysa bint Milhan, popularly known as Umm Sulaim, was one of the earliest women converts to Islam in Yathrib. Umm Sulaym was first married to Malik ibn an-Nadr and her son by this marriage was Anas ibn Malik, a notable companion of Muhammad.

Following the death of her first husband, Zayd ibn Sahl, known as Abu Talha ibn Thabit, resolved to become engaged to her before anyone else did. He was confident that Umm Sulaym would not pass him over for another. He was quite rich, an accomplished horseman, and a skilful archer and he belonged to the same clan as Umm Sulaym, the Banu Najjar. Following Abu Talhah’s acceptance of Islam, the two married and were considered a model Muslim couple. Abu Talhah died while he was on a naval expedition during the time of the caliph Uthman, and was buried at sea.

Umm Sulaym was noted for her courage and bravery. During the battle of Uhud, she carried a dagger in the folds of her dress, giving water and tending to the wounded and attempting to defend Muhammad when the tide of battle was turning against him.

 When it was known that Umm Sulaym had become a widow, one man, Zayd ibn Sahl, known as Abu Talhah, resolved to become engaged to her before anyone else did. He was rather confident that Umm Sulaym would not pass him over for another. He was after all a strong and virile person who was quite rich and who possessed an imposing house that was much admired. He was an accomplished horseman and a skilful archer and, moreover, he belonged to the same clan as Umm Sulaym, the Banu Najjar.

A narration attributed to Anas ibn Malik reports:

The son of Abu Talba who was born of Umm Sulaim died. She (Umm Sulaim) said to the members of her family: Do not narrate to Abu Talha about his son until I narrate it to him. Abu Talha came (home) ; she presented to him the supper. He took it and drank water. She then embellished herself which she did not do before. He (Abu Talha) had a sexual intercourse with her and when she saw that he was satisfied after sexual intercourse with her, she said: Abu Talha, if some people borrow something from another family and then (the members of the family) ask for its return, would they resist its return? He said: No. She said: I inform you about the death of your son.

He was annoyed, and said: You did not inform me until I had a sexual intercourse with you and you later on gave me information about my son. He went to Allah’s Messenger and informed him what had happened. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger said: May Allah bless both of you in the night spent by you! He (the narrator) said: She became pregnant. Allah’s Messenger was in the course of a journey and she was along with him and when Allah’s Messenger came back to Medina from the journey he did not enter (his house) (during the night). When the people came near Medina, she felt the pangs of delivery. He (Abu Talha) remained with her and Allah’s Messenger proceeded on.

Abu Talha said: O Lord, you know that I love to go along with Allah’s Messenger when he goes out and enter along with him when he enters and I have been detained as Thou seest. Umm Sulaim said: Abu Talha, I do not feel (so much pain) as I was feeling formerly, so better proceed on. So we proceeded on and she felt the pangs of delivery as they reached (Medina) and a child was born and my mother said to me: Anas, none should suckle him until you go to Allah’s Messenger tomorrow morning. And when it was morning I carried him (the child) and went along with him to Allah’s Messenger.

He said: I saw that he had in his hand the instrument for the cauterisation of the camels. When he saw me. he said: This is, perhaps, what Umm Sulaim has given birth to. I said: Yes. He laid down that instrument on the ground. I brought that child to him and placed it in his lap and Allah’s Messenger asked Ajwa dates of Medina to be brought and softened them in his month. When these had become palatable he placed them in the mouth of that child. The child began to taste them. Then Allah’s Messenger said: See what love the Ansar have for dates. He then wiped his face and named him ‘Abdullah.

Even before Islam was introduced to Yathrib, Rumaysa was known for her excellent character, the power of her intellect and her independent attitude of mind. She was known by various names including Rumaysa and Ghumaysa, but these were possibly nicknames. One historian says that her real name was Sahlah but later she was popularly known as Umm Sulaym.

Umm Sulaym was first married to Malik ibn an-Nadr and her son by this marriage was the famous Anas ibn Malik, one of the great companions of the Prophet.

Umm Sulaym was one of the first women of Yathrib to accept Islam. She was influenced by the refined, dedicated and persuasive Musab ibn Umayr who was sent out as the first missionary or ambassador of Islam by the noble Prophet may Allah bless him and grant him peace . This was after the first pledge of Aqabah. Twelve men of Yathrib had gone to Aqabah on the outskirts of Makkah to pledge loyalty to the Prophet. This was the first major break through for the mission of the Prophet for many years.

Umm Sulaym’s decision to accept Islam was made without the knowledge or consent of her husband, Malik ibn an-Nadr. He was absent from Yathrib at the time and when he returned he felt some change had come over his household and asked his wife: “Have you been rejuvenated?” “No,” she said, “but I (now) believe in this man (meaning the Prophet Muhammad).”

Malik was not pleased especially when his wife went on to announce her acceptance of Islam in public and instruct her son Anas in the teachings and practice of the new faith. She taught him to say la ilaha ilia Allah and Ash hadu anna Muhammada-r Rasulullah. The young Anas repeated this simple but profound declaration of faith clearly and emphatically.

Umm Sulaym’s husband was now furious. He shouted at her: “Don’t corrupt my son.” “I am not corrupting him ,” she replied firmly.

Her husband then left the house and it is reported that he was set upon by an enemy of his and was killed. The news shocked but apparently did not upset Umm Sulaym greatly. She remained devoted to her son Anas and was concerned about his. proper upbringing. She is even reported to have said that she would not marry again unless Anas approved.

When it was known that Umm Sulaym had become a widow, one man, Zayd ibn Sahl, known as Abu Talhah, resolved to become engaged to her before anyone else did.

He was rather confident that Umm Sulaym would not pass him over for another. He was after all a strong and virile person who was quite rich and who possessed an imposing house that was much admired. He was an accomplished horseman and a skilful archer and, moreover, he belonged to the same clan as Umm Sulaym, the Banu Najjar.

Abu Talhah proceeded to Umm Sulaym’s house. On the way he recalled that she had been influenced by the preaching of Musab ibn Umayr and had become a Muslim.

“So what?” he said to himself. “Was not her husband who died a firm adherent of the old religion and was he not opposed to Muhammad and his mission?”

Abu Talhah reached Umm Sulaym’s house. He asked and was given permission to enter. Her son Anas was present. Abu Talhah explained why he had come and asked for her hand in marriage.

“A man like you, Abu Talhah ,” she said, “is not (easily) turned away. But I shall never marry you while you are a kafir, an unbeliever.”

Abu Talhah thought she was trying to put him off and that perhaps she had already preferred someone wealthier and more influential. He said to her:

“What is it that really prevents you from accepting me, Umm Sulaym? Is it the yellow and the white metals (gold and silver)?”

“Gold and silver?” she asked somewhat taken aback and in a slightly censuring tone. “Yes,” he said. “I swear to you, Abu Talhah, and I swear to Allah and His Messenger that if you accept Islam, I shall be pleased to accept you as a husband, without any gold or silver. I shall consider your acceptance of Islam as my mahr.”

Abu Talhah understood well the implications of her words. His mind turned to the idol he had made from wood and on which he lavished great attention in the same way that important men of his tribe venerated and cared for their personal idols.

The opportunity was right for Umm Sulaym to stress the futility of such idol worship and she went on: “Don’t you know Abu Talhah, that the god you worship besides Allah grew from the earth?” ..”That’s true,” he said.

“Don’t you feel stupid while worshipping part of a tree while you use the rest of it for fuel to bake bread or warm yourself? (If you should give up these foolish beliefs and practices) and become a Muslim, Abu Talhah, I shall be pleased to accept you as a husband and I would not want from you any sadaqah apart from your acceptance of Islam.”

“Who shall instruct me in Islam?” asked Abu Talhah. “I shall,” Umm Sulaym replied. “How?”

“Utter the declaration of truth and testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Then go to your house, destroy your idol and throw it away.”

Abu Talhah left and reflected deeply on what Umm Sulaym had said. He came back to her beaming with happiness.

“I have taken your advice to heart. I declare that there is no god but Allah and I declare that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”

Umm Sulaym and Abu Talhah were married. Anas, her son, was pleased and the Muslims would say: “We have never yet heard of a mahr that was more valuable and precious than that of Umm Sulaym for she made Islam her mahr.”

Umm Sulaym was pleased and delighted with her new husband who placed his unique energies and talents in the service of Islam. He was one of the seventy three men who swore allegiance to the Prophet at the second Pledge of Aqabah. With him, according to one report, was his wife Umm Sulaym. Two other women, the celebrated Nusaybah bint Kab and Asma bint Amr witnessed Aqabah and took the oath of allegiance to the Prophet.

Abu Talhah was devoted to the Prophet and took enormous delight in simply looking at him and listening to the sweetness of his speech. He participated in all the major military campaigns. He lived a very ascetic life and was known to fast for long periods at a time. It is said that he had a fantastic orchard in Madinah with date palms and grapes and running water.

One day while he was performing Salat in the shade of the trees, a beautiful bird with brightly colored plumage flew in front of him. He became engrossed in the scene and forgot how many rakats he had prayed. Two? Three? When he completed the Prayer he went to the Prophet and described how he had been distracted. In the end, he said: “Bear witness, Messenger of Allah, that I hand over this orchard as a charity for the sake of Allah, the Exalted.”

Abu Talhah and Umm Sulaym had an exemplary Muslim family life, devoted to the Prophet and the service of Muslims and Islam. The Prophet used to visit their home. Sometimes when the time of Prayer came, he would pray on a mat provided by Umm Sulaym. Sometimes also he would have a siesta in their house and, as he slept, she would wipe the perspiration from his forehead. Once when the Prophet awoke from his siesta, he asked: “Umm Sulaym, what are you doing?” “I am taking these (drops of perspiration) as a barakah (blessing) which comes from you ,” she replied.

At another time, the Prophet went to their house and Umm Sulaym offered him dates and butterfat but he did not have any of it because he was fasting. Occasionally, she would send her son Anas with bags of dates to his house. It was noticed that the Prophet, peace be on him, had a special compassion for Umm Sulaym and her family and when asked about it, he replied: “Her brother was killed beside me.”

Umm Sulaym also had a well-known sister, Umm Haram, the wife of the imposing Ubadah ibn as-Samit. She died at sea during a naval expedition and was buried in Cyprus. Umm Sulaym’s husband, Abu Talhah, also died while he was on a naval expedition during the time of the third Caliph, Uthman, and was buried at sea.

Umm Sulaym herself was noted for her great courage and bravery. During the Battle of Uhud, she carried a dagger in the folds of her dress. She gave water to and tended the wounded and she made attempts to defend the Prophet when the tide of battle was turning against him. At the Battle of Khandaq, the Prophet saw her carrying a dagger and he asked her what she was doing with it. She said: “It is to fight those who desert.”

“May Allah grant you satisfaction in that,” replied the Prophet. In the face of adversity, Umm Sulaym displayed a unique calmness and strength. One of her young sons (Umayr) fell sick and died while her husband was away looking after his orchards. She bathed the child and wrapped him in shrouds. She told others at her home that they should not inform Abu Talhah because she herself wanted to tell him. Anas ibn Malik said, “A son of Abu Talha became ill. Abu Talha went out and the child died. When Abu Talha returned, he asked, ‘How is my son?’ Umm Sulaym said, “He is calmer now than he has ever been.’ She brought him supper and he ate and then he had sex with her. When he finished, she said, ‘Bury the child.’

“In the morning Abu Talha went to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and told him. He asked, ‘Did you have relations with your wife last night?’ ‘Yes,’ he answered. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘O Allah, bless them!’ and she ater had a baby boy.

A few days after she gave birth, she sent Anas with the baby and a bag of dates to the Prophet. The Prophet placed the baby on his lap. He crushed the dates in his mouth and put some in the baby’s mouth. The baby sucked the dates with relish and the Prophet said: “The Ansar are only fond of dates.” The prophet named him `Abdullah.

Abdullah eventually grew up and had seven children all of whom memorized the Quran.

Umm Sulaym was a model Muslim, a model wife and mother. Her belief in Allah was strong and uncompromising. She was not prepared to endanger her faith and the upbringing of her children for wealth and luxury, however abundant and tempting.

She was devoted to the Prophet and dedicated her son Anas to his service. She took the responsibility of educating her children and she played an active part in public life, sharing with the other Muslims the hardships and the joys of building a community and living for the pleasure of Allah.

Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan

Sahabiyyat - Ramlah Bint Abi Sufyan (RA)

Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan
رملة بنت أبي سفيان

Sahabiyat :
Umm Habibah – Ramlah bint Abu Sufyan
Ummuhàtul-Mu’minnin
Female Companions of the Prophet Mohammad’s Era.

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Umm Habibah
Ramlah bint abu sufyan

Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan, رملة بنت أبي سفيان, aka Umm Habiba, أم حبيبة, was the daughter of Abu Sufyan. She was born c. 589 and died in 666. She was one of the wives of Muhammad, the final prophet in Islam and therefore a Mother of the Believers.

Early life

She was the daughter of Safiyyah bint Abi al-‘As and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, the leader of Quraish and the most powerful opponent of Muhammad for most of his life. The First Ummayad ruler, Muawiyah I was her brother. Ramlah was related to Uthman ibn Affan. They were first cousins on mother’s side and second cousins by her father’s side.

Marriage with Ubayd-Allah ibn Jahsh

Her first husband, Ubayd-Allah ibn Jahsh  was among the first people to accept Islam. Ubayd-Allah ibn Jahsh was the brother of Zaynab bint Jahsh, whom Muhammad married at some point. In order to avoid hostilities from Quraish, they both emigrated to Abyssinia (Ethiopia), where she gave birth to her daughter, Habibah bint Ubayd-Allah.

Her husband, later, converted to Christianity. He tried to persuade her to do the same, but she held on to Islam. His conversion led to their divorce. She continued to live in Abyssinia with her daughter until Ubayd-Allah’s death sometime later.

Marriage to Muhammad

There are contradictory sources. One claims that when Muhammad came to know about what had happened to her, so he decided to propose to her through the Negus, who sent Abraha, one of his maids, with Muhammad’s proposal. Ramlah gladly accepted the proposal, and gave her silver bangles and rings as a gift to Abraha.

The marriage ceremony took place in Abyssinia even though Muhammad was not present. Khalid ibn Said was chosen by her as her legal guardian at the ceremony. The Negus read out the Khutba himself, and Khalid ibn Said made a speech in reply. On behalf of Muhammad, the Negus offered a dowry of four hundred Dinars to Khalid. A huge wedding feast was given on behalf of Muhammad after the ceremony. The Negus also sent musk and ambergris to the bride through Abraha. Muhammad did not give a dowry larger than this to any of his other wives.

Later, the Negus made arrangements to send Ramlah to Medina by boat. Shurahbil ibn Hasana accompanied Ramlah on her journey. She was able to return to Medina six years later.

Life in Medina

According to some sources, she married Muhammad one year after the Hijra, though she did not live with him until six years later when Muhammad was sixty years old and she was thirty-five. Other sources claim her marriage took place in 7 A.H., at an age of 30 years. The marriage afforded protection to her.

On one occasion, Abu Sufyan visited his daughter Ramla in her house. He went to sit on a chair, and Ramla hastily removed Muhammad’s blanket from that chair before Abu Sufyan could sit. Abu Sufyan criticized her for this, claiming that Islam had caused her to lose respect for her father. Ramla replied that it was because she recognised the differing statuses of Muhammad and Abu Sufyan that she removed the blanket, implying that her father Abu Sufyan did not deserve to sit on the blanket of Muhammad.

She died in the year 666 (45 A.H), during the Caliphate of her brother, Muawiyah I and was buried in the Jannat al-Baqi cemetery next to other wives of Muhammad.

Legacy

There are about sixty-five Hadith narrated by her in the Hadith literature. Muhammad al-Bukhari and Muslim b. al-Hajjaj agreed on two of them, and Muslim took two of them alone.

Sunni view

It is said that she was a courageous, virtuous, and charitable woman and that she was very attached to Muhammad.

History | Umm Habiba

Umm Habiba Ramla bint Abu Sufyan, may Allah be pleased with her, in fact married the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in 1 AH, although she did not actually come to live with him in Medina until 7 AH, when the Prophet was sixty years old and she was thirty-five. Umm Habiba was the daughter of Abu Sufyan, who for some of his life was one of the most resolute enemies of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) spending much of his great wealth in opposing the Muslims, and leading the armies of the kafirun against the Muslims in all the early major battles, including the battles of Badr, Uhud and al-Khandaq. Indeed it was not until the conquest of Mecca, when the Prophet generously pardoned him, that Abu Sufyan embraced Islam and began to fight with the Muslims instead of against them.

Umm Habiba and her first husband, who was called Ubaydullah ibn Jahsh, the brother of Zaynab bint Jahsh, were among the first people to embrace Islam in Mecca, and they were among those early Muslims who emigrated to Abyssinia in order to be safe. Once in Abyssinia, however, Ubaydullah abandoned Islam and became a Christian. He tried to make her become Christian, but she stood fast. This put Umm Habiba in a difficult position, since a Muslim woman can only be married to be a Muslim man. She could no longer live with her husband, and once they had been divorced, she could not return to her father, who was still busy fighting the Muslims. So she remained with her daughter in Abyssinia, living a very simple life in isolation, waiting to see what Allah would decree for her.

One day, as Umm Habiba sat in her solitary room, a stranger in a strange land far from her home, a maidservant knocked on her door and said that she had been sent by the Negus who had a message for her. The message was that the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had asked for her hand in marriage, and that if she accepted this proposal that she was to name one of the accepted this proposal then she was to name one of the Muslims in Abyssinia as her wakil, so that the marriage ceremony could take place in Abyssinia even though she was not in the same place as the Prophet. Naturally Umm Habiba was overjoyed and accepted immediately. “Allah has given you good news! Allah has give you good news!” she cried, pulling off what little jewelry she had and giving it to the smiling girl. She asked her to repeat the message three times since she could hardly believe her ears.

Soon after this, all the Muslims who had sought refuge in Abyssinia were summoned to the palace of the Negus to witness the simple marriage ceremony in which the on the Prophet’s behalf and her wakil, Khalid ibn Sa’id ibn al-As, acting on her behalf. When the marriage was finalized, the Negus addressed the gathering with these words:

“I praise Allah, the Holy, and I declare that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and His messenger and that He gave the good news to Jesus the son of Mary.

“The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) requested me to conclude the marriage contract between him and Umm Habiba, the daughter of Abu Sufyan. I agreed to do what he requested, and on his behalf I give her a dowry of four hundred gold dinars.” The Negus handed over the amount to Khalid ibn Sa’id who stood up and said:

“All praise is due to Allah. I praise Him and I seek His help and forgiveness and I turn to Him in repentance. I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger whom He has sent with the deen of guidance and truth so that it may prevail over all other religions, however much those who reject dislike this. “I agreed to do what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) requested and acted as the wakil on behalf of Umm Habiba, the daughter of Abu Sufyan. May Allah bless His Messenger and his wife. Congratulations to Umm Habiba for the goodness which Allah has decreed for her.”

Khalid took the dowry and handed it over to Umm Habiba. Thus although she could not travel to Arabia straight away, she was provided for by the Prophet, (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) from the moment and that they were married. The Muslims who had witnessed the marriage contract were just about to leave, when the Negus said to them, “Sit down, for it is the practice of the Prophets to serve food at marriages.” Joyfully everyone sat down again to eat and celebrate the happy occasion. Umm Habiba especially could hardly believe her good fortune, and she later described how eager she was to share her happiness, saying: “When I received the money as my dowry, I sent fifty mithqals of gold to the servant girl who had first brought me the good news, and I said to her, ‘I gave you what I did when you gave me the good news because at that time I did not have any money at all.’

“Shortly afterwards, she came to me and returned the gold. She also produced a case which contained the necklace I had given to her and gave it to me, saying, ‘The Negus has instructed me not to take anything from you, and he has commanded the women in his household to present you with gifts of perfume.’

“On the following day, she brought me ambergris, saffron and aloes wood oil and said, ‘I have a favor to ask of you.’

‘”What is it?’ I asked.

‘”I have accepted Islam,’ she replied, ‘and now I followed the deen of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Please convey my greetings of peace to him, and let him know that I believe in Allah and His Prophet. Please do not forget.'”

Six years later, in 7 AH, when the emigrant Muslims in Abyssinia were finally able to return to Arabia, Umm Habiba came to Medina and there the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), who had just returned victorious from Khaybar, warmly welcomed her. Umm Habiba relates: “When I met the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), I told him all about the arrangements that had been made for the marriage, and about my relationship with the girl. I told him that she had become a Muslim and conveyed her greetings of peace to him. He was filled with joy at the news and said, ‘Wa alayha as salam wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh’ – ‘And on her be the peace and the mercy of Allah and His blessing.'”

The strength of Umm Habiba’ s character can be measured by what happened shortly before the conquest of Mecca, when her father, Abu Sufyan, came to Medina after the Quraish had broken the treaty of Hudaybiyya, in order to try and re-negotiate a fresh settlement with the Prophet Muhammad and the Muslims. He first went to Umm Habiba’s room and was about to sit down on the blanket on which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) slept when Umm Habiba, who had not seen her father for over six years, asked him not to sit on it and quickly folded it up and put it away. “Am I too good for the bed, or it is the bed too good for me?” he asked. “how can the enemy of Islam sit on the bed of the Holy Prophet?” she replied.

It was only after Abu Sufyan had embraced Islam, after the conquest of Mecca, and had become the enemy of the enemies of Islam, that Umm Habiba accepted and loved him again as her father. When she received the news that her father and brother Mu’awiya, who later became the Khalif of the Muslims, had become Muslims after the conquest, she fell down in prostration to Allah out of thankfulness. Umm Habiba spent four years of her life with the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and lived for another thirty-three years after he had died, dying at the age of seventy-two in 44 AH, may Allah be pleased with her.

Like all the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) Umm Habiba spent much of her time remembering Allah and worshipping Him. She has related that once the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to her, “A house will be built in the Garden for anyone who, in the space of a day and a night, prays twelve voluntary rak’ats;” and she added, “I have never stopped doing this since I it from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him).

Maria Al-Qibtiyya: مارية القبطية

Sahabiyyat - Maria Al-Qibtiyya (RA)

Maria Al-Qibtiyya |مارية القبطية

Sahabiyat: Maria Al-Qibtiyya: (Raddiya Allahu Anhà)
(Female Companions of the Prophet Mohammad time)
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Egyptian Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis.

Maria al-Qibtiyya (Arabic: مارية القبطية‎) (alternatively, “Maria Qupthiya”), or Maria the Copt, (died 637) was an Egyptian Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628. Many sources, including Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya claim that she was only a concubine. She is also not mentioned in Ibn-Hisham’s notes on Ibn-Ishaq’s biography where he lists the wives of Muhammad.

She was the mother of Muhammad’s son Ibrahim, who died in infancy. Her sister, Sirin, was also sent to Muhammad. Muhammad gave her to his follower Hassan ibn Thabit. Maria never married after Muhammad’s death in 632, and died five years later. Her birthdate is unknown. No primary source mentions her age.

Year of the deputations:

In the Islamic year 6 AH (627 – 628 CE), Muhammad is said to have had letters written to the great rulers of the Middle East, proclaiming the new faith and inviting the rulers to join. What purports to be texts of some of the letters are found in Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari’s History of the Prophets and Kings, which was written some 250 years after the events it chronicled. Tabari writes that a deputation was sent to an Egyptian governor named as al-Muqawqis.

Tabari recounts the story of Maria’s arrival from Egypt

In this year Hātib b. Abi Balta’ah came back from al-Muqawqis bringing Māriyah and her sister Sīrīn, his female mule Duldul, his donkey Ya’fūr, and sets of garments. With the two women al-Muqawqis had sent a eununch, and the latter stayed with them. Hātib had invited them to become Muslims before he arrived with them, and Māriyah and her sister did so. The Messenger of God lodged them with Umm Sulaym bt. Milhān. Māriyah was beautiful. The Prophet sent her sister Sīrīn to Hassān b. Thābit and she bore him ‘Abd al-Rahmān b. Hassān.

Concubine Status

Multiple Scholars and authors have mentioned Maria al-Qibtiyya as one of the concubines (out of four) of Muhammad.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not marry Mariyah al-Qibtiyyah, rather she was a concubine who was given to him by al-Muqawqis, the ruler of Egypt. That took place after the treaty of al-Hudaybiyah. Mariyah al-Qibtiyyah was a Christian, then she became Muslim (may Allaah be pleased with her).

  • Ibn Saad, The Life of Prophet:

The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) lodged her – meaning Mariyah al-Qibtiyyah and her sister – with Umm Sulaym bint Milhaan, and the Messenger of Allaah (S) entered upon them and told them about Islam. He took Mariyah as a concubine and moved her to some property of his in al-‘Awaali… and she became a good Muslim.

  • Al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra, 1/134-135

Mariyah died during the caliphate of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, in Muharram of 16 AH. ‘Umar gathered the people himself to attend her funeral, and he led the funeral prayer for her. She was buried in al-Baqee’.

  • Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, Al-Isti’aab, 4/1912

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had four concubines, one of whom was Mariyah.

  • Ibn al-Qayyim , biography

Abu ‘Ubaydah said: He had four (concubines): Mariyah, who was the mother of his son Ibraaheem; Rayhaanah; another beautiful slave woman whom he acquired as a prisoner of war; and a slave woman who was given to him by Zaynab bint Jahsh.

  • Zaad al-Ma’aad, 1/114

Maria in Biography of Muhammad

Maria is mentioned with detail in Martin Lings Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Martin Lings is known as Abu-Bakar Sirajuddin as he converted to Islam. According to the Biography:

Muhammad sent a letter to Muqawqis, summoning him to Islam, was answered evasively; but with his answer the ruler of Egypt sent a rich present of a thousand measures of gold, twenty robes of fine cloth, a mule, a she-ass and, as the crown of the gift, two Coptic Christian slave girls escorted by an elderly eunuch. The girls were sisters, Mariyah and Sirin, and both were beautiful, but Mariyah was exceptionally so, and the Prophet marvelled at her beauty. He gave Sirin to Hassan ibn Thabit, and lodged Mariyah in the nearby house where Safiyyah had lived before.

  • Abu Bakar Sirajuddin, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, LXXI/277-278
  • The Author in later chapters gives details of Muhammad’s son (with Maria) Ibrahim and his death.

Maria in Muhammad’s household:

Muhammad lived in a mud-brick dwelling next to the Medina mosque, and each of his wives had her own mud-brick room, built in a line next to his. Maria, however, was lodged in a house on the edge of Medina. Maria is also not listed as a wife in one of the earliest sources, such as Ibn Hisham’s notes on Ibn Ishaq’s Sira.[6] Muslim sources are unanimous in saying that she was accorded the same honor and respect given Muhammad’s wives, pointing out that she was given the same title as Muhammad’s wives – “Mother of the Believers.”

Issue

Maria and Muhammad had one son, Ibrahim who was named after the prophet Ibrahim (Muhammad’s paternal greatest-grandfather ). The boy died when he was sixteen months old. Muhammad was much aggrieved by the loss of his beloved son.

Safiyya bint Huyayy

Sahabiyyat - Safiyya bint Hayayy (RA)

Safiyya Bint Huyayy | صفية بنت حيي

Sahabiyat: Ummuhàtul-Mu’minnin
(Female Companions of the Prophet Mohammad time)
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Ummul-Mo’mineen | Mother of Believers

Safiyya bint Huyayy (Arabic: صفية بنت حيي‎) (c. 610 – c. 670) was a Jewish woman captured from the Banu Nadir tribe at age 17, who became Muhammad’s wife. She was, along with all other wives of Muhammad, titled Umm-ul-Mo’mineen or the “Mother of Believers”. After Muhammad’s death, she became involved in the power politics of the early Muslim community, and acquired substantial influence by the time of her death.

Early life

Safiyya was born in Medina to Huyayy ibn Akhtab, the chief of the Jewish tribe Banu Nadir. Her mother, Barra bint Samawal, was from the Banu Qurayza tribe. According to a source, she was married off to Sallam ibn Mishkam, who later divorced her.

When the Banu Nadir were expelled from Medina in 625, her family settled in Khaybar, an oasis near Medina. Her father and brother went from Khaybar to join the Meccan and Bedouin forces besieging Muhammad in Medina during the Battle of the Trench. When the Meccans withdrew Muhammad besieged the Banu Qurayza.

In 627 or early in 628, Safiyya married Kenana ibn al-Rabi, treasurer of the Banu Nadir; she was about 17 years old at that time. Safiyya is said to have informed Kenana of a dream she had in which the moon had fallen from the heavens into her lap. Kenana interpreted it as a desire to marry Muhammad and struck her in the face, leaving a mark which was still visible when she first had contact with Muhammad.

Battle of Khaybar

In May 629, the Muslims defeated several Jewish tribes (including the Banu Nadir) at the Battle of Khaybar.The Jews had surrendered, and were allowed to remain in Khaybar on the provision that they give half of their annual produce to the Muslims. The land itself became the property of the Muslim state. This agreement, Stillman says, did not extend to the Banu Nadir tribe, who were given no quarter.

In the aftermath, the female captives were divided amongst Muhammad and his followers. Safiyya was assigned to Dihya ibn Khalifa, but Muhammad selected her while compensating Dihya with two of her cousins, or, according to other sources, seven head of cattle, and according to a differing source, seven female slaves. She then converted to Islam, thereby becoming Muhammad’s wife; her dowry being her emancipation.

On the way back from Khaybar, the Muslims camped at a place called Sadd al-Rauha. By now, Safiyya was clean from her menstrual period, and the marriage was thus consummated. Thereafter, Muhammad held a banquet of dates and butter in celebration of the marriage, and then returned to Medina.

Khaybar and Medina

According to Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muhammad stayed for three days between Khaybar and Medina, where he consummated his marriage to Safiyya. His companions wondered if she was to be considered a captive (Arabic: ma malakat aymanukum‎) or a wife. The former speculated that they would consider Safiyya as Muhammad’s wife, and thus “Mothers of the Believers”, if Muhammad ordered her to veil herself, else she would be his slave-girl.

Some modern scholars opine that Muhammad chose to marry Safiyya, the only surviving member of Banu Nadir’s ruling family, as part of reconciliation with the Jewish tribe.

Muhammad suggested that Safiyya convert to Islam, which she did, and thus she become Muhammad’s wife. Safiyya did not bear any children to Muhammad.

Despite her conversion, Muhammad’s other wives teased Safiyya of her Jewish origin. Doubts about Safiyya’s loyalty to Islam and the suspicion that she would avenge her slain kin are themes in the Sirah Rasul Allah (biographies of Muhammad). In these stories, Muhammad or Umar express great displeasure at such doubts and reaffirm her loyalty.

Regarding Safiyya’s Jewish descent, Muhammad once said to his wife, “If they discriminate you again, tell them that your husband is Muhammad, your father was the prophet Aaron and your uncle was prophet Musa. In this case I’m superior to you.”

Legacy

In 656, Safiyya sided with caliph Uthman ibn Affan, and defended him at his last meeting with Ali, Aisha, and Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr. During the period when the caliph was besieged at his residence, Safiyya made an unsuccessful attempt to reach him, and supplied him with food and water via a plank placed between her dwelling and his.

Safiyya died in 670 or 672, during the reign of Muawiyah, and was buried in the Jannat al-Baqi graveyard.[16] She left an estate of 100,000 dirhams in land and goods, one-third of which she bequeathed to her sister’s son, who followed Judaism. Her dwelling in Medina was bought by Muawiyya for 180,000 dirhams.

Safiyya is said to have a dream which predicted her marriage with Muhammad, and she was beaten by her husband for desiring another man. Thus, the dream (interpreted as a miracle), her suffering, and her reputation to cry has won her a place in Sufi works. She appears in all major books of hadith and rolls of hadith transmitters.

Safiyya bint Huyayy |Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) Married Her in 7 AH.

Safiyya bint Huyayy, (may Allah be pleased with her) married the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in 7 AH, when the Prophet was sixty years old and she was seventeen years old. As in the case of juwayriyya bint Harith, this marriage occurred after one of the Muslims’ decisive battles, in this case, the battle of Khaybar.

After the battle of Khaybar in which the Muslims defeated the Jews, two women were brought before the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) by Bilal, the black mu’adhdhin of Medina whose beautifully voice constantly called the Muslims to prayer right up until the Prophet’s death ( after which he could not bring himself to call the adhan anymore, until he was present at the surrender of Jerusalem to the khalif Umar in 17 AH. ) They had passed by those who had been killed in the fighting. One of the two women was shrieking and screaming, and rubbing dust in her hair, while the other was silent.

The silent one was Safiyya, the daughter of Huyayy ibn Akhtab, the chief of the Banu Nadir who had all been expelled from Medina in 4 AH after plotting to kill the Messenger of Allah by dropping a stone on his head as he sat talking with their leaders.

The other woman was Safiyya’s cousin. Safiyya could trace her lineage directly back to Harun, the brother of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon them). The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked someone to look after the woman who was screaming and then took off his cloak and placed it over the shoulders of Safiyya, whose husband had been killed in the battle.

It was a gesture of pity, but from that moment she was to be honored and given great respect in the Muslim community. Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) turned to Bilal and said, “Bilal, has Allah plucked mercy from your heart that you let these two women pass by those of their menfolk who have been killed?”

This was considered a severe reprimand, for the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) rarely criticized the behavior of those who served him. Anas ibn Malik, for example once said, “I served the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for eight years. He never once scolded me for something that I had done or for something that I had not done.”

Like Umm Habiba, Safiyya was the daughter of a great chief. The only person who could save her from becoming a slave after having enjoyed such a high position was the Prophet. Although her father had planned to assassinate Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) after the battle of Uhud, and had conspired with the Banu Qurayza to exterminate all the Muslims during the battle of al-Khandaq, it was characteristic of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that he did not bear any grudges. For those who did wrong, he felt pity rather than anger, and for those who had done no wrong, he had even greater compassion.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) invited Safiyya to embrace Islam, which she did, and having given her, her freedom, she then accepted to marry him. Some people may have wondered how it was that Safiyya could accept Islam and marry the Prophet when her father had been his bitter enemy, and when bloody battles had taken place between the Jews and the Muslims. The answer may be found in what she has related of her early life as the daughter of the chief of the Banu Nadir.

She said, may Allah be pleased with her:

“I was my father’s favorite and also a favorite with my uncle Yasir. They could never see me with one of their children without picking me up. When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to Medina, my father and my uncle went to see him. It was very early in the morning and between dawn and sunrise. They did not return until the sun was setting.

They came back worn out and depressed, walking with slow, heavy steps. I smiled to them as I always did, but neither of them took any notice of me because they were so miserable. I head Abu Yasir ask my father, ‘Is it him?’ ‘Yes, it is.’ ‘Can you recognize him? Can you verify it?’ ‘Yes, I can recognize him too well.’ ‘What do you feel towards him?’ ‘Enmity, enmity as long as I live.’

The significance of this conversation is evident when we recall that in the Torah of the Jews, it was written that a Prophet would come who would lead those who followed him to victory. Indeed before the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to Medina, the Jews used to threaten the idol worshippers of Yathrib, as it was then called, that when the next Prophet came to the believers were going to exterminate them, just as the Jews had exterminated other tribes who refused to worship God in the past.

As in any case, of the Prophet Jesus, (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who had been clearly described in the Torah – but rejected by many of the Jews when he actually came – the next and last Prophet was accurately described in the Torah, which also contained signs by which the Jews could easily recognize him. Thus Ka’b al-Ahbar, one of the Jews of that time who embraced Islam, relates that this Prophet is described in the Torah as follows:

‘My slave, Ahmad, the Chosen, born in Mecca, who will emigrate to Medina (or he said Tayyiba – another name given to Yathrib); his community will be those who praise Allah in every state.’

And ‘Amr ibn al-‘As said that it also says in the Torah:

‘O Prophet, We have sent you as a witness, a bringer of good news and a warner and a refuge for the illiterate. You are My slave and My messenger. I have called you the one on whom people rely, one who is neither coarse nor vulgar, and who neither shouts in the markets nor repays evil with evil, but rather pardons and forgives. Allah will not take him back to Himself until the crooked community has been straightened out by him and they say, “There is no god but Allah.” Through him, blind eyes, deaf ears and covered hearts will be opened.’

It was thanks to these descriptions in the Torah, that the most learned rabbi of the Jews, ‘Abdullah ibn Salam, had embraced Islam on seeing Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and it was because of these descriptions that Huyayy ibn Akhtab was also able to recognize him. However Huyayy, like most of the other Jews, was deeply disappointed that the last Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was a descendant of Isma’il and not of Ishaq, (the two sons of the Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon them), since the Jews of that time claimed exclusive descent from Ishaq, through the twelve sons of his son Ya’qub (who was also known as Israel), from whom the twelve tribes of Israel had originated. Not only did Huyayy resent the fact that the last Prophet had appeared amongst the Arabs, but also he did not want to lose his position of power and leadership over his people.

It was for these reasons that Huyayy secretly decided to oppose and fight the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) while in public he and the other leaders of the Jews made peace treaties with the Muslims and the Jews broke as soon as it seemed a favorable time to do so. Although Safiyya was Huyayy’s daughter, she had a pure heart and had always wanted to worship her Creator and Lord, the One who had sent Moses, to whom she was related, and Jesus, and finally Muhammad, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

Thus as soon as the opportunity arose, not only to follow the last Prophet, but also to be married to him, she took it. Although Safiyya had in Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) a most kind and considerate husband, she was not always favorably accepted by some of his other wives, especially when she had first joined the Prophet’s household. It is related by Anas that on one occasion, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) found Safiyya weeping. When he asked her what the matter was, she replied that she heard thHafsa had disparagingly described her as ‘the daughter of a Jew’.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) responded by saying, “You are certainly the daughter of a Prophet (Harun), and certainly your uncle was a Prophet (Moses), and you are certainly the wife of a Prophet (Muhammad), so what is there in that to be scornful towards you?” Then he said to Hafsa, “O Hafsa, fear Allah!”

Once the Prophet was accompanied on a journey by Safiyya and Zaynab bint Jahsh when Safiyya’ s camel went lame. Zaynab had an extra camel and the Prophet asked her if she would give it to Safiyya. Zaynab retorted, “Should I give to that Jewess!” The Prophet turned away from her in anger and would not have anything to do with her for two or three months not to show his disapproval of what she had said.

Some three years later, when Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was in his final illness, Safiyya felt for him deeply and sincerely. “O Messenger of Allah,” she said, “I wish it was I who was suffering instead of you.” Some of the wives winked at each other which made the Prophet cross and he exclaimed, “By Allah, she spoke the truth!”

She still underwent difficulties after the death of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Once a slavegirl she owned went to the Amir al Muminin Umar and said, “Amir al Muminin! Safiyya loves the Sabbath and maintains ties with the Jews!” Umar asked Safiyya about that and she said, “I have not loved the Sabbath since Allah replaced it with Friday for me, and I only maintain ties with those Jews to whom I am related by kinship.” She asked her slavegirl what had possessed her to carries lie to Umar and the girl replied, “Shaytan!” Safiyya said, “Go, you are free.”

Safiyya was with the Prophet for nearly four years, She was only twenty-one when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) died, and lived as a widow for the next thirty-nine years, dying in 50 AH, at the age of sixty (may Allah be pleased with her).

“How wonderful is the affair of the believer, for his affairs are all good, and this applies to no one but the believer. If something good happens to him, he is thankful for it and that is good for him. If something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience and that is good for him.” (sahih muslim)

“Such is Allaah, your Lord in truth. So after the truth, what else can there be, except error? How then are you turned away?” [Yunus 10:32]

“Knowledge is a comforting friend in times of loneliness, it is the best companion during travels, and it is the inner friend who speaks to you in your privacy. Knowledge is the discerning proof of what is right and what is wrong, and it is the positive force that will help you surmount the trials of comfort, as well as those of hardships. Knowledge is your most powerful sword against your enemy, and finally, it is your most dignifying raiment in the company of your close companions.” Mu`adh ibn Jabal.

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