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Sahih Muslim

Salutations and Greetings (Kitab As−Salam)

Sahih Muslim 
Book | 26

Salutations and Greetings
(Kitab As−Salam)

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Continue reading “Salutations and Greetings (Kitab As−Salam)”

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Sahih Muslim: The Book Pertauning To Clothes And Decoration (Kitab Al-Libas W’al-Zinah)

Sahih-Muslim---Book-24-(w)

Sahih Muslim
Book 24

The Book:  Pertauning To Clothes And Decoration
Kitab Al-Libas W’al-Zinah)

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Chapter 1| The use of gold and silver vessels is forbidden to men and women and it is also prohibited to drink in them

5126: Umm Salama, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), said:

He who drinks in the vessel of silver in fact drinks down in his belly the fire of Hell.

5127: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Ubaidullah through other chains of transmitters: He who eats or drinks in the vessel of silver and gold, – but there is no mention in any one of them of the words pertaining to eating and gold.

5128: Abd al-Rahman reported on the authority of his mother’s sister Umm Salama who said that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who drank in vessels of gold or silver he in fact drank down in his belly the fire of Hell.

5129: Mu’awiya b. Suwaid b. Muqarrin reported:

I visited al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib and heard him say: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded us to do seven things and forbade us to do seven (things). He commanded us to visit the sick, to follow the funeral procession, to answer the sneezer, to fulfil the vow, to help the poor, to accept the invitation and to greet everybody, and he forbade us to wear rings or gold rings, to drink in silver (vessels), and to use the saddle cloth made of red silk, and to wear garments made of Qassi material, or garments made of silk or brocade and velvet.

5130: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Ash’ath b. Sulaim with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight change of wording that he made no mention of:” to fulfil the vows” but substituted these words:” finding of the lost articles”.

5131: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ash’ath b. Abu ashSha’tha’ with the same chain of transmitters (and with these words): There is no doubt about the words: To fulfil the vows were mentioned and this addition had been made in the. hadith: (The Holy Prophet) forbade drinking in silver vessels, for one who drinks (in them) in this world would not drink (in them) in the Hereafter.

5132: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ash’ath b. Sulaim with the same chain of transmitters but with this difference that instead of the words: Ifsha as-Salam (spreading the salutations), he substituted the words Radd as-Saldm (i. e. responding to the words of salutation) and he said: He forbade (the use of) gold ring.

5133: This hadith has been narrated on the auttiniity of Ash’ath b. Sulaim with the same chain of transmitters but the words (pertaining to) Ifsha as-Salam and the (use) of gold ring have been reported without doubt.

5134: ‘Abdullah b. Ukaim reported: While we were with Hudhaifa in Mada’in he asked for water. A villager brought a drink for him in a silver vessel. He (Hudhaifa) threw it away saying: I inform you that I have already conveyed to him that he should not serve me drink in it (silver vessel) for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had said: Do not drink in gold and silver vessels, and do not wear brocade or silk, for these are meant for them (the non-believers) in this world, but they are meant for you in the Hereafter on the Day, of Resurrection.

5135: This badith has been reported on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. Ukaim with a slight variation of wording.

5136: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of lbn ‘Ukaim through another chain of transmitters, but in this hadith no mention is made of the words:, On the Day of Resurrection”

5137: Shu’ba reported from al-Hakam that he heard ‘Abd al-Rahmin (i. e. Ibn Abu Laila) as saying: I personally saw Hudhaifa asking for water in Mada’in and a man giving it to him in a silver vessel. The rest of the hadith is the same.

5138: This badith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba through another chain of transmitters. but there is no mention of the fact: ‘, I personally saw him” in this hadith.

5139: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Hudhaila with the same chain of transmitters.

5140: ‘Abd al-Rahmin b. Abu Laili reported that Hudhaifa asked for water and a Magian gave him water in a silver vessel, whereupon he said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not wear silk or brocade and do not drink ifi vessels of gold and silver, and do not eat in the dishes made of them (i. e. gold and silver), for these are for them (the non-believers) in this world.

5141: Ibn Umar reported that Umar b. Khattab saw (some one selling) the garments of silk at the door of the mosque, whereupon he said: Allah’s Messenger, would that you buy it and wear it for the people on Friday and for (receiving) the delegations when they come to you? Upon this. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: go who wears it has no share (of reward) in the Hereafter.

Then these garments were sent to Allah” s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he presented one of these silk garment to Umar. Thereupon Umar said: You make me wear (this silk garment) Whereas you said about the silk garment of Utarid (the person who had been busy selling this garment at the door of the mosque) what you had to say, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I have not presented you this for wearing it (but to make use of its price) ; so ‘Umar presented it to his polytheist brother in Mecca.

5142: This hadith has been narrated by Ibn Umar through another chain of transmitters.

5143: Ibn Umar reported that:

Umar saw Utarid al-Tamimi standing in the market (and selling) the silk garments, and he was the person who went to (courts of) kings and got (high prices) for these garments from them. Umar said: Allah’s Messenger I saw ‘Utarid standing in the market with a silk garment; would that you buy and wear it for (receiving) the delegations of Arabs when they visit you? I (the narrator) said: I think he (‘Umar) also said: You may wear it on Friday (also).

Thereupon, Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) said: He who wears silk in this world has no share in the Hereafter. Later on when these silk garments were presented to Allah’s Massenger (may peace be upon him) he presented one silk garment to ‘Umar and presented one also to Usama b. Zaid and gave one to ‘Ali b. Abu ‘Talib. saying:

Tear them and make head coverings for your ladies. ‘Umar came carrying his garment and said: Allah’s Messenger, you have sent it to me, whereas you had said yesterday about the (silk) garment of Utarid what you had to say. He (the Holy Prophet) said:

I have not sent it to you that you wear it, but I have sent It to you so that you may derive benefit out of it; and Usama (donned) the garment (presented to him) and appeared to be brisk, whereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) looked at him with a look by which he perceived that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not like what he had done. He said: Allah’s Messenger. why is it that you look at me like this. whereas you yourself presented it to me? He said: I never sent it to you to wear it, but I sent It to you so that you may tear it and make out head covering for your ladies.

5144: Abdullah b. Umar reported:

‘Umar b. at-Khattab found a silk garment being sold in the market; he purchased it and brought it to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Allah’s Messenger, get it and adorn yourself (by wearing it) on the ‘Id (days) and for the delegation. Thereupon, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: That is the dress of one who has no share (in the Hereafter). ‘Umar stayed there so long as Allah wished.

Then Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent him a silk cloak. ‘Umar came back with that to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Allah’s Messenger. you said that it is the dress of one who has no share in the Hereafter, but then you sent it to me. Thereupon, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: You sell it and meet your need (with its proceeds).

5145: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Shihab with the same chain of transmitters.

5146: lbn ‘Umar reported that:

‘Umar saw a person of the tribe of ‘Utirid selling a garment made of brocade or silk and said to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him): Would that you buy it? Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: He who wears it has no share for him in the Hereafter. Then Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was presented with a striped silk garment and he sent it to him (‘Umar). He (, Umar) said: You sent it to me whereas I heard from you about it what you had to say, whereupon he (Allah’s Messenger) said: I sent it to you so that you may benefit by it.

5147: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar through another chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording (and the words are that the Holy Prophet) said: I sent it to you so that you might derive benefit from it. but I did not send it to you to wear it.

5148: Ibn ‘Umar reported that:

‘Umar saw a person with a garment of brocade and he brought it to Allah’s Apostle (may peace he upon him) -the rest of the hadith is the same, except for the words that he (the Holy Prophet) said: I sent it to you that you might get money thereby.

5149: Abdullah. the freed slave of Asma’ (the daughter of Abu Bakr). the maternal uncle of the son of ‘Ata, reported: Asma’ sent me to ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar saying: The news has reached me that you prohibit the use of three things: the striped robe. saddle cloth made of red silk. and the fasting in the holy month of Rajab.

‘Abdullah said to me: So far as what you say about fasting in the month of Rajab, how about one who observes continuous fasting? -and so far as what you say about the striped garment, I heard Umar b. Khatab say that he had heard from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him): He who wears silk garment has no share for him (in the Hereafter), and I am afraid it may not be that striped garment; and so far as the red saddle clotb is concerned that is the saddle cloth of Abdullah and it is red.

I went back to Asma’ and informed her. whereupon she said: Here is the cloak of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). and she brought out to me that cloak made of Persian cloth with a hem of brocade, and its sleeves bordered with brocade and said: This wall Allah’s Messenger’s cloak with ‘A’isha until she died, and when she died. I got possession of it. The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to wear that, and we waslied it for the sick and sought cure thereby.

5150: Khalifa b. Ka’b Abi Dhubyan reported:

I heard ‘Abdullah b. Zubair addressing the people and saying: Behold! do not dress yuor women with silk clothes for I heard ‘Umar b. Khattab as sayinp that he had heard Allah’s messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not wear silk, for one who wear it in this world will not wear it in the Hereafter.

5151: ‘Asim al-Abwal reported:

On the authority Abu Uthman saying: ‘Umar wrote to us when we were in Adharba’ijan saying: ‘Utba b. Farqad, this wealth is neither the result of your own labour nor the result of the labour of your father, nor the result of the labour of your mother, so feed Muslims at their own places as you feed (members of your family and yourselves at your own residence), and beware of the life of pleasure, and the dress of the polytheists and wearing of silk garments, for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade the wearing of silk garments, but only this much, and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) raised his, forefinger and middle finger and he joined them (to indicate that only this much silk can be allowed in the dress of a man).

‘Asim said also: This is what is recorded in the lette., (sent to us), and Zuhair raised his two fingers (to give an idea of the extent to which silk may be used).

5152: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of ‘Asim.

5153: Abu ‘Uthman reported:

While we were with ‘Utba b. Farqad there came a letter of ‘Umar (containing the instructions) that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had said: None should wear silk (with the exception of so much) but he will have nothing of it in the Hereafter. Abu ‘Uthman said: To the extent of two fingers which are close to the thumb, and I was shown the (silk) borders of the Tayalisa mantle (which were about two fingers in breadth and I saw them.

5154: Qatada reported:

I heard Abe ‘Uthman al-Nahdi as saying: There came to us a letter of ‘Umar as we were in Adharba’ijan or in Syria in the company of ‘Utba b. Farqad (and the letter ran thus): After (usual praise and glorification of Allah) it is stated that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has forbidden the use of silk btit to the extent of these two fingers, and Abu Uthman said: We at once understood by these words that he meant (silk) patterns on (the cloth).

5155: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Qatada but there is no mention of the words of Abd Uthman.

5156: Suwaid b. Ghafala said:

‘Umar addressed us at a place known as Jabiya (Syria) and he said: Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade us the wearing of silk but to the extent of two or three fingers or four fingers.

5157: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Qatada with the same chain of transmitters.

5158: Jabir b. Abdullah reported:

That one day Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) put on a cloak made of brocade, which had been presented to him. He then quickly put it off and sent it to ‘Umar b. Khattab, and it was said to him: Messenger of Allah. why is it that you put it of immediately.

Whereupon he said: Gabriel forbade me from it (i. e. wearing of Ods garment), and ‘Umar came to him weeping and said: Messenger of Allah you disapproved a thing but you gave it to me. What about me, then? Thereupon be (the Holy Prophet) Wd: I did not give it to you to wear it, but I gave you that you might sell it; and so he (Hadrat Umar) sold it for two thousand dirhams.

5159: ‘Ali reported:

A silk cloak was presented to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). and he sent it to me and I wore it. but then found some sign of disapproval upon his face, whereupon he said: I did not send it to you that you wear it, but I sent it to you so that you might tear it and make out head dream for your women.

5160: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Mubammad b. Ja’far but with a slight variation of wording.

5161: ‘Ali reported:

That Ukaidir of Duma presented to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) a silk garment, and he presented it to ‘Ali. and said: Tear it to make head covering for Fitimas out of it. This tradition is transmitted on the authority of Abu Bakr, and Abu Kuraib said: Among the women.

5162: ‘Ali b. Abu Talib reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave me to wear a garment in the form of silk cloak. I went out wearing it, but saw signs of anger on his face, so I tore it and distributed it amongst my women.

5163: Anas b. Malik reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may Peace be upon him) sent a silk gown to ‘Umar, whereupon ‘Umar said: You sent it to me whereas you said what you had to, say (i. e. it is forbidden for men). Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: I did not send it to you so that you might wear it, but I sent it to you so that you might derive benefit from its price.

5164: Anas reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who wore silk in this world would not wear it in the Hereafter.

5165: Abu Umama reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: He who wore silk in this world would not wear it in the Hereafter.

5166: Uqba b. ‘Amir said:

A silk go vn was presented to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and he wore it and observed prayer in it and then returned and put it off so violently as if he despised it. He then said: It does not befit the Godfearing persons.

5167: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of azid b. Abu Habib with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 2| It is permissible for a man to wear silk because of itch or some other reason.

5168: Anas b. Malik reported to them (his companions):

That Allah’s Messnger (may peace be upon him) had granted concession to Abd al-Rahman b. ‘Auf and Zubair b. ‘Awwam for the wearing of a silk shirt during the journey and because of itch which they both had or any other disease from which both of them had been suffering.

5169: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Sa’d with the same chain of transmitters but there is no mention of the word” journey”.

5170: Anas reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) granted concession, or Zubair b. Awwam and ‘Abd Al-Rahman b. Auf were granted concession, for the wearing of silk because of the itch that they both had.

5171: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters.

5172: Anas b. Malik reported:

That ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Auf and Zu’bair. b. ‘Awwam complained to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about lice; he granted them concession to wear shirts of silk.

Chapter 3| It is not permissible for a man to wear clothes of yellow colour

5173: ‘Abdullah b. ‘Amr b. al-As reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) saw me wearing two clothes dyed in saffron. whereupon he said: These are the clothes (usually worn by) the non-believers, so do not wear them.

5174: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Yahya b. Abu Kathir with the same chain of trarnmitteis.

5175: ‘Abdullah b. ‘Amr reported:

Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) saw me in two clothes dyed in saffron, whereupon he said: Has your mother ordered you to do so? And I said: I will wash them. He said: But burn them.

5176: ‘Ali b. Abu Talib reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade wearing of silk and yellow clothes, and the gold ring, and the reciting of the Qur’an in the ruku’ (state of kneeling in prayer).

5177: Ali b. Abu Talib reported:

Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade me to recite the Qur’an while I am in ruku; and the wearing of gold and clothes dyed in saffron.

5178: ‘Ali b. Abu Talib reported:

Allah’s Meisenger (may peace be upon him) forbade me to use gold rings. to wear silk clothes and to recite the Qur’an in ruku’ and sajda (prostration), and to wear yellow garments.

Chapter 4| Excellence of Wearing the Mantles of Yemen

5179: Qatada said:

We asked Anas b. Malik which garment did Allah’s Messenger may peace be upon him) love or like (to wear). He said: The mantle of Yemen.

5180: Anas reported that the garment most liked by Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was the mantle of Yemen.

Chapter 5| Modesty in case of garments and preference for tyie coarse cloth for wearing and the permissibility of wearing cloth made of (camel’s) hair

5181: Abu Burda reported:

I visited A’isha and she brought out for us the coarse lower garfnent (of Allah’s Messenger) made in Yemen and clothes made out of Mulabbada cloth, and she swore in the name of Allah that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) died in these two clothes.

5182: Abu Burda reported:

That A’isha brought out for us the lower garment and the upper garment made of the Mulabbada cloth and said: It was in these (clothes) that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) died. Ibn Hatim (one of the narrators) in his narration Wd: The lower garment of coarse cloth.

5183: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Ayyub with a slight variation of wording.

5184: A’isha reported:

That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) went out one morning wearing a blanket made of (camel’s or sheep’s) black hair with patterns of camel saddles upon it.

5185: A’isha reported:

That the pillow on which Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) reclined was of leather stuffed with palm fibre.

5186: A’isha reported:

That the bedding on which. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) slept was made of leather stuffed with palm fibre.

5187: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Hisham b. ‘Urwa with a slight variation of wording.

Chapter 6| It is permissible to use carpets.

5188: Jabir reported:

When I was married, Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) asked me if I had got the carpet. I said: How can we have carpets? (i. e. I am so poor that I cannot even think of carpets). whereupon he said: You shall soon possess them.

5189: Jabir b. Abdullah reported:

When I was married. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) asked me if I had got carpets. I said: How can we have carpets? Thereupon he Wd: You will soon have. Jabir said: My wife had possessed a carpet. and I said to her to remove that away from me, but she would say! Allah’s Messenger (may peace be npon him) had said: Yon will soon have. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Sufyin with the saule chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

Chapter 7| Disapproval of keeping more beddings and clothes than are genuinely needed.

5190: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:

That Allah’s Messengor (may peace be upon him) said: There should be a bedding for a man. a bedding for his wife and the third one for the guest, and the fourth one is for the Satan.

Chapter 8| It is forbidden to trail one’s garment out of conceit or pride.

5191: Ibn ‘Umar reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: Allah will not look upon him who trails his garment out of pride.

5192: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar through other chains of transmitters also with the addition of these words:” On the Day of Resurrection.”

5193: Ibn ‘Umar reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: He who trails his (lower) garment out of pride, Allah will not look toward him on the Day of Resurrection.

5194: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar through another chain of transmitters.

5195: Ibn ‘Umar reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: He who trailed his garment out of pride, Allah would not look toward him on the Day of Resurrection.

5196: Salim reported:

I heard Ibn Umar as saying that he had heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying like this (as mentioned above) but with a slight variation of wording [that instead of the word thaub (cloth) there is the word thiyab (the clothes) ].

5197: Muslim b. Yannaq reported:

That Ibn Umar saw a person trailing his lower garment, whereupon he said: From whom do you come? He described his relationship (with the tribe he belonged) and it was found that he belonged to the tribe of Laith. Ibn. Umar recognised him and said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) with these two ears of mine saying: He who trailed his lower garment with no other intention but pride, Allah would not look toward him on the Day of Resurrection.

5198: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Muslim b. Yannaq through another chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

5199: Mubammad b. ‘Abbad b. ja’far reported:

I ordered Muslim b. Yasar, the freed slave of Nafi’ b. ‘Abd al-Harith, while I was sitting between them, that he should ask Ibn ‘Umar if he had heard anything from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) pertaining to one who trails his lower garment out of pride. He said: I heard him (the Holy Prophet) as saying: Allah will not look toward him on the Day of Resurrection.

5200: Ibn ‘Umar reported:

I happened to pass before Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon bin) with my lower garment trailing (upon the ground). He said: ‘Abdullah, tug up your lower garment,, I tugged it up, and he again said: Tug it still further, and I tugged it still further and I went on tugging it afterward, whereupon some of the people said: To what extent? Thereupon he said: To the middle of the shanks.

5201: Abu Huraire reported:

That he saw a person whose lower garment bad been trailin. and he was striking the ground with his foot (conceitedly). He was the Amir of Bahrain and it was being said: Here comes the Amir, here comes the Amir. He (Abu Huraira) reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Allah will not look toward him who trails his lower garment out of pride.

5202: This hadith has been reported:

On the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters and in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Ibn ja’far (the words are): Marwan had made Abu Huraira as his deputy. and in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Ibn Muthanna (the words are). Abu Huraira was the Governor of Medina.

Chapter 9| It is forbidden to walk with pride, over pleased with fine clothes.

5203: Abu Huraira reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said that there was a person who used to walk with pride because of his thick hair and fine mantles. He was made to sink in the earth and he would go on sinking in the earth until the Last Hour would come.

5204: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira but with a different chain of transmitters.

5205: Abu Huraira reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: There was a person who walked with pride because of his (fine) mantles and well pleased with his personality. Allah made him sink in the earth and he would go on sinking in that until the Day of Resurrection.

5206: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Huraira but with a slight variation of wording: While there was a man who strutted in his two mantles.

5207: Abu Huraira reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: There was a person (living before you) who took pride in his cloak. the rest of the hadith is the same.

Chapter 10| About the signet ring made of gold.

5208: Abu Huraira reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade the wearing of gold signet ring.

5209: Abdullah b. ‘Abbas reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) saw a person wearing a gold signet ring in his hand. He (the Holy Prophet) pulled it off and threw it away, saying: One of you is wishing live coal from Hell. and putting it on his hand. It was said to the person after Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had left: Take your signet ring (of gold) and derive benefit out of it. whereupon he said: No, by Allah, I would never take it when Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has thrown it away.

5210: ‘Abdullah reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upol him) got fashioned a signet ring of gold but he kept its stone on the inner side of his palm as he wore it, so the people (following his example) got fashioned (such rings). Then one day as he sat on the pulpit he pulled it away saying: I wore this ring and kept its stone towards the inner side. He then threw it away, and said: By Allah, I will never wear it; so the people threw their rings away.

5211: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar through other chains of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

Chapter 11| Wearing of silver ring by Allah’s apostle (may peace be upon him) in which were engraved the words (Muhammad, the messenger of Allah) and after him his successors wore it

5212: Ibn Umar reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had made for himself a ring of silver, and he (wore it in his finger). then it was in Abu Bakr’s finger. then it was in’Umar’s finger. then it was in ‘Uthman’s finger. until it fell into the well of Aris and it had these words engraved upon it (Muhammad, Messenger of Allah). Ibn Numair narrated it with a slight variation of words.

5213: Ibn Umar reported:

That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon hirn) had made for himself a gold ring; then lie discarded it. and then made for himself a silver ring. and had these words engraved upon it (Mubamrnad, Messenger of Allah), and said: No one should engrave anything like the engraving of this signet ring of mine. and when he Wore it. he kept its stone towards the inside of his palm, and it was this which fell down (from the hands) of Mu’ayqib into the well of Aris.

5214: Anas b. Malik reported:

That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) had made for him a silver ring. and got engraved on it (Mubamrnad, Messenger of Allah) and said to the people I have got made a ring of silver and engraved in it (these words) (Mubamrnad, Messenger of Allah). So none should engrave these (words) like this engravement.

5215: This hadith nas been reported on the authority of Anas through another chain of transmitters but there is no mention of the words (Mubamrnad, Messenger of Allah) in it.

Chapter 12| Allah’s messenger (may peace be upon him) got made for himself a signet ring when he decided to write letters to the non-arabs

5216: Anas b. Malik reported:

That when Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) decided to write letters to the Byzantine (Emperor) they (his Companions) told him that they would not read a letter unless it is sealed. (Then) Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had a silver ring made (for himealf), (its shape is to vivid in my mind) as if I see its brightness in the band of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and its engravement was (Muhamrnad, Messenger of Allah).

5217: Anas reported:

That when Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) decided to write (letters) to non-Arabs (i. e. Persian and Byzantine Emperors) it was said to him that the non-Arabs would not accept a letter but that having a seal over it; so he (the Holy Prophet) got a silver ring made. He (Anas) said: I perceive as if I am looking at its brightness in his hand.

5218: Anas reported:

That when Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) decided to write to the Kisri (the King of Persia), Caesar (Emperor of Rome), and the Negus (the Emperor of Abyssinia), it was said to him that they would not accept the letter without the seal over it; so Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) got a seal made, the ring of which was made of silver and there was engraved on it. (Mubammad. the Messenger of Allab).

Chapter 13| Pertaining to the discarding of rings.

5219: Anas b. Malik reported:

I saw one day on the finger of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be Upon him) a silver ring; so the people also got silver rings made and wore them Then Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) discarded his ring, and the people also discarded their rings.

5220: Anas b. Malik reported:

That one day he saw on the finger of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) a silver ring, and the people also made silver rings and put them on. Then Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) threw his ring away, and so the people also threw away their rings.

5221: A hadith like this has been reported on the authority of Ibn Juraij with the same chain of transmitters.

5222: Anas b. Malik reported that the ring of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was made of silver and it had an Abyssinian stone in it.

5223: Anas b. Malik reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) wore a silver ring on his right hand which had an Abyssinian stone in it, and he kept its stone towards the palm.

5224: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Yunus b. Yazid with the same chain of transmitters.

5225: Anas reported that the ring of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) was on this, and he pointed toward the little finger of his left hand.

5226: Ali reported:

He the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him), forbade me that I should wear my ring in this (forefinger) or in that near it. ‘Asim (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) said: He did not remember which of the two (fingers) he pointed out; and he forbade to wear Qassi material (silk garments), and to sit on the silk saddle cloth, and he said: As regards Qassi, it is a variegated garment which was brought from Egypt and Syria which had figures upon it, and as regards Mayathir, it is something which women prepared for their husbands as red cloths for their saddles.

5227: A hadith like this has been reported on the authority of ‘Ali through a different chain of transmitters.

5228: ‘Ali b. Abu Talib reported that he (Allah’. s Apostle) forbade or forbade me. the rest of the hadith is the same.

5229: ‘Ali reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade me that I should wear a ring in this and that finger of mine, and he pointed to the middle finger and the next one.

Chapter 14| Pertaining to the wearing of sandals (or shoes)

5230: Jabir reported:

I heard Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) saying during an expedition in which we also participated: Make a general practice of wearing sandals, for a man is riding as it were when he wears sandals.

5231: Abu Huraire reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When one of you puts on sandals, he should first put in the right foot, and when he takes off he should take off the left one first, or he should put them on together or take them off together.

5232: Abu Huraira reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: None of you should walk in one sandal; either he should wear the two or should take off the two.

5233: Abu Razin reported:

Abu Huraira came to us and he struck his forehead with his hand and said: Behold I you talk amongst yourself that I attribute wrongly to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) (certain things) in order to guide you to the right path. In such a case, I would myself go astray. Listen. I bear testimony to the fact that I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) saying: When the thong of any one of you is broken, he should not walk in the second one until he has got it repaired. This hadith has been reported on the authority of Abu Huraira with a different chain of transmitters.

Chapter 15| Command concerning the wrapping up of garment completely leaving no opening for the arms and sitting with single garment wrapped around ones knees

5234: Jabir reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade that a man should eat with the left hand or walk with one sandal or wrap himself completely leaving no opening for the arms (to draw out) or support himself when sitting with a single garment wrapped round his knees which may expose his private parts.

5235: Jabir reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When the thong of the shoe of any one of you is cut off. he should not walk with one sandal until he has got the thong repaired, and he should not walk with one shoe and he should not eat with his left hand and should not wrap his cloth round his knees or wrap himself completely leaving no room for the arins.

Chapter 16| It is prohibited to lie down on one’s back and placing of one’s foot upon the other

5236: Jabir reported:

That Allab’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade the wrapping of oneself completely leaving no room for the arm and supporting oneself when sitting with a single garment wrapped round one’s knees and a person raising one of his feet and placing it on the other while lying on his back. 2512

5237: Jabir. b. Abdullah reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not walk in one sandal and do not wrap the lower garment round your knees and do not eat with your left hand and do not wrap yourself completely leaving no room for the arms (to draw out) and do not place one of your feet upon the other while lying on your back.

5238: Jalbir b. Abdullah reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: None of you should lie on his back and place one of his feet upon the other.

Chapter 17| Permissibility of placing one’s foot upon the other while lying

5239: ‘Abbad b. Tamim reported from his uncle that he saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) lying in the mosque and placing his one foot upon the other.

5240: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitter.

Chapter 18| Prohibition of using clothes dyed in saferon for men

5241: Anas b. Malik reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace he upon him) forbade dyeing (one’s cloth or hair) in saffron. Hammad said that it pertains to men only.

5242: Anas reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade that a person should (wear) clothes dyed in saffron.

5243: Jabir reported:

That when Abu Qubafa (father of Abu Bakr) came in the yeu of Victory or on the Day of Victory (to the Holy Prophet to pledge his allegiance to him) his head and his beard were white like hyssop. He (the Holy Prophet) commaded or the women were commanded by him that they should change this with something (that the colour of his hair should be changed).

5244: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:

That Abu Qubafa was led (to the andience of the Holy Prophet) on the day of the Conquest of Mecca and his head and beard were white like hyssop, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Change it with something but avoid black.

5245: Abu Horaira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The Jews and the Christians do not dye (their hair), so oppose them.

Chapter 19| Angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture

5246: A’isha reported:

That Gabriel (peace be upon him) made a promise with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) to come at a definite hour; that hour came but he did not visit him. And there was in his hand (in the hand of Allah’s Apostle) a staff. He threw it from his hand and said: Never has Allah or His messengers (angels) ever broken their promise.

Then he cast a glance (and by chance) found a puppy under his cot and said: ‘A’isha, when did this dog enter here? She said: BY Allah, I don’t know He then commanded and it was turned out. Then Gabriel came and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to him: You promised me and I waited for you. but you did not come, whereupon he said: It was the dog in your house which prevented me (to come), for we (angels) do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture.

5247: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Hazim with the same chain of transmitters that Gabriel had promised Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) that he would come; the rest of the hadith is the same, but it is not so lengthy as the other one.

5248: Maimuna reported:

That one morning Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was silent with grief. Maimuna said: Allah’s Messenger, I find a change in your mood today. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Gabriel had promised me that he would meet me tonight, but he did not meet me. By Allah, he never broke his promises, and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) spent the day in this sad (mood).

Then it occurred to him that there had been a puppy under their cot. He commanded and it was turned out. He then took some water in his hand and sprinkled it at that place. When it was evening Gabriel met him and he said to him: you promised me that you would meet me the previous night. He said: Yes, but we do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture. Then on that very morning he commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed, but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive fields (or big gardens).

5249: Abu Talha reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) having said: Angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture.

5250: Abu Talha reported: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Angels do not enter the house in which there is a dog or a statue.

5251: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters.

5252: Abu Tilha, the Companion of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: Verily, angels do not enter the house in which there is a picture. Busr reported: Zaid fell ill and we went to inquire after his health and (found) that there was hanging at his door a curtain with a picture on it. I said to ‘Ubaidullah Khaulani who had been under the patronage of Maimuna, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him): Did not Zaid himself inform us before about (the Holy Prophet’s command pertaining to the pictures), whereupon ‘Ubaidullah said: Did you not hear when he said:” Except the prints on the cloth”?

5253: Abu Talha reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Angels do not enter a house in which there is a picture. Busr said: Zaid b. Khalid fell sick and we visited him to inquire after his health. As we were in his house (we saw) a curtain having pictures on it. I said to ‘Ubaidullah Khaulani: Did he not narrate to us (the Holy Prophet’s command pertaining to pictures)? Thereupon he said: He in fact did that (but he also said): Except the prints upon the cloth. Did you not hear this..? I said: No, whereupon He said: He had in fact made a mention of this.

5254: Abu Talha Ansari reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Angels do not enter the house in which there is a picture or portraits. I came to ‘A’isha and said to her: This is a news that I have received that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) had said: Angels do not enter the house in which there is a picture or a dog, (and further added) whether she had heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) making a mention of it.

She said: No (I did not hear this myself), but I narrate to you what I saw him doing. I bear testimony to the fact that he (the Holy Prophet) set out for an expedition. I took a carpet and screened the door with it. When he (the Holy Prophet) came back he saw that carpet and I perceived signs of disapproval on his face. He pulled it until it was torn or it was cut (into pieces) and he said: God has not commanded us to clothe stones and clay. We cut it (the curtain) and prepared two pillowa out of it by stuffing them with the fibre of datepalms and he (the Holy Prophet) did not find fault with it.

5255: A’isha reported:

We had a curtain with us which had portraits of birds upon it. Whenever a visitor came, he found them in front of him. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upop him) said to me: Change them, for whenever I enter the room) I see them and it brings to my mind (the pleasures) of worldly life. She said: We had with us a sheet which had silk badges upon it and we used to wear it. This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ibn Muthanna but with this addition: ‘Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) did not command us to tear that.”

5256: A’isha reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) came back from the journey and I had screened my door with a curtain having portraits of winged horses upon it. He commanded me and I pulled it away.

5257: This hadith has been narrpted on the authority of Waki’ with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

5258: A’isha reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) entered (my apartment) and I had hung (on the door of my apartment) a thin curtain having pictures on it. The colour of his face underwent a change. He then took hold of that curtain and tore it and then said: The most grievous torfnent for the people on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who try to imitate Allah in the act of creation.

5259: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of A’isha through another chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording (and the variation is that the narrator is reported to have said): He (the Holy Prophet) inclined towards that curtain and tore it with his hand.

5260: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

5261: A’isha reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) visited me. and I had a shelf with a thin cloth curtain hangin. over it and on which there were portraits. No sooner did he see it than he tore it and the colour of his face underwent a change and he said: A’isha, the most grievous torment from the Hand of Allah on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who imitate (Allah) in the act of His creation. A’isha said: We tore it into pieces and made a cushion or two cushions out of that.

5262: A’isha reported she had a cloth havinc, pictures upon it and it was hanging upon the shelf and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Take it (away) from me (from my sight), so I removed it and made cushions from that.

5263: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters.

5264: A’isha reported:

Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) visited me when I had screened (my door) with a carpet having pictures on it. He removed it and we made cushions out of that.

5265: A’isha, the wife of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), reported:

That she had hung a curtain which had pictures upon it. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) entered (the room) and he pulled it. A’isha said: I then tore it and prepared two cushions out of that. A person who was then in that company and whose name was Rabi’a b. ‘Ata, the freed slave of Banu Zuhra, asked: Did you hear Abu Mabammad making a mention of A’isha having stated that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) used to recline upon them? lbn al-Qasim said: No, but I heard Qasim b. Muhammad saying so.

5266: A’isha reported:

That she bought a carpet which had pictures on it. When Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) saw that, he stayed at the door and did not get in. I perceived or I was made to perceive upon his face signs of disgust. She said: Allah’s Messenger, I offer repentance to Allah and His Messenger. (but tell me) what is the sin that I have committed.

Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: What is this carpet? She said: I bought it for you so that you might sit on it and take rest. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The owners of these pictures would be tormented and they would be asked to bring to life what they tried to create. He then said: Angels do not enter the house in which there is a picture.

5267: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of A’isha through another chain of transmitters also. Some of the other ahadith narrated through other chains of transmitters are more complete and there is an addition in them (transmitted through other chains of transmitters). In the hadith transmitted on the authority of the nephew of Majishun she (A’isha) is reported to have said: I took it and prepared two cushions out of that and he (the Holy Prophet) used to recline against them in the house.

5268: Ibn ‘Umar reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: Those who paint pictures would be punished on the Day of Resurrection and it would be said to them: Breathe soul into what you. have created.

5269: Ibn ‘Umar reported a hadith like this through another chain of transmitters.

5270: ‘Abdullah reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Verity the most grievously tormented people on the Day of Resurrection would be the painters of pictures. Ashajj (one of the narrators) in the hadith narrated by him did not make mention of the word” verity”.

5271: This haditli has been reported on the authority of Abu Mu’awiya through another chain of tranmitters (and the words are):” Verity, the most grievously tormented people amongest the denizens of Hall on the Day of Resurrection would be the painters of pictures. The rest of the hadith is the same.

5272: Muslim b. Subaih reported:

I was with Masriuq in the house which had the portrayals of Mary (hadrat Maryan). Thereupon Masriuq said: These are portraits of Kisra. I said: No, these are of Mary. Masruq said: I heard Abdullah b, Mas’ud as saying Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had said: The most grievously tormented people on the Day of Resurrection would be the painters of pictures.

(Muslim said): I read this before Nasr b. ‘Ali at-Jahdami and he read it before other narrators, the last one being Ibn Sa’id b Abl at Hasan that a person came to Ibn ‘Abbas and said: I am the person who paints pictures; give me a religious verdict about them. He (Ibn ‘Abbas) said to him: Come near me (still further). He came near him so much so that he placed his hand upon his head and said:

I am going to narrate to yor what I heard from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). I heard him say: All the painters who make pictures would be in the fire of Hell. The soul will be breathed in every picture prepared by him and it shall punish him in the Hell, and he (Ibn ‘Abbas) said: If you have to do it at all, then paint the pictures of trees and lifeless things; and Nasr b. ‘Ali confirmed it.

5273: Anas b. Malik said:

I was sitting with Ibn Ahbas when he gave religious verdicts but he did not say that it was Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) who had said that. However when a man said to him (Ibn ‘Abbas): I am the painter of these pictures. Ibn ‘Abbas said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who painted pictures in the world would be compelled to breathe soal in them on the Day of Resurrection, but he would not be able to breathe soul (in them).

5274: Nadr b. Anas reported that a person came to Ibn ‘Abbas and he narrated (the above menlioned hadith) from Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him).

5275: Abu Zur’a reported:

I visited the house of Marwan in the company of Abu Huraira and he found pictures there. whereupon he said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Allah, the Glorious and Exalted, said: Who is a more wrongdoer than one who tries to create creation like Mine creation. Let him create an atom or a grain of wheat or that of barley.

This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Zur’a and he said: Abu Huraira went to the house of Sa’ld or Marwan which they had built in Medina and he (Abu Huraira) saw a painter who had been painting pictures in his house, whereupon he told that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had said like this, but he made no mention of the words:” Let him create the grain of barley.”

5276: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Angels do not enter the house in which there are portrayals or pictures.

Chapter 20| Disapproval of setting out on a journey along with a dog and bells

5277: Abu Huraira reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Angels do not accompany the travellers who have with them a dog and a bell.

5278: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Suhail with the same chain of transmitters.

5279: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The bell is the musical instrument of the Satan.

Chapter 21| Disapproval of hanging the necklace round the camels’ necks

5280: Abu Bashir Ansari reported:

That he had had (the opportunity of accompanying Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in some of his journeys. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent one of his messengers ‘Abdullah b Abi Bakr said: I think he said (these words) when the people were at the places of rest: No necklace of strings be left on the necks of the camels or the necklace kept unbroken. Imam Malik said: To my mind (this practice) of wearing necklace round the necks of camels or animals was because of the fact that they (wanted to save them) from the influence of the evil eye.

Chapter 22| It is forbidden to beat the animal on the face or cauterise at the face

5281: Jabir reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (the animals to be beaten) on the face or cauterisation on the face.

5282: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Jabir b. ‘Abdullah through another chain of transmitters.

5283: Jabir reported:

That there happened to pass before Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) an ass the face of which had been cauterised, whereupon he said: Allah has cursed one who has cauterized it (on the face).

5284: Ibn Abbas reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) saw an ass which had been cauterised on the face. He disapproved of it saying: By Allah, I do not cauterise (the animal) but on a part at a distance from the face, and commanded (for the cauterisation) of his ass and it was cauterized on the buttocks and he was the first to cauterise on the buttocks.

5285: Anas reported:

That Umm Sulaim gave birth to a child. She said to him: Anas, see that nothing is given to this child until he is brought to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) in the morning, so that he should chew some dates and touch his palate with it. I went to him in the morning and he was in the garden at that time having the mantle of Jauniyya over him and he was bus in cauterizing (the camels) which had been brought to him (as spoils of war) in victory (over the enemy).

5286 Anas reported:

That when his mother gave birth to a child they brought that child to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) so that he might chew some dates and touch his palate with them. and Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) was at that time in the fold busy in cauterising the animals Shu’ba said: So far as I know (he was cauterising) their ears.

5287 Anas reported:

We went to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as he was in the fold and he was cauterising the animals of the flock and I think (he was cauterising them) on their ears. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba through another chain of transmitters.

5288 Anas b. Malik reported:

I saw in the hand of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) an instrument for cauterisation and he was cauterising the caracia collected as Zakat.

Chapter 23| Disapproval of having a part of the head shaven and leaving a part unshaved

5289: Ibn Umar reported:

That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade Qaza. I said to Nafi: What is Qaza’? He said: This means having a part of a boy’s head shaved and leaving a part unshaven.

5290: This hadith has been reported on the authority of ‘Ubaidullah with the same chain of transmitters. and the exposition of Qaza’ is the same as that of Abu Usama.

5291: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Umar b. Nafi’ with the same chain of transmitters and Muhammad b. Muthanna as well as ‘Umar b. Nafi have given the same exposition (of the word Qaza’) in their narration.

5292: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar through another chain of transmitters.

Chapter 24| Prohibition of sitting on the roadsides and to honour the obligations of the roadside

5293: Abu Sa’id Kbudri reported:

Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: Avoid sitting on the paths. They (his Companions) said: Allah’s Messenger. there is no other help to it (but to sit here as we) hold our meetings and discuss matters there. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: If you have to sit at all, theg fulfil the rights, of the path.

They said: What are their rights? Thereupon he said: Keeping the eye downward (so that you may not stare at the  omen), refraining from doing some harm to the other and exchanging mutual greetings (saying as-Salamu ‘Alaikum to one another) and commanding the good and forbidding the evil.

5294: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Zaid b. Aslam with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 25| It is forbidden to add false hair to one’s head, or to pluck the eyebrow or to separate the teeth

5295: Asma’, daughter of Abu Bakr, reported:

That a woman came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said: I have a daughter who has been newly wedded. She had an attack of smallpox and thus her hair had fallen; should I add false hair to her head? Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Allah has cursed the woman who adds some false hair and the woman who asks for it.

5296: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Shu’ba with a slight variation of wording.

5297: Asma’, daughter of Abu Bakr, reported:

That a woman came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said: I have married my daughter (whose) hair of head have fallen. Her spouse likes them (the long hair). Allah’s Messenger (may add false hair to her head? He forbade her to do this.

5298: A’isha reported:

That a girl of the Ansar who had fallen ill and had lost the hair was married. They (her relatives) thought of adding false hair (to her head). so they asked Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about it, whereupon he cursed the woman who adds false hair and the woman who asks for it.

5299: A’isha reported:

That a woman from the Ansar married her daughter who had lost her hair because of illness. She came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said: Her husband wants that false hair should be aaded to her head. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The woman who adds false hair has been cursed. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Nafi’ with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

5300: Ibn Umar reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) cursing the woman who added false hair and the woman who asked for tattoos. This hadith has been reported on the authority of Abdullah through another chain of transmitters.

5301: ‘Abdullah reported:

That Allah had cursed those women who tattooed and who have themselves tattooed, those who pluck hair from their faces and those who make spaces between their teeth for beautification changing what God has created. This news reached a woman of the tribe of Asad who was called Umm Ya’qub and she used to recite the Holy Qur’an.

She came to him and said: What is this news that has reached me from you that you curse those women who tattooed and those women who have themselves tattooed, the women who pluck hair from their faces and who make spaces between their teeth for beautification changing what God has created? Thereupon ‘Abdullah said: Should I not curse one upon whom Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has invoked curse and that is in the Book also.

Thereupon that woman said: I read the Qur’an from cover to cover, but I did not find that in it. whereupon he said: If you had read (thoroughly) you would have definitely found this in that (as) Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, has said:” What Allah’s Messenger brings for you accept that. and what he has forbidden you. refrain from that.” That woman said: I find this thing in your wife even now.

Thereupon he said: Go and see her. She reported: I went to the wife of ‘Abdullah but found nothing of this sort in her. She came back to him and said: I have not seen anything. whereupon he said: Had there been anything like it in her, I would have never slept with her in the bed.

5302: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Mansur with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

5303: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Mansur without the story pertaining to Umm Ya’qub.

5304: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abdullah.

5305: Jabir b. Abdullah reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) reprimanded that a woman should add anything to her head (in the form of artificial hair).

5306: Abd al-Rahman b. ‘Auf said that he heard Mu’awiya b Sufyin during the season of Hajj. (saying) as he sat upon the pulpit holding a bunch of hair in his hand which was (previously) in the hand of his sentinel: O people of Medina, where are your scholars? I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbidding this and saying: That the people of Bani Isra’il were ruined at the time when their women wore shuch hair.

5307: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Zuhri but with a slight variation of wording.

5308: Sa’id b. Musayyib reported:

Mu’awiya came to Medina and he addressed us and he took out a bunch of hair and said: What do I see that one of you does but that what the Jews did? (I can well recall) that when this act (adding of artificial hair) reached Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), he named it as cheating.

5309: Sa, id b. Musayyib reported:

That Mu’awiya said one day: Should I narrate to you the evil make-up. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade cheating. It was during that time that a person came with a staff and there was a cloth on its head, whereupon Mu, awiya said: Behold, that is cheating. Qatada said: This implies how women artificially increase their hair with the help of rags.

Chapter 26| The women who are naked even in their dresses, who deviate from the right path and lead their husbands astray.

5310: Abu Huraira reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: Two are the types of the denizens of Hell whom I did not see: people having flogs like the tails of the ox with them and they would be beating people, and the women who would be dressed but appear to be naked, who would be inclined (to evil) and make their husbands incline towards it. Their heads would be like the humps of the bukht camel inclined to one side. They will not enter Paradise and they would not smell its odour whereas its odour would be smelt from such and such distance.

Chapter 27| Prohibition of wearing the garment of falsehood

5311: A’isha reported:

That a woman said: Allah’s Messenger, may I say to my (co-wife) that my husband has given me (such and such) a thing but which he has not in fact gives me? ‘Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The one who makes a false statement of that which one has not been given is like one who wears a garment of falsehood.

5312: Asma’ reported:

That a woman came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said: I have a co-wife. Is there any harm for me if I give her the false impression (of getting something from my husband which he has not in fact given me)? Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The one who creates such a (false impression) of receiving what one has not been given is like one who wears the garment of falsehood.

5313: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Hisham with the same chain of transmitters.

Sahih Muslim: The Book on General Behaviour – (Kitab Al-Adab)

Sahih Muslim - Book 12 - Kitab Al-Adab

Sahih Muslim | Book 25

The Book:  On General Behaviour – (Kitab Al-Adab)

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Chapter 1: Forbiddance in calling one (other than Allah’s apostle) with the kunya of Abu’l-Qasim and the fact pertaining to good names

5314: Anas reported that person at Baqi’ called another person as” Abu’l- Qasim,” and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) turned towards him. He (the person who had uttered these words) said: Messenger of Allah, I did not mean you, but I called such and such (person), whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: You may call yourself by my name, but not by my kunya.

5315: Ibn Umar reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The names dearest to Allah are ‘Abdullah and ‘Abd al-Rahman.

5316: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported that a child was born to a perfon amongst us and he gave him the name of Muhammad. Thereupon his people said: We will not allow You to give the name of Muhammad (to your child) after the name of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him).

He set forth with his son carrying him on his back and came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him’, and said: Allah’s Messenger a son has been born to me and I havegiven him the name after the name of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Give him my name but do not give him my kunya, for I am Qasim in the sense that I distribute (the spoils of war) and the dues of Zakat amongst you.

5317: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported that a child was born to one of the persons amongst us and he decided to give him the name of Muhammad We said: We will not allow you to give the name after the name of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) until you ask him (the Holy Prophet).

So he (that person) came and said (to the Holy Prophet): A child was born in my house and I wanted to give him the name (of Muhammad) after the name of Allah’s Messenger, whereas my people did not allow me that I should name him after that (sacred) name until I have asked Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) in this connection, whereupon he said: Give him the name after my name, but do not call him by my kunya, for I have been sent as a Qasim as I distribute amongst you.

5318: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Husain With the same chain of transmitters but no mention is made of these words:” (I have been sent as a distributor), so I distribute amongst you.”

5319: Jabir b. Abdullah reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Give the name after my name, but do not give (the kunya of Abu’l-Qasim after my) kunya, for I am Abu’l-Qasim (in the sense) that I distribute amongst you (the spoils of war) and disseminate the knowledge (of revelation). This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Bakr but with a slight variation of wording.

5320: This hadith has been reported on the authority of A’mash with the same chain of transmitters but there is a slight variation (of wording) that, instead of the word Bu’ithat (I have been sent), the word ju’ilat (I have been made) has been used.

5321: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported that a child was born to a person from the Ansar and he made up his mind to give him the name of Muhammad. He came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and, asked him (about it), whereupon he said: The Ansar have done well to give the name (to your children) after my name, but do not give them the kunya after my kunya.

5322: This hadith has been narrated through different chains of transmitters on the authority of Shu’ba with a slight variation of wording.

5323: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported: A child was born in the house of a person amongst us, and he gave him the name of Qasim. We said: We will not allow you (to give the name) to your child as Qasim (and thus adopt the kunya of Abu’l-Qasim) and coal your eyes. He (that person) came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and made a mention of that to him, whereupon he said: Call your son ‘Abd al-Rahman.

5324: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Ibn Uyaina, but there is no mention of this:” We will not allow you to cool your eyes.”

5325: Abu Huraira reported that Abu’l-Qasim (may peace be upon him) said: Give name (to your children) after my name but do not give the kunya (of Abu’l- Qasim) after my kunya. ‘Amr reported from Abu Huraira that he did not say that he had heard it directly from Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him).

5326: Mughira b. Shu’ba reported: When I came to Najran, they (the Christians of Najran) asked me: You read” O sister of Harun” (i. e. Hadrat Maryam) in the Qur’an, whereas Moses was born much before Jesus. When I came back to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) I asked him about that, whereupon he said: The (people of the old age) used to give names (to their persons) after the names of Apostles and pious persons who had gone before them.

Chapter 2: Disapproval of giving ugly names and such names as can be treated as ill omens.

5327: Samura b. Jundub reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade us to give names to our servants as these four names: Aflah (Successful), Rabdh (Profit), Yasar (Wealth), and Nafi’ (Beneficial).

5328: Samura b. Jundub reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Don’t give names to your servants as Rabdh, ‘Ya ar, Aflah and Nafi’.

5329: Samura b. Jundub reprted: The dearest words to Allah are four: Subhan Allah (Hallowed be Allah), Al-Hamdulillah (Praise be to Allah), Wa la ilaha illa-Allah (There is no god but Allah), Allah-o-Akbar (God is the Greatest). There is no harm for you in which order you begin (them while remembering Allah), and he also said: Do not give these names to your servants, Yasar and Rabah and Nafi and Najth.

5330: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Shu’ba and there is no mention but of the fact about giving the name to the servant and there is no mention of the four expressions (of remembrance) and he did not mention the four words

5331: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) decided to forbid (his followers) to name persons as Ya’la (Elevated), Baraka (Blessing), Aflah (Successful), Yasar and Nafi’, but I saw that he kept silent after that and he did not say anything until Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) died. And he did not forbid (his followers to do this), then ‘Umar decided to prohibit (people) from giving these names, but later on gave up the idea.

Chapter 3: Excellence of changing ugly names to good names.

5332: Ibn ‘Umar reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) changed the name of ‘Asiya (Disobedient) and said: You are Jamila (i. e. good and handsome). Ahmad (one of the narrators) narrated it with a slight variation of wording.

5333: Ibn ‘Umar reported that ‘Umar had a daughter who was called ‘Asiya. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave her the name of Jamila.

5334: Ibn Abbas reported that the name of Juwairlya (the wife of the Holy Prophet) was Barra (Pious). Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) changed her name to Juwairiya and said: I did not like that it should be said: He had come out from Barra (Pious). The hadith transmitted on the authority of Ibn Abi ‘Umar is slightly different from it.

5335: Abu Huraira reported that the name of Zainab was Barra. It was said of her: She presents herself to be innocent. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave her the name of Zainab.

5336: Zainab, daughter of Umm Salama, reported: My name first was Barra. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave me the name of Zainab. Then there entered (into the house of Allah’s Prophet as a wife) Zainab, daughter of Jahsh, and her name was also Barra, and he gave her the name of Zainab.

5337: Muhammad b. ‘Amr b. ‘Ata’ reported: I had given the name Barra to my daughter. Zainab, daughter of Abu Salama, told me that Allah’s’ Messenger (may peace be upon him) had forbidden me to give this name. (She said): I was also called Barra, but Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Don’t hold yourself to be pious. It is God alone who knows the people of piety among you. They (the Companions) said: Then, what name should we give to her? He said: Name her as Zainab.

Chapter 4: It is forbidden to call the ruler as the king of kings or Shahinshah.

5338: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The vilest name in Allah’s sight is Malik al-Amidh (King of Kings). The narration transmitted on the authority of Shaiba (contains these words): There is no king but Allah, the Exalted and Glorious. Sufyan said: Similarly, the word Shahinshah (is also the vilest appellation). Ahmad b. Hanbal said: I asked Abu ‘Amr about the meaning of Akhna. He said: The vilest.

5339: Abu Huraira reported from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) so many ahadith and one of them was this that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The most wretched person in the sight of Allah on the Day of Resurrection and the worst person and target of His wrath would of the person who is called Malik al-Amlak (the King of Kings) for there is no king but Allah.

Chapter 5: The excellence of Tahnik of the new-born child at the time of its birth. and, of carrying it to a pious person so that he may sovten some dates and rub its palate with them, and permissibility of giving the name on the day of its birth and the excellence of such names as ‘Abdullah, Ibrahim and the names of all the apostles of Allah (peace be upon them)

5340: Anas b. Malik reported: I took ‘Abdullah b. Abi Talha Ansari to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) at the time of his birth. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was at that time wearing a woollen cloak and besmearing the camels with tar. He said: Have you got with you the dates? I said: Yes. He took hold of the dates and put them in his mouth and softened them, then opened the mouth of the infant and put that in it and the child began to lick it. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The Ansar have a liking for the dates, and he (the Holy Prophet) gave him the name of ‘Abdullah.

5341: Anas b. Malik reported that the son of Abu Talha had been ailing. Abu Talha set out (on a journey) and his son breathed his last (in his absence). When Abu Talha came back, he said (to his wife): What about my child? Umm Sulaim (the wife of Abu Talha) said: He is now in a more comfortable state than before. She served him the evening meal and he took it.

He then came to her (and had sexual intercourse with her) and when it was all over she said: Make arrangements for the burial of the child. When it was morning. Abu Talha came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and informed him, whereupon he said: Did you spend the night with her. He said: Yes. He (the Holy Prophet) then said: O Allah, bless both of them (and as a result of blessing) she gave birth to a child.

Abu Talha said to me (Anas b. Malik) to take the child, (so I took him) and came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). She (Umm Sulaim) also had sent some dates (along with the child). Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) took him (the child) (in his lap) and said: Is there anything with you (for Tahnik). They (the Companions) said: Yes. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) took hold of them (dates and chewed them). He then put them (the chewed dates) in the mouth of the child and then rubbed his palate and gave him the name of ‘Abdullah.

 

5342: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Anas through another chain of transmit ters.

5343: Abu Musa reported: A child was born in my house and I brought him to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upod him) and he gave him the name of Ibrahim and he rubbed his palate with dates.

5344: ‘Urwa b. Zubair and Fatima daughter of Mandhir b. Zubair, reported that Asma’ daughter of Abu Bakr was at the time of migration in the family way with ‘Abdullah b. Zubair (in her womb). She came to Quba’ and gave birth to ‘Abdullah at that place and then sent him to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) so that he should rub his palate with chewed dates. Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) took hold of him (the child) and he placed him in his lap and then called for dates. ‘A’isha said: Some time was spent before we were able to find them. He (the Holy Prophet) chewed them and then put his saliva in his mouth.

The first thing that entered his stomach, was the saliva of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). Asma’ said: He then rubbed him and blessed him and gave him the name of Abdullah. He (‘Abdullah) went to him (the Holy Prophet) when he had attained the age of seven or eight years in order to pledge allegiance to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as Zubair had commanded him to do. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) smiled when he saw him coming towards him and then accepted his allegiance.

5345: Asma’ reported that she had become pregnant at Mecca with Abdullah b. Zubair (in her womt) and she (further) said: I set out (for migration to Medina) as I was in the advanced stage of pregnancy. I came to Medina and got down at the place known as Quba’ and gave birth to a child there.

Then I came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him). He placed him (the child) in his lap and then commanded for the dates to be brought. He chewed them and then put the saliva in his mouth. The first thing which went into his stomach was the saliva of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). He then rubbed his palate with dates and then invoked blessings for him and blessed him. He was the first child who was born in Islam (after Migration).

5346: Asma’, daughter of Abu Bakr, reported that when she migrated to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in Medina she was in the family way with Abdullah b. Zubair in her womb.

5347: ‘A’isha reported that the new-born infants were brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). He blessed them and rubbed their palates with dates.

5348: ‘A’isha reported: We took ‘Abdullah b. Zubair to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) so that he should put saliva in his mouth and we had to make a good deal of effort in order to procure them.

5349: Sahl b. Sa’d reported that Mundhir b. Aba Usaid was brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) at the time of his birth Allah’s. Apostle (may peace be upon him) placed him on his thigh and Abfi Usaid kept sitting there. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) had been occupied with something else before him. Abu Usaid commanded his child to be lifted from the lap of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and so he was lifted.

When Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had finished the work he said: Where is the child? Abd Usaid said: Allah’s Messenger, we took him away. He said: What is his name? He said; Allah’s Messenger, it is so and so, whereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Nay, his name is Mundhir, and named him Mundhir on that day.

5350: Anas b. Malik reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had the sublimest character among mankind. I had a brother who was called Abd ‘Umair. I think he was weaned. When Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) came to our house he saw him, and said: Abu ‘Umair, what has the sparrow done? He (Anas) said that he had been playing with that.

Chapter 6: Permissibility of calling one as “my son”, besides one’s own son.

5351: Anas b Malik reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) addressed me: O My Son.

5352: Mughira b. Shu’ba reported that none else had asked more questions from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about the Dajjal than I, but he simply said in a slight mood): O, my son, why are you worried because of him? He will not harm you. I said: The people think that he would have with him rivers of water and mountains of bread, whereupon he said: He would be more insignificant in the sight of Allah than all these things (belonging to him).

5353: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Ismail, with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

Chapter 7: Asking permission to enter a house.

5354: Abu Sa’id Khudri reported: I wins sitting in Medina in the company of the Ansar that Abu Musa came trembling with fear. We said to him: What is the matter? He said: ‘Umar (Allah be pleated with him) sent for me. I went to him and paid him salutation thrice at (his) door but he made no response to me and so I came back Thereupon he (‘Umar) said: What stood in your way that you did not turn up? I said: I did come to you and paid you salutations at your door three times but I was not given any response, so I came back as the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) has said:

When any one of you seeks permission three times and he i. e not granted permission, he should come back. Umar said: Bring a witness to support that you say, otherwise I shall take you to task. Ubayy b. Ka’b said: None should stand with him (as a witness) but the youngest amongst the people. Abu Sa’id said: I am the youngest amongst the people, whereupon he said: Then you go with him (to support his contention).

5355: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Yazid b. Khusaifa with the same chain of transmitters but with this addition: Abu Sa’id said: So I stood up, and went to ‘Umar and gave witness (to what Abu Musa had said).

5356: Abd Sa’id Khudri reported: We were in the company of Ubayy b. Ka’b that Abu Musa Ash’ari came there in a state of anger. He stood (before us) and said: I ask you to bear witness in the name of Allah whether anyone amongst you heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Permission (for entering the house) should be sought three times and if permission is granted to you (then get in). otherwise go back.

Ubayy b. Ka’b said: What is the iiiatter? He said: I sought permission yesterday from ‘Umar b. Khattab three times but he did not permit me, so I came back; then I went to him today and visited him and informed him that I had come to him yesterday and greeted him thrice, then came back, whereupon he said: Yes, we did hear you but be were at that time busy, but why did you not seek permission (further and you must have never gone back until you were permitted to do so).

He said: I sought permission (in the manner) that I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said (in connection ‘With the seeking of permission for entering the house of a stranger). Thereupon he (Hadrat Umar) said: By Allah, I shall torture your back and your stomach unless you bring one who may bear witness to what you state. ‘Ubayy b. Ka’b said: By Allah, none should stand with you (to bear testimony) but the youngest amongst us. And he therefore, said to Abu Sa’id: Stand up. So I stood up until I came to Umar and said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) say this.

5357: Abu Sa’id reported that Abu Musa al-Ash’ari came to the door of ‘Umar and sought his permission (to get into his house). Umar said: That is once. He again sought permission for the second time and ‘Umar said: It is twice. He again sought permission for the third time and Umar said: It is thrice. He (Abu Musa) then went back. He (Hadrat ‘Umar) (sent someone) to pursue him so that he should be brought back.

Thereupon he (Hadrat Umar) said: If this act (of yours is in accordance with the command of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) you have preserved in your mind, then it is all right, otherwise (I shall give you such a severe punishment) that it will serve as an example to others. Abu Sa’id said: Then he (Abu Musa) came to us and said: Do you remember Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this:”

Permission is for three times”? They (Companions sitting in that cothpany) began to laugh, whereupon he (Abu Musa) said: There comes to you your Muslim brother who had been perturbed and you laugh. Abu Sa’id said: (Well), you go forth. I shall be your participant in this trouble of yours. So he came to him (Hadrat Umar) and said: Here is Abu Sa’id (to support my statement).

5358: This hadith bu been narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id Khudri through another chain of transmitters.

 

5359: ‘Ubaid b. Umair reported that Abu Musa brought permission from Umar (to enter the house) three times, and finding him busy came back, whereupon Umar said (to the Inmates of his house): Did you not hear the voice of ‘Abdullah b. Qais (the Kunya of Abu Musa Ash’ari)? He was called back. and he (Hadrat ‘Umar) said: What did prompt you to do it? Thereupon, he said: This is how we have been commanded to act. He (Hadrat ‘Umar) said: Bring evidence (in support of) it, otherwise I shall deal (strictly) with you. So he (Abu Musa) set out and came to the meeting of the Ansar and asked them to bear witness before hadrat Umar about this.

They (the Companions present there) said: None but the youngest amongst us would bear out this fact. So Abu Sa’id Khudri (who was the youngest one in that company) said: We have been commanded to do so (while visiting the house of other people). Thereupon ‘Umar said: This command of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had remained hidden from me up till now due to (my) business in the market.

5360: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ibn Juraij, but there is no mention of the words” business in the market”.

5361: Abu Musa Ash’ari reported that he went to ‘Umar b. Khattab and greeted him by saying: As-Salamu’ Alaikum, here is ‘Abdullah b. Qais, but he did not permit him (to get in). He (Abu Musa Ash’ari) again greeted him with as-Salamu-‘Alaikum and said: Here is Abu Musa, but he (Hadrat ‘Umar) did not permit him (to get in). He again said: As-Salam-u-‘Alaikum, (and said) here is Ash’ari, (then receiving no response he came back).

He (Hadrat ‘Umar) said: Bring him back to me, bring him back to me So he went there (in the presence of Hadrat ‘Umar) and he said to him: Abu Musa, what made you go back, while we were busy in some work? He said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may. peace be upon him) as saying: Permission should be sought thrice. And if you are permitted, (then get in), otherwise go back. He said: Bring witness to this fact, otherwise I shall do this and that, i. e. I shall punish you.

Abu Musa went away and ‘Umar said to him (on his departure): It he (Abu Musa) finds a witness he should meet him by the side of the pulpit in the evening and it he does not find a witness you would not find him there. When it was evening he (Hadrat ‘Umar) found him (Abu Musa) there. He (Hadrat ‘Umar) said: Abu Musa, have you been able to find a witness to what you have said? He said: Yes. Here is Ubayy bin Ka’b, whereupon he (Hadrat ‘Umar) said: Yes, he is an authentic (witness).

He (Hadrat ‘Umar) said: Abu Tufail (the kunya of Ubayy b. Ka’b), what does he (Abu Musa say? Thereupon he said: Ibn Khattab, I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying so. Do not prove to be a hard (task-master) for the Companions of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), whereupon he Hadrat ‘Umar said: Hallowed be Allah. I had heard something (in this connection), but I wished it to be established (as an undeniable fact).

5362: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Talha b. Yahya with the same chain of transmitters but with this variation of wording: He (Hadrat ‘Umar) said: Abu Mundhir (the Kunya of Ubayy b. Ka’b), did you hear this from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him)? Thereupon he said: Yes. and he further said: Ibn Khattab, do not be a torment for the Companions of Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him). No mention has, however, been made of the words of ‘Umar:” Hallowed be Allah” and what follows subsequently.

Chapter 8: Disapproval of saying: It is i” in response to one’s inquiry while seeking permission to get in the house.

5363: Jabir b. Abdullah reported: I came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and called him (with a view to seeking permission). whereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Who is it? I said: It is I. Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) came out saying: It is I. it is I.

5364: Jabir b. Abdullah reported: I sought permission from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upoh him) to see him. He said: Who is it? I said: It is I. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: It is I. it is I (these words lead me to no conclusion).

5365: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Shu’ba with a slight variation of wording and that is: The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) uttered these words: It is I. it is I.” in the manner as if he disapproved of this.

Chapter 9: It is forbidden to peep into the house of another person.

5366: Sahl b. Sa’d as-Sa’id reported that a person peeped through the hole of the door of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and at that time Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had with him a scratching instrument with which he had been scratching his head. When Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) saw him. he said: If I were to know that you had been peeping through the door, I would have thrust that into your eyes, and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Permission is needed as a protection against glance.

5367: Sahl b. Sa’d as-Sa’idi reported that a person peeped through the hole of the door of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and he had with him some pointed thing with which he had been adjusting (the hair of his head). Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to him: If I were to know that you had been peeping. I would have thrust it in your eyes. Allah has prescribed seeking permission because of protection against glance.

5368: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Sahl b. Sa’d as-Sa’idi with a slight variation of wording.

5369: Anas b. Malik reported that a person peeped in some of the holes (in the doors) of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) (and he found him) standing up (lifting) an arrow or some arrows. The narrator said: I perceived as if Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was going to pierce (his eyes).

 

5370: Abu Huraira reported having heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) say: He who peeped into the house of people without their consent, it is permissible for them to put out his eyes.

5371: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: If a person were to cast a glance in your (house) without permission, and you had in your hand a staff and you would have thrust that in his eyes, there is no harm for you.

Chapter 10: Sudden glance

5372: Jarir b. ‘Abdullah reported: I asked Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about the sudden glance (that is cast) on the face (of a non-Mahram). He commanded me that I should turn away my eyes.

5373: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Yunus through another chain of transmitters.

Sahih Muslim: Kitab Al-Fara’id – Pertaining to the Rules of Inheritance

Sahih Muslim - Book 11 - Kitab Al-Fara'id

Kitab Al-Fara’id | Pertaining to the Rules of Inheritance

Sahih Muslim: Book |11
The Book of:  Pertaining to the Rules of Inheritance – Kitab Al-Fara’id
The Content of Book Ten: 52 Chapters & 319 A-Hadith

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Introduction

Inheritance is the entry of living persons into possession of dead persons’ property and exists in some form wherever the institution of private property is recognised as the basis of the social and economic system. The actual forms of inheritance and the laws governing it, however, differ according to the ideals of different societies. The law of inheritance in Islam is based upon five main considerations: To break up the concentration of wealth in individuals and spread it out in society. To respect the property right of ownership of an individual earned through honest means. To hammer in the consciousness of man the fact that man is not the absolute master of wealth he produces but he is its trustee and is not, therefore, authorised to pass it on to others as he likes. To consolidate the family system which is the social unit of an Islamic society. To give incentive to work and encourage economic activity as sanctioned by Islam.

In the pre-Islamic world and even in modern societies the law of inheritance has so many evils in it, which may be summed up in the following points: Women had been completely denied the share of inheritance. They were rather regarded as part of the property of the deceased and, therefore, their right to property by inheritance was out of question. In pre-Islamic Arabia and other countries where there had been tribal societies not only women were deprived of the right of inheritance but even weak and sick persons and minor children were given no share in it, as the common principle of inheritance was that he alone is entitled to inherit who wields the sword.

Then in certain societies there had been existing the law of primogeniture and it exists even today in some of the so-called civilised parts of the world which entitles only the eldest son to inherit the whole of the father’s property or to get the lion’s share. Islam introduced so many reforms in the laws of inheritance which can be succinctly summed up as follows. It defined and determined in clear-cut terms the share of each inheritor and imposed limits on the right of the property-owner to dispose of his property according to his whim and caprice. It made the female, who had been prevously thought a chattel, the co-sharer with the male and thus not only restored her dignity, but safeguarded her social and economic rights. It laid the rules for the break-up of the concentrated wealth in the society and helped in its proper and equitable distribution amongst a large number of persons.

It gave a death-blow to the law of primogeniture and thus provided the democratic basis for the division of the property of the deceased. The above are some of the distinguishing features of the Islamic law of inheritance. While laying down the rules for the distribution of the estate of the deceased, the first principle to be observed is that the property both movable and immovable can be distributed after meeting the following obligations: funeral expenses; clearing off the debts incurred by the deceased; payment of bequest, if any, to the extent of one-third of the total assets. It may be remembered that the Mahr of the wife, if it had not been paid, is included in the debt. Moreover, it is not lawful to make a bequest in favour of a person who is entitled to a share in the inheritance.

Four persons cannot get inheritance:

  • (a) a fugitive slave who has fled away from his master,
  • (b) one who has murdered one’s predecessor intentionally or unintentionaly
  • (c) one who professes a religion other than Islam,
  • (d) one living in Dar-ul-Harb cannot inherit the property of one living in Dar-ul-Islam and vice versa.

According to Islam, the heirs have been divided into three classes.

(A) Dhaw-u’l-Fara’id are those persons who have a right to definite shares in assets left by the deceased. These sharers are twelve in number; four males: father, grandfather, uterine brothers and husband; and eight females: wife, single daughter, son’s daughter, mother, grandmother, full sister, consanguine sister, uterine sister. Father’s share is one-sixth when the deceased leaves a son or a son’s son, but if the deceased is not survived by a son or grandson his father will, in addition to this share (one-sixth), also get a share of being ‘Asaba.

The grandfather’s share is like that of father’s share but in three conditions: According to Imam Bukhiri and Imam Muslim, the presence of father deprives even the brothers of their share in the inheritance. but this is not the case with the grandfather. Imam Abu Hanifa is of the opinion that the presence of grandfather deprives the brother of his share in the inheritance. If the father of the deceased is alive, then the share of the mother is of what is left from the share of the wife of the deceased. The presence of grandfather does not reduce the share of the mother of the deceased.

The grandmother of the deceased has no share in the presence of the father of the deceased but she has a share in the presence of the grandfather.

The third set of sharers are uterine brothers and sisters. They are entitled to one-sixth if their number is one, and one-third if they are more than one. The husband’s share is one-half of the property of the deceased wife if she has no children, but in case of children it is one-fourth. The wife is entitled to one-fourth if the husband dies childless; otherwise it is one-eighth. Real daughter: one-half when alone, and two-thirds if more than one. If the deceased is survived by a male child also. the daughters are then treated as Asaba and the male child would get double of what falls to the lot of daughters. The granddaughters stand on the same level as daughters. But in case the deceased is survived by one real daughter and one or more than one granddaughter they would get one-sixth.

The granddaughter is not entitled to any share if the deceased is survived by a son, but if he is survived by grandsons and granddaughters, they would be treated as ‘Asaba and the male grandchild would get double of what goes to the female grandchild. Full sister gets one-half if she is alone, and two-thirds if they are more than one. Consanguine sister is entitled to one-half if one, and two thirds if more. Mother is entitled to one-sixth when she has a child or grandchild, and in case of being childless she gets one-third of the share.

If the deceased is survived either by paternal grandmother or maternal grand- mother or even by both, they are entitled to one-sixth. The grandmother (maternal) is deprived of her share if the mother of the deceased is alive; and if father is alive the paternal grandmother is deprived of this share.

(B) When the heirs of the first group have received the respective shares, the residue of the assets falls to the share of those relatives who are called Asaba which, according to the Shari’ah, implies those relatives in whose line of relationship no female enters. This is the second group of inheritors. There is no fixed share of the ‘Asabat. If the deceased is not survived by any Dhaw-u’l-Fara’id, the whole of the property falls to their share; and If Dhaw-u’I. Fara’id are there to get their due share, the residue will be taken by the Asabat. The following are the ‘Asabat:

Son: He is the first to get the residue in order of succession. The daughters are entitled to half of the share as given to the son. The grandsons are not entitled to any share in the presence of the son. If the son is not living, then the grandson is entitled to a share in the inheritance. If there are more than one son, the inheritance will be distributed equally amongst them. The father, grandfather and the great-grandfather are included in the category of Dhaw-u’l-Fara’id.

If, however, the deceased is not survived by category of a son, grandson of great-grandson, then the father will fall under the category of ‘Asaba, and, in the absence of the father, the grandfather assumes that position. If the deceased is not survived by son, or grandson or father or grandfather, i. e. none amongst the ‘Asabat, then the brother, and in the absence of brother his son, and in the absence of son, his grandson will be entitled to share in the inheritance as ‘Asaba and the female would also join them in share claiming half of the share as compared with male. If unfortunately the deceased is survived by none of the above-mentioned relatives amongst the ‘Asabat, then consanguine brother will be entitled to share in the inheritance and he will be preferred to full brother’s son.

Then comes the turn of full paternal uncle.

(C) The last category of inheritors are known ad Dhaw-u’l Arham, i. e. relations connected through females, but it is in extremely rare cases that they get any share in the inheritance.

The following relatives come under this category.

  • The son of the daughter and daughter of the daughter.
  • The son of the daughter of the son, and daughter of the daughter of the son and their children.
  • Maternal grandfather, maternal grandfather of the father, the grandfather of the mother, maternal grandfather of the mother, the grandmother of the mother, the children of the sisters, the sisters of the father and those of the mother, etc.

Chapter 1| Give the inheritance to those entitled to it.

3928: Usama b. Zaid reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: A Muslim is not entitled to inherit from a non-Muslim, and a non-Muslim is not entitled to inherit from a Muslim.

3929: Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Give the shares to those who are entitled to them, and what remains over goes to the nearest male heir.

3930: Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Give the shares to those who are entitled to them, and what is left from those wno are entitled to it goes to the nearest male heir.

3931: Tawus reported on the authority of his father Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) narrating that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Distribute the property amongst Ahl al-Fara’id, according to the Book of Allah, and what is left out of them goes to the nearest male heir.

Chapter 2| The law of inheritance in regard to al-Kalala (the person who dies leaving no child or parent)

3932: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah (Allah be pleased with them) reported: I fell sick and there came to me on foot Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr for inquiring after my health. I fainted. He (the Holy Prophet) performed ablution and then sprinkled over me the water of his ablution. I felt some relief and said: Allah’s Messenger, how should I decide about my property? He said nothing to me in response until this verse pertaining to the law of inheritance was revealed:” They ask you for a decision; say: Allah gives you a decision concerning the person who has neither parents nor children” (iv. 177).

3933: abir b. ‘Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) reported: Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and Abi Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) visited me on foot in Banu Salama, and found me unconscious. He (the Holy Prophet) called for water and performed ablution and sprinkled out of it (the water) over me. I felt relieved. I said: Allah’s Messenger, what should I do with my property? And this verse was revealed:” Allah enjoins you concerning your children: for the male is equal of the portion of two females.”

3934: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah (Allah be pleased with them) reported: While I had been ill Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) visited me and Abu akr (Allah be pleased with him) was with him, and they both came walking on foot. He (the Holy Prophet) found me unconscious. Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) performed ablution and then sprinkled over me the water of his ablution. I felt relieved regained my consciousness) and found Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) there. I said: Allah’s Messenger, what should I do with my property? He gave me no reply until the verse (iv. 177) relating to the law of inheritance was revealed.

3935: Jabir b. Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) reported: Whilo I was ill Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) came to me and found me unconscious. He (the Holy Prophet) performed ablution, and sprinkled over me the water of his ablution. I regained my consciousness and said: Allah’s Messenger, my case of inheritance is that of Kalala. Then the verse pertaining to the inheritance ( of Kalala) was revealed. I (one of the narrators) said: I said to Muhammad b. Munkadir: (Do you mean this verse)” They ask you; say: Allah gives you decision in regard to Kalala” (iv. 177)? He said: Yes, it was thus revealed.

3936: This hadith is transmitted on the authority of Shu’ba but with a slight variation of words.

3937: Abu Talha reported: ‘Umar b. al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) delivered a sermon on Friday and made a mention of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and he also made a mention of Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) and then said: I do not leave behind me any problem more difficult than that of Kalala. I did not refer to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) more repeatedly than in case of the problem of Kalala, and he (the Holy Prophet) never showed more annoyance to me than in regard to this problem, so much so that he struck my chest with his fingers and said: ‘Umar, does the verse revealed in summer season, at the end of Sura al-Nisa’ not suffice you? Hadrat ‘Umar (then) said: If I live I would give such verdict about (Kalala) that everyone would be able to decide whether he reads the Qur’an or he does not.

3938: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Qatada with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 3| The last verse revealed was that pertaining to Kalala.

3939: Al-Bara’ (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the last verse revealed in the Holy Qur’an is: ” They ask thee for a religious verdict; say: Allah gives you a religious verdict about Kalala (the person who has neither parents nor children)” (iv 177).

3940: Abu Ishaq said that he heard al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib (Allah be pleased with him say: The last verse revealed (in the Holy Quran) is that pertaining to Kalala, and the last sura revealed is Sura al-Bara’at.

3941: Abu Ishaq said that he heard al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib (Allah be pleased with him) say: The last complete sura revealed (in the Holy Qur’an) is Sura Tauba (i e. al-Bara’at, ix.), and the last verse revealed is that pertaining to Kalala.

3942: Aba Ishaq reported this hadith on the authority of al-Bara’ (Allah be pleased with him) with a slight variation of words, viz. the last sura that was revealed complete.

3943: Al-Bara’ (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the last verse revealed was:” They ask of thee religious verdict..” (iv. 177).

Chapter 4| He who leaves behind property, that is for the heirs

3944: Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported that when the body of a dead person having burden of debt upon him was brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) he would ask whether he had left property enough to clear off his debt, and if the property left had been sufficient for that (purpose), he observed funeral prayer for him, otherwise he said (to his companions): You observe prayer for your companion. But when Allah opened the gateways of victory for him, he said:

I am nearer to the believers than themselves, so if anyone dies leaving a debt, its payment is my responsibility, and if anyone leaves a property, it goes to his heirs.

3945: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of al-Zuhri through another chain of transmitters.

3946: Abn Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) having said this: By Him in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad, there is no believer on the earth with whom I am not the nearest among all the people. He who amongst you (dies) and leaves a debt, I am there to pay it, and he who amongst you (dies) leaving behind children I am there to look after them. And he who amongst You leaves behind property, that is for the inheritor whoever he is.

3947: Hammam b. Munabbih reported: This is what Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) narrated to us from Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him). And he narrated many ahadith, and one was this: Allali’s Messenger (may peace be upon him said: I am, according to the Book of Allah, the Exalted and Majestic, nearest to the believers of all the human beings. So whoever amongst you dies in debt or leaves behind destitute children, you should call me (for help) ), for I am his guardian. And who amongst you leaves property, his inheritor is entitled to get it, whoever he is.

3948: Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who leaves property, that is for the inheritors; and he who leaves behind destitute children, then it is my responsibility (to look after them). This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters.

Sahih Muslim| The Book of Drinks

Sahih Muslim - Book 23

Sahih Muslim| The Book of Drinks

Sahih Muslim |Book 23
The Book of: Drinks – Kitab Al-Ashriba
Contents of
 Book 23:  33 Chapters, 246 Hadith

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Chapter 1| Forbiddance of wine

4879: ‘Ali b. Abu Talib reported;
There fell to my lot along with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) an old she-camel from the spoils of Badr. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) granted me another camel. I made them kneel down one day at the door of an Ansari, and I wanted to carry on them Idhkhir (a kind of grass) in order to sell that. There was with me a goldsmith of the tribe of Qainuqa’. I saught to give a wedding feast (on the occasion of marriage with) Fatima with the help of that (the price accrued from the sale of this grass). And Hamza b. ‘Abd al-Muttalib was busy in drinking in that house in the company of a singing girl who was singing to him. She said: Hamza, get up for slaughtering the fat she-camels.

Hamza attacked them with the sword and cut off their humps and ripped their haunches, and then took out their livers. I said to Ibn Shihab: Did he take out anything from the hump? He said: He cut off the humps altogether. Ibn Shihab reported ‘Ali having said: I saw this (horrible) sight and it shocked me, and I came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and there was Zaid b, Haritha with him and communicated to him this news. He came in the company of Zaid and I also went along with him and he went to Hamza and he expressed anger with him. Hamza raised his eyes and said: Are you (not) but the servants of my father? Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) turned back on his heels (on hearing this) until he went away from them.

4880: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Juraij with the same chain of transmitters.

4881: Husain b. ‘Ali reported ‘Ali having said:
There fell to my lot a she-camel out of the spoils of war on the Day of Badr, and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave me (another) she-camel on that day out of the Khums (one-fifth reserved for Allah and His Messenger). When I made up my mind to consummate my marriage with Fatima, the daughter of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), I prevailed upon a goldsmith of the tribe of Qainuqa’ to go along with me so that we might bring Idhkhir wishing to sell that to the goldsmiths and thus I should be able to arrange my wedding feast.

While I was arranging the equipments. i. e. litters, sacks and ropes, my two she-camels were sitting down at the side of the apartment of a person of the Ansar. I collected (the different articles of equipment) and found to my surprise that their humps had been chopped off and their haunches had been cut off and their livers had been taken out. I could not help weeping when I saw that plight of theirs. I said: Who has done that? They said: Hamza b. ‘Abd al-Muttalib has done this. and he is in this house dead drunk in the company of some of the Ansair with asinging girl singing before him and his companions.

She said in her song: O Hamza. get up and attack these falty she-camels. Thereupon Hamza stood up with a sword (in his hand) and cut off their humps and ripped their haunches and tore out their livers. ‘Ali said: I went away until I came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and there was with him Zaid b. Haritha. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) recognised from my face what I had experienced, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: What has happened to you? I said: Messenger of Allah, by Allah, I have never seen (such an unfortunate day) as this day.

Hamza has committed aggression to my she-camels, and has cut off their humps. and ripped their haunches, and he is in a house in the company of some drunkards. (Hearing this) Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent for his mantle and, putting it on him, he proceeded, and I and Zaid b. Haritha followed him, until he came to the door (of the house) in which there was Hamza. He (the Holy Prophet) sought permission which they granted him. and they were all drunk. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) began to reprimand Hamza for what he had done.

Hamza’s eyes were red. He cast a glance at Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and then looked towards his knees. and then lifted his eyes and cast a glance at his waist and then lifted his eyes and saw his face. And then Hamza said: Are you anything but the slaves of my father? Alah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) came to know that he was intoxicated, and he thus turned upon his heels, and came out, and we also came out along with him.

4882: Anas b. Malik reported: 
I was the cup-bearer of some people in the house of Abu Talha on the day when liquor was forbidden. Their liquor had been prepared from dry dates or fresh dates when the announcer made the announcement. He (Abu Talha) said to me: Go out and find out (what the announcement is). I got out (and found) an announcer making this announcement: Behold, liquor has been declared unlawful. He said: The liquor (was spilt and) flawed in the lanes of Medina.

Abu Talha said to me: Go out and Spill it, and I spilt it. They said or some of them said: Such and such were killed, such and such were killed for (the wine) had been in their stomachs. He (the narrator) said. I do not know whether it is the narration transmitted by Anas, (or by someone else). Then Allah, the Exalted and Majestic, revealed:” There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who have believed and done good works for what they may have eaten as long as they fear (Allah) and believe and do good works” (v. 93).

4883: ‘Abd al-Aziz b. Suhaib reported:
They (some persons) asked Anas b. Malik, about Fadikh (that is, a wine prepared from fresh dates), whereupon he said: There was no liquor with us except this Fadikih of yours. It was only this Fadikh that I had been serving to Abu Talha and Abu Ayyub and some persons from amongst the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in our house. When a person came and said: Has the news reached you? We said, No. He said: Verily liquor has been declared forbidden. Thereupon, Abd Talha said: Anas, spill these large pitchers. He (the narrator) said: They then never reverted to it, nor even asked about this after the announcement by that person.

4884: Anas b. Malik reported:
I was standing amongst the uncles of my tribe serving them Fadikh while I was the youngest of them, when a person came and said: Verily the use of liqour has been prohibited. They said: Anas, spill it away. So I spilt it. He (one of the narrators. Sulaiman Taimi) said that he asked Anas what that was (the Fadikh). He said: It had been prepared from unripe and ripe dates. Abu Bakr b. Anas said: It was their liquor in those days. Sulaiman said: A person narrated it to me from Anas b. Malik that he had said so.

4885: Anas reported:
I was standing amongst the members of my (tribe) and serving them liquor. The rest of the hadith is the same, but with this variation that Abu Bakr b. Anas said: It was their liquor in those days (prepared from dates), and Anas was present there and he did not deny this (fact) Mu’tamir reported on the authority of his father: A person who was with me told me that he had heard Anas saying that that was their liquor in those days.

4886: Anas b. Malik reported:
I was serving wine to Abu Talha, and Abu Dujana. and Mu’adh b. jabal admidst a group of Ansar when a visitor came to us and said There is a fresh news; the (verses) concerning the prohibition of liquor have been revealed. So we spilt it on that day; and it was a mixture of dry dates and fresh dates. Anas b. Malik said: Whil Khamr was declared unlawful, the common liquor of theirs was then a mixture of dry dates and fresh dates.

4887: Anas b. Malik said:
I was serving wine to Abu Talha, Abu Dujana, and Suhail b. Baida’ from a waterskin which contained the mixture of unripe dates and fresh dates. The rest of the hadith is the same. 

4888: Anas b. Malik is reported to have said:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had forbidden to mixture fresh dates and unripe dates and then drinking (the wine prepared out of it), and that was their common intoxicant when liquor was prohibited. 

4889: Anas b. Malik reported:
I was serving drink to Abu ‘Ubaida b. jarrah, Abu Talha and Ubayy b. Ka’b prepared from unripe dates and fresh dates when a visitor came and he said: Verily liquor has been prohibited. Thereupon, Abu Talha said: Anas, stand up and break this pitcher. I stool up and (took hold) of a pointed stone and struck the pitcher with its lower part until it broke into pieces.

4890: Anas b. Malik reported:
Allah revealed the verse in which Allah prohibited the use of liquor. In those days no other liquor was drunk but that prepared from dates.

Chapter 2| It is forbidden to prepare vinegar from khamr (wine).

4891: Anas reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about the use of Khamr from which vinegar is prepared. He said: No (it is prohibited).

Chapter 3| It is forbidden to use wine as a medicine.

4892: Wa’il al-Hadrami reported:

That Tariq b. Suwaid a-Ju’fi asked Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) about liquor. He forbade (its use) and he expressed hatred that it should be prepared. He (Tariq) said: I prepare it as a medicine, whereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: It is no medicine, but an ailment.

Chapter 4| The wine which is prepared from dates and grapes is also khamr.

4893: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: Wine is prepared from the (fruit) of these two trees-date-palm and vine.

4894: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through a different chain of transmitters.

4895: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Wine comes from vine and date-palms. Abu Kuraib has narrated it with a slight variation of words.

Chapter 5| It is not approved to prepare Nabidh by mixing dry dates and grapes.

4896: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah al-Ansari reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace upon him) prohibited the mixing of grapes and fresh dates, and dry dates and fresh dates.

4897: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah al-Ansari reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) prohibited the (preparation of) Nabidh by mixing together fresh dates and grapes, and he prohibited the preparation of Nabidh by mixing the fresh dates and unripe dates together.

4898: Jabir b. Abdullah reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not mix fresh dates and dry dates, and grapes and fresh dates for preparing Nabidh.

4899: Jabir b. Abdullah al-Ansari reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) Prohibited the preparation of Nabidh by mixing grapes and fresh dates. and he forbade the preparation of Nabidh by mixing unripe dates with fresh dates.

4900: Abu Sa’id reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) prohibited that fresh dates and grapes be mixed together and that fresh dates and unripe dates be mixed together.

4901: Abu Sa’id reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) prohibited us to mix grapes and dry dates together and unripe dates and dry dates (to prepare Nabidh.

4902: This hadith is narrated on the authority of Abi Maslama with the same chain of transmitters.

4903: Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who amongst you drinks Nabidh should drink that (prepared either from) grapes alone, or from dates alone, or from unripe dates alone (and not by mixing them with one another). Isma’il b. Muslim al-‘Abadi reported on the authority of the same chain of transmitters: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) prohibited us that we should mix dry dates with unripe dates or (mix) grapes with dry dates (and prepare Nabidh). He also said: He who amongst you drinks-the rest of the hadith is the same.

4904: Abu Qatada, on the authority of his father, reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: Do not prepare Nabidh by mixing nearly ripe dates and fresh dates together, and do not prepare Nabidh by mixing grapes and dates together, but prepare Nabidh from each (one of them) separately.

4905: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Yahya b. Abu Kathir with the same chain of transmitters.

4906: Abu Qatada reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not prepare Nabidh by mixing nearly ripe and fresh dates and do not prepare Nabidh by mixing together fresh dates and grapes, but prepare Nabidh out of each (one of them) separately. Yahya stated that he had met ‘Abdullah b. Abu Qatada and he narrated it on the authority of his father that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said this. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Yahya b. Abu Kathir through these two chains of transmitters but with a slight variation of words.

4907: ‘Abdullah b. Abu Qatada, on the authority of his father, reported:
Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbidding the preparation of the mixture of ripe dates and unripe dates, and the mixture of grapes and dates, and that of nearly ripe dates and fresh dates but the Prophet said: Prepare the Nabidh from each one of them separately.

4908: This hadith is narrated on the authority of Abu Qatada through another chain of transmitters.

4909: Abu Huraira reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation of Nabidh) from grapes and dates, and unripe dates and dry dates (by mixing them together). He (the Holy Prophet also) said: Prepare Nabidh from each one of them separately. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through another chain of transmitters.

4910: Ibn ‘Abbas reported:
That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade the mixing of dates and grapes together, and mixing of unripe dates and ripe dates together (for preparing Nabidh), and he wrote to the people of Jurash (in Yemen) forbidding them to prepare the mixture of dates and grapes. This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters with a slight variation of words.

4911: Ibn Umar reported that he was forbidden to prepare Nabidh by mixing unripe dates and fresh dates, and dates with grapes.

4912: Ibn ‘Umar reported that they were forbidden to prepare Nabidh by mixing dry dates and fresh dates and dates and grapes together.

Chapter 6| It is forbidden to prepare Nabidh in varnished jar, gourd, green pitcher, and hollow stumps. 

4913: Anas b. Malik reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade the preparation of Nabidh in gourd or varnished jar.

4914: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not prepare Nabidh in gourd or jar or in a pitcher besmeared with pitch (known as green pitcher).

4915: Abu Huraira reported:
That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation of Nabidh) in varnished jar, pitcher besmeared with green pitch and hollow stump. It was said to Abu Huraira: What that Hantama was? He said: It is green pitcher (besmeared with pitch).

4916: Abu Huraira reported:
That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said to the group of Abd al-Qais: I forbid you (to prepare Nabidh) in gourd. and green pitcher, hollow stump and varnished jar and the waterskin having its upper end cut, but (prepare it) in your small waterskin, and tie its mouth

4917: ‘Ali reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade to prepare Nabidh in gourd and varnished jar. This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters with a slight variation of wording.

4918: Ibrahim reported:
I said to Aswad if he had asked the Mother of the Believers (in which utensils) he (the Holy Prophet) disapproved the preparation of Nabidh. He (Aswad) said: Yes. I said: Mother of the Believers, inform me about the utensils in which) Allah’s Apostle forbade to prepare Nabidh. She (Hadrat ‘A’isha) said: He forbade us, the members of his family, to prepare Nabidh in gourd, or varnished jar. I said to him: Do you remember green pitcher, and pitcher? He said: I narrated to you what I have heard; should I narrate to you which I did not hear?

4919: ‘A’isha reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation) of Nabidh in gourd and varnished jar.

4920: Thumama b. Hazn Al-Qushairi reported:
I met ‘A’isha and asked her (about the utensils in which) Nabidh (may be prepared). She narrated to me that a group of ‘Abd al-Qais came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and asked: Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) about Nabidh. He (the Holy Prophet) forbade them to prepare Nabidh in varnished jar, hollow stumps and gourd and green pitcher.

4921: ‘A’isha reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbidding (the preparation of Nabidh) in varnished jar, green pitcher, gourd, and hollow stump,

4922: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ishaq b. Suwaid, with a slight variation of wording.

4923: Ishaq b. Suwaid reported:
Through the same chain of transmitters but for the difference that he substituted the word” gourd” for” waterskin” (meant for preserving wine).

4924: Ibn ‘Abbas reported:
That there came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) a group of people from the tribe of ‘Abd al-Qais. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to them: I forbid you to prepare Nabidh in gourd, in pitcher besmeared with pitch, in hollow stump and in waterskin (meant for preserving wine). In the hadith transmitted on the authority of Hammad the word.” gourd” has been used in place of” waterskin”.

4925: Ibn ‘Abbas reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade the (preparation of Nabidh) in gourd in pitcher besmeared with pitch, in varnished jar, and in hollow stumps.

4926: Ibn Abbas reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade, the preparation of Nabidh in gourd, in varnished jar, hollow stump and from mixing up ripe dates with nearly ripe dates.

4927: Ibn ‘Abbas reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (preparation) of Nabidh in gourd, in hollow stump and in varnished jar.

4928: Abu Sa’id reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation) of Nabidh in a green pitcher (besmeared with pitch).

4929: Abu Sa’id Khudri reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation) of Nabidh in gourd, in pitcher besmeared with green pitch, in hollow stump and in varnished jar.

4930: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Qatada with the same chain of transmitters that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation of) Nabidh, the rest of the hadith is the same.

4931: Abu Sa’id reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade drinking in green pitcher, in gourd and in the hollow stump.

4932: Sa’id b. Jubair reported:
I bear testimony to the fact that Ibn ‘Umar and Ibn ‘Abbas testified to the fact that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation) of Nabidh in gourd in vessel besmeared with pitch and hollow stump.

4933: Sa’id b. Jubair reported:
I asked Ibn ‘Umar about (the preparation of) Nabidh in a green pitcher (besmeared with pitch), whereupon he said that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade the (preparation of) Nabidh in green pitcher (besmeared with pitch). I then came to Ibn Abbas and said: Do you hear what Ibn ‘Umar has said? Thereupon he said: What does he say? I said: He stated that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has forbidden the (preparation of) Nabidh in a green pitcher (besmeared with pitch), whereupon he said: Ibn ‘Umar has told the truth. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) declared unlawful the preparation of Nabidh in a green pitcher (besmeared with pitch). I said: What is this thing, the Nabidh of a pitcher (Nabidh prepared in a pitcher)? Thereupon, he said: Everything that is prepared in earthen pitcher.

4934: Ibn ‘Umar reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) addressed people in one of his expeditions. Ibn ‘Umar said: I went forward to him but he went away before I reached him. I asked (the people present there): What did he say? They said that he (the Holy Prophet) had forbidden the preparation of Nabidh in gourd and varnished jar.

4935: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar with different chains of transmitters but they have not mentioned:” In one of his expeditions” except Malik and Usama.

4936: Thabit reported:
I said to Ibn ‘Umar that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had forbidden the preparation of Nabidh in the green pitcher (besmeared with pitch). He said: This is what they stated. I said: Did Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbid this? He said: They said so.

4937: A person asked Ibn ‘Umar if the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade the preparation of Nabidh in a green pitcher (besmeared with pitch). He said: Yes. Then Tawus said: By Allah, I heard it from him.

4938: Ibn ‘Umar reported that a person came to him and said: Did Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbid the preparation of Nabidh in a green pitcher (besmeared with pitch and) in varnished jar? He said: Yes.

4939: Ibn ‘Umar reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation) of Nabidh in a green pitcher (besmeared with pitch) and in varnished jar.

4940: Ibrahim b. Maisarah reported:
That he heard Tawus as saying: I was sitting with Ibn ‘Umar when a man came to him, and said: Did Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbid the preparation of Nabidh in a green pitcher (besmeared with pitch), in varnished jar and in gourd? Thereupon he said: Yes.

4941: Muharib b. Dithar reported: I heard Ibn ‘Umar say: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation of Nabidh) in a pitcher besmeared with pitch, in gourd, in varnished jar. He said, I heard it from him more than once.

4942: Muharib b. Dithar reported a hadith like this on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar through a different chain of transmitters. He (the narrator) said: I think he also made a mention of hollow stump.

4943: ‘Uqba b. Huraith said:
I heard Ibn ‘Umar saying: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation of Nabidh) in a green pitcher (besmeared with pitch), in varnished jar, and in gourd, and he said: Prepare Nabidh in small waterskins.

4944: Jabalah reported:
I heard Ibn ‘Umar narrating that Allah’s messenger (may peace be upon him) had forbidden (the preparation of Nabidh) in the pitcher besmeared with pitch. I said to him: What is Huntama? He said: It is a pitcher (besmeared with pitch).

4945: Zadhan reported: I said to Ibn ‘Umar:
Tell me in your own language and then explain it to me in any language because your language is different from our language (about the vessels) in which Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) has forbidden (us) to drink. He said: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has forbidden (the preparation) of Nabidh in Hantama and that is a pitcher (besmeared with pitch), in gourd and that is pumpkin, in the varnished jar, in hollow stump and in wooden vessels. This Naqir is the wood of date-palm from which the vessel is fashioned out or hollowed out, but he commanded us to prepare Nabidh in waterskins.

4946: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters.

4947: Sa’id b. Musayyib reported:
I heard ‘Abdullah b ‘Umar saying this near the pulpit while pointing towards the pulpit of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him): A group of the tribe of ‘Abd al-Qais came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and asked him about (vessels) which might (be used for preparing Nabidh and) drinking in them. He (the Holy Prophet) forbade them (to use) gourd, hollow stump, vessel besmeared with pitch. I said to him: Abu Muhammad, (what about) varnished jar? and we think he had forgotten to mention the word ‘varnished jar”. Thereupon he said: I did not hear it from him on that day, i. e. from ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar, and he hated that (i. e. preparation of Nabidh in gourd).

4948: It is reported on the authority of Jabir and Ibn Umar that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation) of Nabidh in hollow stump and varnished jar and gourd.

4949: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation) of Nabidh in green pitcher, in varnished jar, in hollow stump, and when Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) did not find anything to prepare Nabidh in that (i. e. waterskin), it was prepared for him in a big bowl made of stone.

4950: This hadith is reported on the authority of Jabir b. Abdullah that Nabidh was prepared for him in a big bowl of stone.

4951: Jabir reported:
That Nabidh was prepared for Allan’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in a waterskin, but if they did not find waterskin it was prepared in a big bowl of stone. One of the persons and I had heard from Abu Zubair that it was Biram (a vessel made of stone).

4952: ‘Abdullah b. Buraida, on the authority of his father, reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: I had forbidden you from the preparation of Nabidh except in a waterskin. But now you may drink in all vessels, but do not drink what is intoxicant.

4953: Ibn Buraida, on the authority of his father, reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: I had forbidden you (from the preparation of Nabidh) and drinking it in certain vessels, (but now you may do so if you like) for it is not vessels or a vessel that makes a thing lawful or unlawful. It is every intoxicant that is unlawful.

4954: Ibn Buraida, on the authority of his father, reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may Peace be upon him) as saying: I had forbidden you from the drinking (and preparation of) Nabidh in the vessels made out of leather, but (now) you may drink in all vessels, but you do not drink an intoxicant.

4955: ‘Abdullah b. ‘Amr reported:
That when Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (the preparation) of Nabidh in vessels, they said all the people cannot (afford to have) them. He (the Holy Prophet) then granted them permission (to prepare) Nabidh in a green pitcher, but not in those besmeared with pitch.

Chapter 7| Every intoxicant is khamr and every khamr is forbidden.

4956: ‘A’isha reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about Bit, whereupon he said: Every drink that causes intoxication is forbidden.

4957: ‘A’isha reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about it, whereupon he said that everything that causes intoxication is forbidden.

4958: This hadith has been reported:
On the authority of Zuhri with this chain of transmitters but in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Sufyan and Salih (these words are not found)” she was asked about Bit”. (These words are found in the hadith) transmitted on the authority of Ma’mar and in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Salih (only these words are found) that she (Hadrat ‘A’isha) had heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) say: Every intoxicating drink is forbidden.

4959: Abu Musa reported:
Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) sent me and Mu’adh b. Jabal to Yemen. I said: Allah’s Messenger, there is prepared in our land a wine out of barley which is known as Mizr (beer of our times) and a wine from honey which is known as Bit, (are these also forbidden? ), whereupon he said: Every intoxicant is forbidden.

4960: Abu Burda reported on the authority of his grandfather:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent him and Mu’adh b. Jabal to Yemen and said to them: Give good tidings to the (people). and make things easy (for them), teach (them), and do not repel (them) ; and I think he also said: Cooperate cheerfully with each other. When he (the Holy Prophet) turned his back, Abu Musa returned to him and said: Allah’s Messenger, they (the people of Yemen) have a drink which is (made) from honey and which is prepared by cooking it until it coagulates, and Mizr is prepared from barley, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Every intoxicant that detains you from prayer is forbidden.

4961: Abu Burda reported on the authority of his father:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent me and Mu’adh to Yemen saying: Call people (to the path of righteousness) and give good tidings to the (people), and do not repel them, make things easy for them and do not make things difficult. I (Burda) said: Allah’s Messenger, give us a religious verdict about two kinds of drinks which we prepare in Yemen. One is Bit’ which is prepared from honey; it is a fermented Nabidh and is strong and turns into wine, and (the second is) Mizr which is prepared from millet and barley. Thereupon, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), who had been gifted with the most eloquent and pithy expressions, said: I forbid you from every intoxicant that keeps you away from prayer.

4962: Jabir reported:
That a person came from Jaishan, a town of Yemen, and he asked Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) about the wine which was drunk in their land and which was prepared from millet and was called Mizr. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) asked whether that was intoxicating. He said: Yes. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Every intoxicant is forbidden. Verily Allah the Exalted and Majestic, made a covenant to those who drank intoxicants to make their drink Tinat al-Khabal. They said: Allah’s Messenger, what is Tinat a]-Khabal? He said: It is the sweat of the denizens of Hell or the discharge of the denizens of Hell.

4963: Ibn ‘Umar reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Every intoxicant is Khamr and every intoxicant is forbidden. He who drinks wine in this world and dies while he is addicted to it, not having repented, will not be given a drink in the Hereafter.

4964: Ibn ‘Umar, through another chain of transmitters; reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: Every intoxicant is Khamr and every intoxicant is forbidden.

4965: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Musa b. Uqba with the same chain of transmitters.

4966: Nafi’ reported Ibn ‘Umar as saying: I do not know this but from Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) who said: Every intoxicant is Khamr and every Khamr is forbidden.

4967: Ibn ‘Umar reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who drank (wine) in this world would be deprived of it in the Hereafter.

4968: Ibn ‘Umar said: He who drank wine in the world and did not repent would be deprived of it (the pure drink) in the Hereafter. It was said to Malik: Is this hadith Marfu’? He said: Yes.

4969: Ibn ‘Umar reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who drank wine in this world will not be provided with pure drink in the Hereafter, except in case he repents.

4970: Ibn ‘Umar reported this hadith from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) through another chain of transmitters.

Chapter 8| Permissibility to use nabidh which is not strong and has not turned into intoxicant.

4971: Ibn ‘Abbas reported:
That Nabidh was prepared for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in the beginning of the night and he would drink it in the morning and the following night and the following day and the night after that up to the afternoon. If anything was left out of that he gave it to his servant, or gave orders for it to be poured out.

4972: Ibn ‘Abbas reported:
That Nabidh was prepared for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in the waterskin, Shu’ba said: It was the night of Monday. He drank it on Monday and on Tuesday up to the afternoon, and If anything was left out of it he gave it to his servant or poured it out.

4973: Ibn Abbas reported:
Tthat raisins were steeped in water for the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and he would drink it on that day and on the next day and on the following day until the evening of the third day. He would then order it to be drunk by (other people) or to be thrown away.

4974: Ibn Abbas reported:
That Nabidh was prepared from raisins for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in the waterskin and he would drink it on that day and on the next day and the day following and when It was the evening of the third day, and he would drink it and give it to (his Companions) and if something was left over, he threw that away.

4975: Yahya Abu ‘Umar al-Nakhai reported:
That some people asked Ibn Abbas about the sale and purchase of wine and its commerce. He asked (them): Are you Muslims? They said, Yes. Thereupon he said: Its sale and purchase and its trade are not permissible. They then asked him about Nabidh and he said: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) went out on a journey and then came back and some persons amongst his Companions prepared Nabidh for him in green pitcher, hollow stump and gourd.

He commanded it to be thrown away, and it was done accordingly. He then ordered them (to prepare it.) in a waterskin and it was prepared in that by steeping raisins in water, and it was prepared in the night. In the morning he drank out of that and on that day and then the next night, and then on the next day until the evening. He drank and gave others to drink. When it was morning (of the third night) he commanded what was left of that to be thrown away.

4976: Thumama (i. e. Ibn Hazn al-Qushairi) reported:
I met ‘A’isha and asked her about Nabidh (that was served to the Holy Prophet). ‘A’isha called an Abyssinian maid (servant) and said: Ask her (about it) for it was he, who prepared the Nabidh for the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). The Abyssinian (maid-servant) said: I prepared Nabidh for him in a waterskin in the night and tied its mouth and then suspended it; and when it was morning he (the Holy Prophet) drank from it.

4977: ‘A’isha reported:
We prepared Nabidh for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in a waterskin, the upper part of which was tied and it (the waterskin) had a hole (in its lower part). We prepared the Nabidh in the morning and he drank it in the evening and we prepared the Nabidh in the night, and he would drink it in the morning.

4978: Sahl b. Sa’d reported:
That Abu Usaid al-Sa’idi invited Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) to his wedding feast, and his wife had been serving them on that day while yet a bride. Sahl said ‘ Do you know what she served as a drink to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him)? She steeped the dates in water during the night in a big bowl, and when he (the Holy Prophet) had eaten food she served him this drink.

4979: Sahl reported:
That Abu Usaid al-Sa’idi came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) ; the rest of the hadith is the same, but he did not mention this: when he had eaten (the food) she gave him this to drink”.

4980: Sahl b. Sa’d reported (this hadith through another chain of transmitters) and he said (these words):” In a big bowl of stone, and when Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had taken the food, she drenched the dates and served (this) especially to him.”

4981: Sahl b. Sa’d reported:
An Arab woman was mentioned before Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). He commanded Abu Usaid to send a message to her and he (accordingly) sent a message to her. She came and stayed in the fortresses of Banu Sa’idah. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) went out until he came to her while she was (at that time) sitting with her head downcast.

When Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) talked to her, she said: I seek refuge with Allah from you. Thereupon he said: I (have decided to) keep you away from me. They (the people near her) said: Do you know who he is? She said: No. They said: He is the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He came to you in order to give you the proposal of marriage. She said: Then I am the most unfortunate woman because of this (i. e. my defiance).

Sahl said: Allah’s. Messenger (may peace be upon him) then set forth on that day until he sat in the Saqifa of Banu Sa’idah along with his Companions. He then said to Sahl: Serve us drink. He (Sahl) said: I brought out for them this bowl (containing drink) and served them this. Abu Hazim said: Sahl brought out this cup for us and we also drank from that. Then ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz asked him to give that (cup) as a gift to him and he gave (it to) him as a gift. In the narration of Abu Bakr b. Ishaq (the words) are:” Sahl, serve us drink.”

4982: Anas reported: I served drink to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in this cup of mine: honey, Nabidh, water and milk.

Chapter 9| It is good to drink milk

4983: Abu Bakr Siddiq reported:
As we went along with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) from Mecca to Medina, we passed by a shepherd and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was feeling thirsty. He (Abu Bakr Siddiq) said: I milked for him a small quantity of milk (from his goat) and brought it to him (the Holy Prophet), and he drank it and I was very happy.

4984: Al-Bara’ reported:
When Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) went forth from Mecca to Medina, Suraqa b. Malik b. Ju’shum pursued him. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) invoked curse upon him, and his horse sank (in the desert). He (Suraqa) said: (Allah’s Messenger), invoke blessings for me and I will do no harm to you. He (the Holy Prophet) then supplicated Allah. (At that time) he (the Holy Prophet) felt thirsty, and they happened to pass by a shepherd. Abu Bakr Siddiq said: I took hold of a bowl and milked some milk into it for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and gave it to him. He drank it and I was pleased.

4985: Abu Huraira reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was presented two cups at Bait al-Maqdis on the night of Heavenly Journey, one containing wine and the other containing milk. He looked at both of them, and be took the one containing milk, whereupon Gabriel (peace be upon him) said: Praise is due to Allah Who guided you to the true nature; had you taken the one containing wine, Your Umma would have gone astray.

4986: This hadith is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through another chain of transmitters, but he did not mention Aelia (Capitolina. i. e. Bait al-Maqdis).

Chapter 10| Command pertaining to the covering of vessels, and tightening (the mouths) of waterskins, etc.

4987: Abu Humaid Sa’idi reported:
I came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) with a cup of milk from Naqi’ which had no cover over it, whereupon he said: Why did you not cover it? – even if you had covered it only with a stick. Abu Humaid said that he had been ordered that waterskins be tied during the night, and the doors be closed during the night.

4988: Abu Humaid Sa’idi reported through another chain of transmitters that he brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) a cup containing milk, but there is no mention of the word” in the night

4989: Jabir b ‘Abdullah reported:
We were with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and lie asked for water. A person said: Allah’s Messenger, may we not give you Nabidh to drink? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Yes (you may). He (the narrator) said: Then that person went out speedily and brought a cup containing Nabidh, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Why did you not cover it? – even if it is with a wood. He said that then he drank it.

4990: Jabir reported:
That a person who was known as Abu Humaid brought for him (the Holy Prophet) a cup of milk from al-Naqi’. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to him: Why did you not cover it even with a wood across it?

4991:  Jabir reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Cover vessels, waterskins, close the doors and extinguish the lamps, for the Satan does not loosen the waterskin, does not open the door and does not uncover the vessels. And if one amongst you fails to find (something) to cover it well, he should cover it by placing (a piece of) wood across it. Qutaiba did not mention the closing of the doors in the hadith transmitted by him.

4992: This hadith is reported on the authority of Jabir but with a slight change of wording, and he did not mention the words:” Putting a stick across the vessel.”

4993: Jabir reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Shut the doors; the rest of the hadith is the same but with a slight variation of wording: Cover the utensils, and further said: It (the mouse) may set fire to the clothes of the residents of the house.

4994: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Jabir through another chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of words:” The mouse may set the house on fire over its inhabitants.”

4995: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: When the wings of the night (spread) or it is night, restrain your children (from going out), for the Satan is abroad at that time, and when a part of the night is passed, free them and shut the doors. making mention of God’s name, for the Satan does not open a closed door; and tighten the (mouths of waterskins and mention the name of Allah, cover your utensils and mention the name of Allah even though you should just put something on them, and extinguish your lamps.

4996: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Abdullah through another chain of transmitters.

4997: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ibn Juraij.

4998: Jabir reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not let your animals and children go out when the sun sets until the first and the darkest part of the night is over, for the Satan is let loose with the sinking of the sun until the darkest part of the night is over.

4999: Jabir b. Abdullah reported this hadith through another chain of transmitters,

5000: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Cover the vessels and tie the waterskin, for there is a night in a year when pestilence descends, and it does not pass an uncovered vessel or an untied waterskin but some of that pestilence descending into it.

5001: This hadith is reported:
On the authority of Laith b. Sa’d with the same chain of transmitters, but with a slight variation in wording (and that is that) he (the Holy Prophet) said: There is a day in a year when descends the pestilence; at the end of the hadith Laith said that the non Arabs save themselves from it in Kanun Awwal (this is the month of December).

5002: Salim, on the authority of his father, reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: Do not leave the fire burning in your houses when you go to sleep.

5003: Abu Musa reported:
That a house was burnt down in Medina during the night over its inhabitants. When their matter was reported to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), he said; This fire is an enemy of yours. So when you go to sleep, extinguish it.

Chapter 11| Etiquette relating to eating and drinking.

5004: Hudhaifa reported:
When we attended a dinner along with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) we did not lay our hands on the food until Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had laid his hand and commenced eating (the food). Once we went with him to a dinner when a girl came rushingly as it someone had been pursuing her. She was about to lay her hand on the food, when Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) caught her hand.

Then a desert Arab came there (rushingly) as if someone had been pursuing him. He (the Holy Prophet) caught his hand; and then Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Satan considers that food lawful on which Allah’s name is not mentioned. He had brought this girl so that the food might be made lawful for him and I caught her hand. And he had brought a desert Arab so that (the food) might be lawful for him. So I caught his hand. By Him, in Whose hand is my life, it was (Satan’s) hand that was in my hand along with her hand.

5005: Hudhaifa b. al-Yaman reported:
When we were invited to a dinner with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) ; the rest of hadith is the same but there is a slight variation of wording (and the variation is) that in that hadith the desert Arab precedes the arrival of that girl, and at the conclusion there is an addition (to this effect):” He (the Holy Prophet) then mentioned the name of Allah and ate.” This hadith is reported on the authority of A’mash with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

5006: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When a person enters his house and mentions the name of Allah at the time of entering it and while eating the food, Satan says (addressing himself: You have no place to spend the night and no evening meal; but when he enters without mentioning the name of Allah, the Satan says: You have found a place to spend the night, and when he does not mention the name of Allah while eating food, he (the Satan) says: You have found a place to spend the night and evening meal. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Abdullah through the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

5007: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: Do not eat with your left hand, for the Satan eats with his left hand.

5008: Ibn ‘Umar reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When any one of you intends to eat (meal), he should eat with his right hand. and when he (intends) to drink he should drink with his right hand, for the Satan eats with his left hand and drinks with his left hand.

5009: This hadith is reported by Zuhri on the authority of Sufyan with a different chain of transmitters.

5010: Salim, on the authority of his father, reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: None of you should eat with his left hand and drink with that (left hand), for the Satan eats with left hand and drinks with that (hand). Nafi’ has made this addition in that:” Do not take up anything with that (left hand) and do not give anything with that” ; and in the narration transmitted on the authority of Abu Tahir there is a slight variation of wording.

5011: Salama b. Akwa’ reported:
On the authority of his father that a person ate in the presence of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) with his left hand, whereupon he said: Eat with your right hand. He said: I cannot do that, whereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: May you not be able to do that. It was vanity that prevented him from doing it, and he could not raise it (the right hand) up to his mouth.

5012: ‘Umar b. Abu Salama reported:
I was under the care of Allah’s Messenger (way peace be upon him), and as my hand used to roam about in the dish he said to me: Boy, mention the name of Allah, and eat with your right hand and eat from what is near to you.

5013: Umar b. Abu Salama reported:
I (had the opportunity) one day to dine with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and I picked up flesh from around the dish. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Eat from that which is near to you.

5014: Abu Sa’id (Khudri) reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade from turning the waterskins upside down and drinking from its mouth.

5015: Abu Sa’id Khudri reported that Allah’s, Messenger (may peace he upon him) forbade from turning the waterskins upside down and drinking from their mouths.

5016: This hadith has been reported from Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters, but he also said that Ikhtinath means that its head (i. e., of the waterskin) be turned upside down and then (water) be drank from that.

Chapter 12| Disapproval of drinking water while standing.

5017: Anas reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) disapproved the drinking of water while standing.

5018: Anas reported:
That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade that a person should drink while standing. Qatada reported: We said to him: What about eating? Thereupon he (Anas) said: That is even worse and more detestable (abominable).

5019: This hadith is reported on the authority of Anas with a different chain of transmitters, but no mention is mane of the words of Qatada.

5020: Abu Sa’id Khudri reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) warned against drinking while standing.

5021: Abu Sa’id Khudri reported this hadith through another chain of transmitters but with a slight, variation of wording.

5022: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: None of you should drink while standing; and if anyone forgets, he must vomit.

Chapter 13| Permissibility of drinking Zamzam (water) while standing.

5023: Ibn Abbas reported: I served. (water of) Zamzam to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he drank it while standing.

5024: Ibn ‘Abbas reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) drank (water) from Zamzam in a bucket while he was standing.

5025: Ibn ‘Abbas reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) drank (water) from Zamzam while he was standing.

5026: Ibn ‘Abbas reported: I served (water from) Zamzam to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he drank while standing, and he asked for it while he was near the House (i. e. House of Allah-Ka’ba).

5027: This hadith is reported on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

Chapter 14| It is repugnant to breathe in a vessel and appreciable to breathe three times outside the vessel in course of drinking.

5028: Abu Qatada reported on the authority of his father that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade breathing in a vessel.

5029: Anas reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) used to breathe three times in the course of a drink (i. e. he drank in three gulps).

5030: Anas reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) breathed three times (outside the vessel) in the course of a drink and said: It is more thirst- quenching, healthier and more wholesome. Anas said: So I also breathe three times in the course of a drink.

5031: This hadith is reported on the authority of Anas with a slight variation of wording.

Chapter 15| It is desirable to circulate water or milk (in an assembly) from the right-hand side of the one who serves.

5032: Anas b. Malik reported:
That there was brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) a cup of milk mixed with water, while there was on his right a desert Arab and on his left Abu Bakr. He (the Holy Prophet) drank; he then gave it to the desert Arab and said: (Give to one) who is on the right, then again who is on the right.

5033: Anas reported:
The Apostle of Allah (may peace he upon him) came to Medina when I was ten years old and he died when I was twenty years old. My mother exhorted me to serve him. He (the Holy Prophet) came to our house, and we ruined a flabby goat for him and mixed it (the milk) with water from the well of the house. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) drank that. Umar and Abu Bakr on his left side said to him: Allah’s Messenger, give it to Abu Bakr, but he (the Holy Prophet) gave it to the desert Arab who was on his right. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who is on the right, then he who is on the right.

5034: Anas b. Malik reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) came to our house and he asked for a drink. We milked a goat for him and then mixed it (the milk) with the water of this well of mine. I gave it to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and he drank it, while Abu Bakr was on his left and ‘Umar was in front of him, and a desert Arab was on his right. When Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had finished the drink, Umar said: Allah’s Messenger, here is Abu Bakr, give him to drink; but Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave it to the desert Arab and he left out Abu Bakr and Umar. And Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Those on the right, those on the right, those on the right (deserve preference). Anas said: This is the Sunnah, this is the Sunnah, this is the Sunnah.

5035: Sahl b. Sa’d Sa’idi reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was given a drink, and he drank from that, and there was on his right side a boy. and on his left some old men. He said to the boy: Do you permit me to give it to them (the old men), but that boy said: by God. I will not give preference at your hand over me in my share. He (the narrator) said that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) then gave it in his hand.

5036: This hadith is reported on the authority of Sahl b. Sa’d with a slight variation of wording.

Chapter 16| The merit of licking the fingers after taking food and wiping the dish (with fingers) and eating of the fallen mouthful after removing the dirt sticking to it.

5037: Ibn ‘Abbas reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him.) as saying: When any one of you eats food he should not wipe his hand until he has licked it himself or has given it to someone else to lick.

5038: Ibn ‘Abbas reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When any one of you eats food he should not wipe his hand until he has licked it or got it licked by (someone else).

5039: Ibn Ka’b b. Malik reported:
On the authority of his father that he saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) licking his three fingers (after having finished the food). Ibn Hatim made no mention of” three”. This hadith is also narrated through another chain of transmitters.

5040: Ibn Ka’b b. Malik reported on the authority of his father that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to eat (food) with three fingers and he licked his hand before wiping it (with towel).

5041: ‘Abdullah b. Ka’b reported:
That his father Ka’b narrated to him that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) used to eat with three fingers and when he had finished (eating), he licked them.

5042: A hadith like this has been reported on the authority of Ka’b b. Malik through another chain of transmitters.

5043: Jabir reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded the licking of fingers and the dish, saying: You do not know in what portion the blessing lies.”

5044: Jabir reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When any one of you drops a mouthful he should pick it up and remove any of the filth on it, and then eat it, and should not leave it for the Satan, and should not wipe his hand with towel until he has licked his fingers, for he does not know in what portion of the food the blessing lies.

5045: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Sufyan with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

5046: Jabir reported:
I heard Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: The Satan is present with any one of you in everything he does; he is present even when he eats food; so if any one of you drops a mouthful he should remove away anything filthy on it and eat it and not leave for the devil; and when he finishes (food) he should lick his fingers, for he does not know in what portion of his food the blessing lies.

5047: This hadith is reported on the authority of A’mash with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of words but no mention is made of the first part of the hadith, i. e. the Satan is present with any one of you.

5048: Jabir reported from Allah’s Messenger. (may peace be upon him) about mentioning the licking (of fingers) and the (falling of) the mouthful.

5049: Anas reported:
That when Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) ate food he licked his three fingers, and he said: When any one of you drops a mouthful he should remove anything filthy from it and then eat it, and should not leave it for the Satan. He also commanded us that we should wipe the dish saying: You do not know in what portion of your food the blessing lies.

5050: Abu Huraira reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When any one of you cats food he should lick his fingers, for hen does not know in what part of the food sticking to his fingers the blessing lies. This hadith has been reported on the authority of Hammad with the same chain of transmitters, but with a slight variation of wording.

Chapter 17| What should the guest do if an uninvited person accompanies him and the merit of inviting that person to feast.

5051: Abu Mas’ud Ansari reported:
That a person from the Ansar who was called Abu Shu’aib had a slave who was a butcher (by profession). He (Abu Mas’ud) saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and found signs of hunger on his face. He said to the servant: 0 ye, prepare for us food sufficient for five persons, for I intend to invite Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) who would be the fifth amongst the five. He (the narrator) reported that he then prepared the food and came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and invited all the five (including him) who was the fifth amongst them to the feast. A man followed him and when Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) reached the door, he said: This man has followed us; if you like you may permit him (to join the meal) and if you like he can go back. Thereupon the person said: Allah’s Messenger, I permit him.

5052: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Abu Mas’ud Ansari through another chain of transmitters.

5053: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Jabir also.

5054: Anas reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had a neighbour who was Persian (by descent), and he was expert in the preparation of soup. He prepared (soup) for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and then came to him to invite him (to that feast). He (Allah’s Messenger) said: Here is ‘A’isha also (and you should also invite her to the food). He said: No. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) also said: No (then I cannot join the feast).

He returned inviting him, and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: She is also there (i. e. ‘A’isha should also be invited). He said: No. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) also said: No (and declined his offer). He returned again to invite him and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) again said: She is also there. He (the host) said:” Yes” for the third time. Then he accepted his invitation, and both of them set out until they came to his house.

Chapter 18| Permissibility of a person’s taking anyone along with him where the host is very intimate with the guest.

5055: Abu Huraira reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) went out (of his house) one day or one night, and there he found Abu Bakr and ‘Umar also. He said: What has brought you out of your houses at this hour? They said: Allah’s Messenger, it is hunger. Thereupon he said: By Him in Whose Hand is my life, what has brought you out has brought me out too; get up. They got up along with him. and (all of them) came to the house of an Ansari, but he was not at home.

When his wife saw him she said: Most welcome, and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be Upon him) said to her: Where is so and so? She said: He has gone to get some fresh water for us. When the Ansari came and he saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and his two Companions, he said: Praise be to Allah, no one has more honourable guests today than I (have). He then went out and brought them a bunch of ripe dates, dry dates and fresh dates, and said: Eat some of them. He then took hold of his long knife (for slaughtering a goat or a sheep).

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to him: Beware of killing a milch animal. He slaughtered a sheep for them and after they had eaten of it and of the bunch and drank, and when they had taken their fill and had been fully satisfied with the drink, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to Abu Bakr and Umar: By Him in Whose Hand is my life, you will certainly be questioned about this bounty on the Day of judgment. Hunger brought you out of your house, then you did not return until this bounty came to you.

5056: Abu Huraira reported:
One day while Abu Bakr was sitting and there was with him Umar also there came to them Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and he said: What makes you stay here? They said: It is hunger that has brought us out from our houses. By Him Who has stint you with Truth; the rest of the hadith is the same.

5057: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
When the ditch was dug, I saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) feeling very hungry. I came to my wife and said to her: Is there anything with you? I have seen Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) feeling extremely hungry. She brought out a bag of provisions which contained a sa’, of barley. We had also with us a lamb. I slaughtered it. She ground the flour. She finished (this work) along with me. I cut it into pieces and put it in the earthen pot and then returned to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) (for inviting him).

She said: Do not humiliate me in the presence of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and those who are with him. When I came to him I whispered to him saying: Allah’s Messenger, we have slaughtered a lamb for you and she has ground a sa’ of barley which we had with us. So you come along with a group of people with you. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said loudly: O people of the ditch, Jabir has arranged a feast for you, so (come along).

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Do not remove your earthen pot from the hearth and do not bake the bread from the kneaded flour until I come. So I came and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) came and he was ahead of the people; and I came to my wife and she said (to me): You will be humbled. I said: I did what you had asked me to do. She (his wife) said: I brought out the kneaded flour and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) put some saliva of his in that and blessed It.

He then put saliva in the earthen pot and blessed it and then said. Call another baker who can bake with you. and bring out the soup from it, but do not remove it from the hearth, and the guests were one thousand. (Jabir said): I take an oath by Allah that all of them ate (the food to their fill) until they left it and went away and our earthen pot was brimming over as before, and so was the case with our flour, or as Dahhak (another narrator) said: It (the flour) was in the same condition and loaves had been prepared from that.

5058: Anas b. Malik reported:
That Abu Talha said to Umm Sulaim: I felt some feebleness in the voice of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and perceived that it was due to hunger; so have you anything with you? She said: Yes. She brought out barley loaves, then took out a head-covering of hers, in a part of which she wrapped those loaves and then put them beneath my mantle and covered me with a part of it. She then sent me to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him).

I set forth and found Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sitting in the mosque in the company of some persons. I stood near them, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Has Abu Talha sent you? I said, Yes. He said: Is it for a feast? I said. Yes. Thereupon Allah’s messenger (may peace be upon him) said to’those who were with him to get up He went forth and so I did before them, until I came to Abu Talha and informed him. Abu Talba said: Umm Sulaim, here comes Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) along with people and we do not have enough (food) to feed them.

She said: Allah and His Messenger know best. Abu Talha went out (to receive him) Until he met Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) came forward along with him until they both (Allah’s Messenger, along with Abu Talha) came in. Then Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Umm Sulaim. bring forth that which you have with you. She brought the bread. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded that the bread be broken into small pieces, and when Umm Sulaim had squeezed a small waterskin and put seasoning on it, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) recited something regarding it what Allah wished him to say.

He then said: Allow ten (guests to come in and have their meals). He permitted them; they ate until they had their fill. They then went out. He (the Holy Prophet) again said: Permit ten (more) and he (the host gave permission to them. They ate until they had enough. Then they went out. he again said: Permit ten (more) until all the people had eaten to their fill, and they were seventy or eighty persons.

5059: Anas b. Malik reported:
Abu Talha sent me to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in order to invite him (for meal). She had prepared a meal. So I came and found Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) along with some people. He looked at me, and I felt shy and said: Accept the invitation of Abu Talha. He (the Holy Prophet) asked the people to get up. Thereupon Abu Talha said: Allah’s Messenger, I have prepared something for you. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) touched (the food) and invoked blessings upon it, and then said: Let ten persons from my Companions enter (the house).

He then said: Eat, and (in the meanwhile) brought out something from between his fingers for them. They then began to eat until they had their fill and then went out. He then asked ten more men (to have the meal) and they ate to their fill, and the ten persons went on getting in (and eating the food) and then getting out until none was left amongst them who had not got in and eaten to his fill. He then collected (the remaining part of the food) and it (the quantity of the food) was the same (as it had been prior to the serving of guests).

5060: Anas b Malik reported:
Abu Talha sent me to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) ; the rest of the hadith is the same, but ‘there is a slight variation of wording that he said at the end (The Holy Prophet) took what was left (of the food) and collected it and then invoked blessings upon it and it returned to its original state. He (the Holy Prophet) then said Take this.

5061: Anas b. Malik reported:
Abu Talha ordered Umm Sulaim to prepare a meal specially for Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him). He then sent me to him (to the Holy Prophet) ; the rest of the hadith is the same (but there is a slight variation of wording):” Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) placed his hand and mentioned the name of Allah upon that, and then said: Admit ten men. He (Abu Talha) admitted them and they got in. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Eat while mentioning the name of Allah upon it (the meal). They ate until eighty persons had taken the food. Then Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) had his meal and so the members of the household, and still they left some food.”

5062: Anas b. Malik reported:
This incident pertaining to the feast given by Abu Talha to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) with the addition of these words:” Abu Talha stood at the door (to welcome the honourable guest) until Allah’s Messenger (may peacec be upon him) came there, He (Abu Talha) said to him: Allah’s Messenger, the thing (we intend to offer you as a meal) is small in quantity. Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Bring that, for Allah will soon bless it (and increase it).

5063: Anas b. Malik reported:
This hadith (with a slight variation of wording) Then AlIah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) ate and the people of his house also ate. but (still) there was left a surplus, which they sent to their neighbours.

5064: Anas b. Malik reported:
Abu Talha saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) lying down upon his belly in the mosque. He came to Umm Sulaim and said: I saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) lying down upon the belly in the mosque, and I think he is hungry. The rest of the hadith is the same (but with the addition of these words) that Allah’s messenger (may peace be upon him) ate (the food) and so did Abu Talha, Umm Sulaim and Anas b. Malik, but there was left some. thing which we presented to our neighbours.

5065: Anas b. Malik reported:
I visited Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) one day and found him sitting in the company of his Companions and talking to them, and he had tied his belly with a bandage. Usama said: I am in doubt whether there was stone on that (his belly) or not. I asked some of his Companions why Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had bandaged his belly. They said: (He has done that to relieve) his hunger. I went to Abu Talha, the husband of Umm Sulaim, the daughter of Milhan, and said to him: Father, I saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having bandaged his belly.

I asked some of his Companions (the reason of it) and they said that it was due to hunger. Abu Talha came to mv mother and said: Is there anything? She said: Yes, I have some pieces of bread with me and some dates. If Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) comes to us alone we can feed him to his fill, but if someone comes along with him this would be insufficient for them. The rest of the hadith is the same.

5066: Anas b. Malik reported this hadith pertaining to the entertainment of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) by Abu Talha through another chain of transmitters.

Chapter 19| Permissibility of eating soup and merit of eating pumpkin.

5067: Anas b. Malik reported:
A tailor invited Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) to a meal which he had prepared. Anas b. Malik said: I went along with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) to that feast. He presented to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) barley bread and soup containing pumpkin, and sliced pieces of meat. Anas said: I saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) going after the pumpkin round the dish, so I have always liked the pumpkin since that day.

5068: Anas b. Malik reported:
That a person invited Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) to a meal. I also went along with him. He brought soup containing pumpkin. Allah’s ‘messenger (may peace be upon him) ate that pumpkin with relish. He (Anas) said: When I saw that I began to place it before him, and did not eat it (myself). Anas said: It was since then that pumpkin was always my favourite (food).

5069: Anas b. Malik rdported:
That a tailor invited Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) to a feast. There has been an addition to this that Thabit said: I heard Anas saying that any meal that was prepared for me after that I tried that it should contain pumpkin.

Chapter 20| Desirability of extracting stones from the dates and of the guest’s invoking blessing for the host.

5070: ‘Abdullah b. Busr reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) came to my father and we brought to him a meal and a preparation from dates, cheese and butter. He ate out of that. He was then given dates which he ate but he placed their stones between his fingers, and he joined his forefinger and middle finger. Shu’ba reported: I think that this hadith God’s willing also contains (these words): Putting of date stones between two fingers. Then a drink was brought for him and he drank it, and then gave it to one who was on his right side. He (the narrator) said: My father took hold of the rein of his riding animal and requested him to supplicate for us. Thereupon he said: O Allah. bless them in what Thou hast provided them as a sustenance; and forgive them and have mercy upon them.

5071: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters and they did not doubt about keeping the dates between his fingers (as is expressed in the previous hadith).

Chapter 21| Eating cucumber with dates.

5072: ‘Abdullah b. Ja’far reported: I saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) eating cucumber with fresh dates.

Chapter 22| One should show modesty while eating and the way how one should sit.

5073: Anas b. Malik reported: I saw Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) squatting and eating dates.

5074: Anas reported that there were brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) dates. He distributed them in the state that he had been sitting upright (in an easy posture) and he had also been eating them a (bit) quickly.

Chapter 23| It is forbidden to eat two dates or two morsels simultaneously.

5075: Jabala b. Suhaim reported:
Ibn Zubair used to provide us with dates during the time that the people were hard pressed because of famine (Once) as we were busy in eating there happened to appear before us Ibn ‘Umar. He said: Don’t eat two dates together, for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade eating them together but only after seeking permission from his brother (partner). Shu’ba said: I do not think these words pertaining to seeking permission but from the words of Ibn ‘Urnar.

5076: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters but these words of his (are not found):” The people were hard pressed because of the famine during those days.”

5077: Jabala b. Suhaim reported: I heard Ibn ‘Umar as saying that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade anyone taking two dates together without seeking the consent of his companions.

Chapter 24| It is permissible to store dates and corn for the sustenance of one’s children.

5078: ‘A’isha reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: A family which has dates will not be hungry.

5079: ‘A’isha reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: ‘A’isha a family which has no dates (in their house) its members will be hungry; (or) ‘A’isha the family which has no dates its members may be hungry. He said this twice or thrice.

Chapter 25| Excellence of the dates of medina.

5080: Amir b. Sa’d b. Abu Waqqas:

On the authority of his father, reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: He who ate seven dates (of the land situated) between these two lava plains in the morning, no poison will harm him until it is evening.

5081: ‘Amir b. Sa’d b. Abu Waqqas reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who ate seven ‘ajwa’ dates in the morning, poison and magic will not harm him on that day.

5082: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Ibn Hashim with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.

5083: ‘A’isha reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The ‘ajwa’ dates of ‘Aliya’ contain heating effects and these are antidote in the early morning.

Chapter 26| Excellence of truffles and their use as a medicine for the eyes.

5084: Sa’id b. Zaid b. ‘Amr b. Nufail reported:
I heard Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: Truffles are a kind of ‘Manna’ and their juice is a medicine for the eyes.

5085: Sa’id b. Zaid reported:
I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Truffles are a kind of blessing and their juice is a medicine for the eyes. Shu’ba said: When Hakam narrated this hadith to me, I did not deem it as a Munkar hadith because of the narration of Abd al-Malik.

5086: Sa’id b. Zaid b. ‘Amr b. Nufail reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Truffles are a kind of ‘Manna’ which Allah the Glorious and Exalted, sent down upon the people of Israil, and its juice is a medicine for the eyes.

5087: Sa’id b. Zaid reported Allal a Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Truffles are a kind of ‘Manna’ which Allah sent down upon Moses and their juice is a medicine for the eyes.

5088: Sa’id b. Zaid reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Truffles are ‘Manna’ which Allah, the Exalted the Majestic, sent to the people of Israil, and its juice is a medicine for the eyes.

5089: Sa’id b. Zaid reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Truffles are ‘Manna’ and its juice is the medicine for the eyes.

Chapter 27| The merit of the fruit of arak tree.

5090: Jabir b. Abdullah reported:
We were with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) at Marr az-Zahran, and we were plucking the fruit of the Arak tree, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) said: Pluck only its black ones (for they are the most pleasant). We said: Allah’s Messenger, it seems you shepherded the flock. He said: Yes. Has there been a prophet who did not shepherd it (or some words like it)?

Chapter 28| The merit of vinegar as a condiment.

5091: ‘A’isha reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: The best of condiments or condiment is vinegar.

5092: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Sulaiman b. Bilal with the same chain of transmitters and he is reported to have said:” The best condiment.” And he did not doubt (about this word).

5093: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) asked his family for condiment. They (the members of his household) said: We have nothing with us but vinegar. He asked for it, he began to eat it, and then said: Vinegar is a good condiment, vinegar is a good condiment.

5094: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) took hold of my hand one day (and led me) to his residence. There was presented to him some pieces of bread, whereupon he said: Is there no condiment? They (the members of his household) said: No, except some vinegar. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Vinegar is a good condiment. Jabir said: I have always loved vinegar since I heard it trom Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him). Talha said: I have always loved vinegar since I heard about it from Jabir.

5095: This hadith is reported:
On the authority of Jabir b. ‘Abdullah that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) took hold of his hand and led him to his residence as narrated above up to the words:” Vinegar is a good condiment.” But in the hadith transmitted through this chain of transmitters, there is no mention of the subsequent part.

Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
While I was sitting in my house there happened to pass by me Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). He made a gesture to me and I stood up for him. He took hold of my hand until we came to one of the apartments of his wives. He entered and then asked me to get in. So I entered and there was hanging a curtain beside her. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Is there any food (with you)? They (the members of the household) said: Yes And then there were brought three loaves of bread for him (the Holy Prophet) and placed in the basket of palm leaves.

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) picked up one loaf and placed that before him, and then picked up another one and placed it before me. He then picked up the third one and broke it into two parts, and kept the one-half before him and the other half before me, and then said: Is there any condiment? They (the members of the household) said: There is nothing (in the form of condiment) but some vinegar only. He said: Bring that, for vinegar is a good condiment.

Chapter 29| Permissibility of eating garlic, but avoiding it when one intends to talk to eminent persons.

5097: Abd Ayydb Ansari reported:
That when food was brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) he ate out of that, and sent the remaining part to me, and one day he sent to me the left-over; (I found that he) had not taken from it at all for it included garlic. I asked him whether that was forbidden, whereupon he said: No, but I do not like it because of its odour. He (Abu Ayyub Ansiri) said: Then I also do not like what you do not like.

5098: This Hadith is narrated on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters.

5099: Aflah, the freed slave of Abu Ayyub Ansiri, reported:
Allah’s Messnger (may peace be upon him) had alighted in his house (viz. of Abu Ayyub Ansari at the time of his emigration to Medina) and he occupied the lower storey, whereas Abu Ayyub Ansari lived in the upper storey. One night, Abu Ayyub Ansari got up and said (to himself): (How unfortunate it is) that we walk above the head of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), so they went aside and spent the night in a nook and then told Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) about it whereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said:

The lower storey is more comfortable (for me). but he (Abu Ayyub Ansari) said: We (would not live) over the roof under which you live. So Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) shifted to the upper storey, whereas Abu Ayyub Ansari shifted to the lower storey; and he (Abu Ayyub Ansari) used to prepare food for Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) ; and when it was brought (back) to him he asked (to locate) the part, where his fingers had touched (the food), and he followed his fingers on that part where his fingers (those of the Holy Prophet) had touched it. (One day) he prepared food which contained garlic, and when it was returned to him he asked (to locate) the part which the fingers of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) had touched.

It was said to him that he had not eaten (the food). He (Abd Ayyub Ansari) was distressed and went up to him (to the Holy Prophet) and said: Is it forbidden? But Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: No, (it is not forbidden), but I do not like it. and he (Abu Ayyub Ansari) said: I also do not like what you do not like or which you did not like. He (Abu Ayyub Ansari) said: (The Holy Prophet did not eat garlic) as Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) was visited (by angels) and brought him the message of Allah.

Chapter 30| Showing honour to the guest and the merit of making of sacrifice for him.

5100: Abu Huraira reported:
That a person came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: I am hard pressed by hunger. He sent (message) to one of his wives (to procure food for him). but she said: By Him Who has sent you with Truth, thrre is nothing with me (to serve him) but only water. He (the Holy Prophet) then sent the (same) message to another, and she gave the same reply, until all of them gave the same reply: By Him Who has sent thee with the Truth, there is nothing with me but only water, whereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Allah would show mercy to him who will entertain this guest tonight.

A person from the Ansar stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, I (am ready to entertain). He took him to his house and said to his wife: Is there anything with you (to serve the gdest)? She said: No, but only a subsistence for our children. He said: Distract their attention with something, and when the guest enters extinguish the lamp and give him the impression that we are eating. So they sat down. and the guest had his meal. When it was morning he went to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) who said: Allah was well pleased with what you both did for your guest this night.

5101: Abu Huraira reported:
That a guest spent the night with a person from the Ansar who had nothing with him but food (sufficient) for his own self and his children. He said to his wife: (Lull) the children to sleep, and put out the lamp, and serve the guest with what you have with you. It was on this occasion that this verse was revealed:” Those who prefer the needy to their own selves in spite of the fact that they are themselves in pressing need” (Lix. 9).

5102: Abu Huraira reported:
That a man came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) so that he should entertain him as a guest, but he had nothing with which he could entertain him. He, therefore, asked if there was any person who would entertain him (assuring the audience) that Allah would show mercy to him. A person from the Ansar who was called Abu Talha stood up and he took him to his house. The rest of the hadith is the same and mention is (also) made in that about the revelation of the verse as narrated by Waki’.

5103: Miqdad reported:
I and two of my companions were so much afflicted by hunger that we had lost our power of seeing and hearing. We presented ourselves (as guests) to the Companions of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him), but none amongst them would entertain us. So we came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), and he took us to his residence and there were three goats. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Milk these for us.

So we milked them and every person amongst us drank his share and we set aside the share of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him). (It was his habit) to come during the night and greet (the people present there) in a manner that would not wake up one in sleep but make one who was awake hear it. He would then go to the mosque and say prayer, then go to the milk and drink it. Miqdad added:

One night the Satan came to me when I had taken my share, and he said: Muhammad has gone to the Ansar, who would offer him hospitality and he would get what is with them, and he has no need for this draught (of milk). So I took (that milk) and drank it, and when it had penetrated deeply in my stomach and I was certain that there was no way out (but to digest it), the Satan aroused (my sense of) remorse and said: Woe be to thee! what have you done? You have taken the drink reserved for Muhammad! When he would come and he would not find it, he would curse you, and you would be ruined, and thus there would go (waste) this world and the Hereafter (for) you.

There was a sheet over me; as I placed (pulled) it upon my feet, my head was uncovered and as I placed it upon my head, my feet were uncovered, and I could not sleep, but my two companions had gone to sleep for they had not done what I had done. There came Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), and he greeted as he used to greet (by saying as-Salamu ‘Alaikum). He then came to the mosque and observed prayer and then came to his drink (milk) and uncovered it, but did not find anything in it.

He raised his head towards the sky, and I said (to myself) that he (the Holy Prophet) was going to invoke curse upon me and I would be thus ruined; but he (the Holy Prophet) said: Allah, feed him who fed me and give drink to him who provided me drink. I held tight the sheet upon myself (and when he had supplicated), I took hold of the knife and went to the goats (possessed by the Holy Prophet) so that I may slauhter one for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) which was the fattest amongst them, and in fact all of them were milch goats;

Then I took hold of the vessel which belonged to the family of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in which they used to milk and drink therefrom, and milked them in that until it swelled up with foam. I came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and he said: Have you taken your share of the milk during the night? I said: Drink it. and he drank it; he then handed over (the vessel) to me and I said: Allah’s Messenger, drink it, and he drank it and handed over (the vessel) to me again, I then perceived that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) had been satiated and I had got his blessings.

I burst into laughter (so much) so that I fell upon the ground, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Miqdad, it must be one of your mischiefs. I said: Allah’s Messenger, this affair of mind is like this and this. and I have done so. Thereupon. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: This is nothing but a mercy from Allah. Why is it that you did not give me an opportunity so that we should have awakened our two friends and they would have got their share (of the milk)? I said: By Him Who has sent you with Truth. I do not mind whatever you give (to them), and whatever the (other) people happen to get, when I had got it along with you from among the people.

5104: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Mughira with the same chain of transmitters.

5105: ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abu Bakr reported:
We were one hundred and thirty (persons) with Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him). Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Does any one of You possess food? There was a person with (us) who had a sa’ of flour or something about that, and it was kneaded. Then a tall polytheist with dishevelled hair came driving his flock of sheep. Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Would you like to sell it (any one of these goats) or offer it as a gift or a present? He said: No, (I am not prepared to offer as a gift), but I would sell it.

He (the Holy Prophet) bought a sheep from him, and it was slaughtered and its meat was prepared, and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded that its liver should be roasted. He (the narrator) said: By Allah, none among one hundred and thirty persons was left whom Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had not given a part out of her liver; if anyone was present he gave it to him. but if he was absent it was set aside for him. And he (the Holy Prophet) filled two bowls (one with soup and the other with mutton) and we all ate out of them to our hearts’ content, but (still) some part was (left) in (those) two bowls, and I placed it on the camel- (or words to the same effect).

5106: ‘Abd al-Rabman b. Abu Bakr reported:
That the people of Suffa were very poor. Once the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said (to his Companions): He who amongst you has food for two persons should take three (guests with him). and he who has with him food for four persons should take five or six (guests with him for entertaining them). It was (in accordance with these instructions

of the Holy Prophet) that Abu Bakr brought three persons, and the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) brought ten persons (as guests to their respective houses).

Abu Bakr had brought three persons (he himself, and myself), my father and my mother (along with therm). He (the narrator) said: I do not know whether he also said: My wife and one servant who was common between our house and that of Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr had had his evening meal with Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him). He stayed here until night prayer had been offered. He then came back (to the house of Allah’s Apostle) and stayed there until Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) felt drowsy and  (Abu Bakr) then came (back to his own house) when (a considerable) part of the night had been over, as Allah had desired.

His wife said to him: What held you back from your guests? He said: Oh! have you not served them the evening meal (by this time)? She said: It was in fact served to them. But they refused to eat until you came. He (‘Abd al-Rahman) said: I slunk away and bid myself. He (Abu Bakr) said: O, you stupid fellow, and he reprimanded me, and said to the guests: Eat, though it may not be pleasant now.

He said: By Allah. I will never eat it He (‘Abd al-Rahman) said: By Allah. we did not take a morsel when from beneath that (there appeared) more until they had eaten to their fill, and lo! it was more than what it was before. Abu Bakr saw that and found that it was so or more than that. He said to his wife: Sister of Band Firis, what is th-is? She said: By the coolness of my eyes. it is in excess by three times over the previous one.

Then Abu Bakr ate saying: That was from the Satan (viz. his vow for not eating the food). He then took a morsel out of that and then took it (the rest) to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), and it was kept there until morning, and during (those days) there was a covenant between us and some other people, and the period of covenant was over, and we had appointed twelve officials with every person amongst them. It is Allah only Who knows as to how many people were there with each of them. He sent (this food to them) and all of them ate out of it.

5107: ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abd Bakr reported:
There came to our house some guests. It was a common practice with my father to (go) and talk to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) during the night. While going he said: ‘Abd al-Rahman, entertain the guests. When it was evening we served the food to them, but they refused saying: So long as the owner of the house does not come and join us, we would not take the meal. I said to them: He (‘Abd Bakr) is a stern person, and if you would not do that (if you do not take the food).

I fear, I may be harmed by him, but they refused. As he (my father) came, the first thing he asked was: Have you served the guests? They (the peopleof the household) said: We have not served them sofar. He said: Did I not command ‘Abd al-Rahman (to do this)? He (‘Abd al-Rahman) said: I slunk away and kept myself away by that time. He again said: O stupid fellow, I ask you on oath that In case you hear my voice you come to me. I came and said: By Allah, there is no fault of mine.

These are your guests; you may ask them. I provided them with food but they refused to eat until you came. He said to them: Why is it that you did not accept our food? By Allah, I shall not even take food tonight (as you have not taken). They said: By Allah, we would not take until you join us. Thereupon he Abu Bakr) said: I have never seen a more unfortunate night than this. Woe be to thee! that you do not accept from us food prepared for you. He again said: What I did first (that is the taking of vow for not eating the food) was prompted by the Satan. Bring the food.

The food was brought, and he ate by reciting the name of Allah and they also ate, and when it was morning he came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said: Allah’s Messenger, their oath (that of the guests) came to be true, but mine was not true, and after that he informed him of the whole incident. He said: Your oath came to be the most true and you are the best of them. He (the narrator) said. I do not know whether he made an atonement for it.

Chapter 31 Excellence of sharing the small food.

5108: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Food for two persons suffices three persons and food for three persons suffices four persons.

5109: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
I heard Allah’. s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Food for one person suffices two persons and food for two persons suffices four persons, and food for four persons suffices eight persons; and in the tradition transmitted on the authority of Ishaq there is no mention of the fact that he heard it directly (from the Holy Prophet).

5110: A hadith like this is reported on the authority of Jabir but with a different chain of transmitters.

5111: Jabir reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Food for one suffices two and food for two suffices for tour.

5112: Jabir reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Food for one (person) sqffices two, and food for two (persons) suffices four persons and food for four persons suffices eight persons.

Chapter 32| A believer rats in one intestine whereas a non-believer eats in seven intestines.

5113: Ibn ‘Umar reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying that a non-Muslim eats in seven intestines whereas a Muslim eats in one intestine.

5114: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar but with a different chain oi transmitters.

5115: Nafi’ reported:
That Ibn ‘Umar saw a poor man. He placed food before him and he ate much. He (Ibn ‘Umar) said: He should not come to me. for I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying that the non-Muslim eats in seven intestines.

5116: Ibn ‘Umar reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: A believer eats in one intestine, whereas a non-believer eats in seven intestines.

5117: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Jabir.

5118: Abu Musa reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: A believer eats in one intestine, whereas a non-believer eats in seven intestines.

5119: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira with a different chain of transmitters.

5120: Abu Huraira reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) invited a non-Muslim. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded that a goat be milked for him. It was milked and he drank its milk. Then the second one was milked and he drank its milk, and then the other one was milked and he drank its milk. till he drank the milk of seven goats. On the next morning he embraced Islam. And Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded that a goat should be milked for him and he drank its milk and then another was milked but he did not finish it, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: A believer drinks In one intestine whereas a non-believer drinks in seven intestines.

Chapter 33| Don’t find fault with food (served to you)

5121: Abu Huraira reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) never found fault with food (served to him). If he liked anything, he ate it and if he did not like it he left it.

5122: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of A’mash with the same chain of transmitters.

5123: A hadith like this has been narrated on the authority of A’mash.

5124: Abu Huraira reported: I never saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) finding fault with food (served to him) ; if he liked it he ate it, and if did not like it he kept silent.

5125: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through a different chain of transmitters.

Sahih Muslim| The Book of Sacrifices Kitab Al-Adahi

Sahih Muslim - Book 22

Sahih Muslim| The Book of Sacrifices

Sahih Muslim |Book 22
The Book of: Sacrifices Kitab Al-Adahi
Contents of Book 20:  8 Chapters, 60 Hadith

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Introduction 

Religion, at its highest and best, is the devotion of the total self, through service and adoration, to the Almighty Who controls the universe. In this sense all the manifold rites, consecrations, and purifications, offerings and sacred feasts, all the working of asceticism and morality are only the indirect expression of the inner experience of religion-the experience of trust, surrender, yearning and enthusiasm. Sacrifice, whether that of wealth or desires, is the practical proof of man’s devotion to his Creator. It is in fact religion in action.

The Holy Qur’an expresses this attitude of mind and heart in the following words:” Say: Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, and my living and my dying are for God (alone), the Sustainer of all the worlds, in Whose Divinity none has a share. Thus I have been bidden-and I am foremost among those who surrender themselves unto Him” (vi. 162-163).

The ‘Id al-Adha is commemorative of that unparalleled act of devotion of that noble soul. Abraham (peace be upon him), who, in obedience to the Command of his Lord, readily offered the life of his son Isma’il. The Holy Qur’an narrates this soul- stirring event in these words:” And when he (Isma’il) attained the age to assist him in his (Abrahm’s) work, he (Abraham) said: O my son! I see in vision that I offer thee in sacrifice. Now see what is thy view. The son said: O my father, do as thou art commanded.

Thou wilt find me, if God so wills, patient. So when they both had surrendered themselves to (Allah), and he laid him down prostrate on his forehead (for sacrifice), We called out to him: O Abraham, thou hast indeed fulfilled the vision. Thus do We reward the doers of good. Surely this is a manifest trial. And We ransom- ed him with a great sacrifice. And We left (this blessing) for him among the later generations. Peace be upon Abraham I Thus indeed do We reward those who do good; for he was one of Our believing servants” (xxxvii. 102-111)

In the above-quoted verses ‘axim (great), the adjective qualifying” Sacrifice.” may be understood both in literal and figurative sense. In literal sense it implies that a big ram was substituted. The figurative sense is even more important. It was indeed a great and momentous occasion, when two men with concentrated will ranged themselves in ranks of those to whom self-sacrifice in the service of God was the supreme thing in life. Similarly, the words” thou hast indeed fulfilled the vision” show that it was not in fact the act of slaughtering which was needed for the fulfilment of the vision, but it was the attitude of submission and surrender, an attitude of preparedness to sacrifice one’s all in the path of Allah. that was demanded of Abraham and his illustrious son, and they eminently stood this test.

Readiness to Sacrifice One’s Life. In Islam the act of sacrifice is the symbol of a Muslim’s readiness to lay down his life, and to sacrifice all his interests and desires in the cause of truth. The purpose of sacrifice is not fulfilled only by shedding the blood of an animal, but it is really fulfilled when a man submits himself completely to the command of Allah. This has been clearly laid down in Sura Hajj, verse 37;” Not their flesh, nor their blood reaches Allah, but it is the piety from you that reaches Him. ” This verse eloquently speaks of the fact that sacrifice in Islam is nothing else than a natural expression of homage and gratitude to the Creator.

It is the spirit of willing devotion and cheerful obedience underlying sacrifices that is accepted by Allah Who is the Fountainhead of all morality. It is only piety of heart. nobility of soul and righteousness of conduct, that is acceptable to Him. It is essentially symbolic, an external symbol of dedication, devotion to Allah. Tafsir Ibn Kathir stresses this point:” The man who offers sacrifice should keep this fact uppermost in his mind that the most important motive behind this is the willing submission to Allah” ‘ (Vol. VI, p. 183).

Such truths, so self-evident to the Muslim readers, needed a clear and emphatic enunciation in view of the horrible misconceptions which had crowded round the act of sacrifice before Islam. ” Throughout the Semitic field,” observes Robertson Smith, in his well known book. The Religion of the Semitics, the fundamental idea of sacrifice was that of communion between the God and his worshipper by joint participation in the living flesh and blood of a sacred victim” (p. 49).

” The Greeks also looked upon sacrifice as a ‘Communion feast’ with the Divinity, in which the God and his people became of one flesh by partaking together of the flesh of the victim; the animal was regarded, as in some degree, divine, as having the divine spirit incarnate in it. Among the Babylonians the gods feast in heaven, they eat the offerings, they scent the savour, like flies do they gather themselves together with the offerers” (Hastings, Encyclopedia of Rdigion & Ethics, Article” Sacrifice” ).

The Holy Qur’an strikes at the very root of such wrong concepts of sacrifice and asserts that” it is neither the flesh nor the blood of (animals) that reaches Allah, but it is your piety that reaches Him,” for God does not stand In need of food or blood. What He, in fact, desires is the devotion and piety of our hearts. and, as a symbol of such offer, the visible institution of sacrifice has been instituted. The Holy Qur’an has further elucidated the main parpose of the institution of sacrifice.” For every people did We appoint rites (of sacrifice) that they might celebrate the name of God over the sustenance He gave them from animals (fit for food).

But your God is One God. Sub- mit then your wills to him (in Islam)…. The sacrificial camels We have made for you as among the symbols from God. In them is (much) good for you So mention the name of Allah on them standing in a row. Then when they fall down on their sides, eat of them, feed the contented one and the beggar. Thus have We made them subservient to you that you may be grateful” (xxii. 34-38).

The Qur’an testifies to the historical fact that whatever may be the outward symbols of sacrifice, it has been accepted in one form or another by all the nations of the world. It had been a fundamental element of both Jewish and Gentile religions, and Christianity. It had been corrupted by many wrong practices and been overlaid by many wrong notions before the advent of Islam.

Islam purifies it from all wrong notions and practices connected with it, and makes it explicitly clear that the act of sacrifice is an outward symbol of man’s readiness to lay down his life, if required, and to surrender all his interests in the cause of truth and righteousness.

The words” We have made them (subservient) to you” have a very wide significance. A Muslim has been awakened to the realisation of the fact that if they offer as a sacrifice an animal over which they hold control, it is their bounden duty to lay down their lives in the way of Allah, Who is not only their Master, but also their Creator and Sustainer and Who. therefore, exercises a far greater authority over them than they do over the animals. This should be the true motive of sacrifice, and itis with this spirit that this act should be performed.

The Qur’anic words” To Him is acceptable observance of duty on your part” make it abundantly clear that the prevalent idea of atonement that” it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul” (Leviticus; 17: 11) has no foundation in Islam. The expiation of sin in Islam rests entirely on the good deeds of men, repentance of the Winners and the Forgiving and Merciful nature of God ‘This fact cuts the ground from under the feet of any theory of an atoning sacrifice.

The opening verse” For every people did We appoint rites (of sacrifice) that they might celebrate the name of God over the beast cattle wherewith He bath provided them,” speaks of the fact that the very idea of human sacrifice is repugnant to the true religion and Allah has never given it sanction.

This practice of human sacrifice was not uncommon before Islam.” Both on the mainland of Greece and in the Greek colonies human sacrifice was practised, usually as a means towards expulsion of evil” (Encydopaedia Britannica, Article’on” Sacrifice” ). it occupied a prominent place in the ritual of the mother goddesses of ancient times.

” The ordinary form of sacrifice,” says E. O. James, in his famous book, The origins of Sacrifice,” consisted in stripping the victim of his ornaments, stretching him over the convex sacrificial stones and while fare priests held his arms, legs, head, the high priests or sacrificer cut open his breast with a flint or obsidian knife, and tore out the heart.

This was held up to the sun to provide it with nourishment, before it was cast into a basin of Copal placed in a position to enable the blood and incense to ascend to the gods. The body was hurled down the steps of the temple to the court where it was seized by the priest or by the warrior who captured the victim.

Some times a solemn feast was then held on the flesh, the skin having first been removed to be worn ceremonially by men who seem to have acquired thereby the fertilising nd health-giving qualities of the victim. Some of the blood was carried to certain temples and smeared on the hips of the images of gods” (pp. 84-6). Islam has not only exterminated the very idea of human sacrifice, but has completely ended all such inhuman practices which were very common with the people before Islam.

The Holy Qur’an makes a pointed reference to the fact that this sacrifice of animals is commemorative of Abraham’s offer of his son’s life at the Command of Allah, who was substituted by a ram, and it has been perpetuated by Islam. It is narrated that once the Companions of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) asked him about the sacrifice.

He replied:” This is commemorative Sunnah of your father Abraham” (vide Ibn Kathir, Vol. III, p. 221). That this practice of sacrifice was already prevalent amongst the people before Islam can be well borne out by the fact that we find clear references to it in the poetry of pre-Islamic Arabia. The well. known poet Umayya observes:

Abraham was one who would fulfil the pledges and offer sacrifices for Allah’s sake. Thus he offered the life of his only son whose separation and whose risk of life, he could not bear.

He said,” O my son I have pledged you to Allah.
May I sacrifice my life for you!
Be steadfast and firm.”

He had hardly taken off the shirt of his son, when Allah substituted Isma’il by a stout ram. Not only this practice of sacrifice has been preserved in Islam, but even the way of Abraham’s has been declared to he one of righteousness and truthfulness:

” Say: Behold, my Lord has guided me to a way that is straight-a religion of Right Path-the Path (trodden) by Abraham, who was wholly devoted to God, and was not of those who ascribe divinity to any beside him” (vi. 161).

Even the Millat has been assigned a name after the name of Abraham: ” He hath selected you and hath not placed upon you any hardship in religion-the religion of your father, Abraham. He named you Muslims before this, and in this, that the Messenger may be a witness to you and you may he witnesses to mankind” (xxii. 78).

Historical Continuity, The constant reference to the earlier Prophets and the Qur’anic testimony to their righteousness and the preservation of some of their religious practices have been done to awaken the people to the realisation of a fundamental fact, i. e. the fact of the historical continuity of religious experience. The Muslims have been asked to believe in that which has been revealed unto Prophet Muhammad (may peace be upon him) as well as in that which was revealed before him.

Life-so the Qur’an teaches us-is not a series of disconnected parts but a continuous, organic process: and this law applies also to the law of the mind, of which man’s religious experience (in its cumulative sense) is a part. To make religious experience more living, to set Allah the Ever-living with loving vividness before the eyes of living men, to make them feel Him as actually and eternally present in their lives, man needs a path, clear-cut path, lightened with glories of the Messengers of Allah-a path on which one should not feel lonely but the strength of comradeship of those noble souls upon whom Allah has bestowed His choicest blessings.

A few words may be said about the way how an animal should be slaughtered according to the teachings of Islam. Three are the aims which should be kept before the mind while slaughtering the animal:

It should be slaughtered by reciting the name of Allah and glorifying Him.

It should be slaughtered with a sharp knife so that its jugular vein may be cut with the minimum possible pain and its skin should not be removed and limbs should not be cut so long as there is any sign of life in it.

The head should not be removed from the body abruptly but only the jugular vein should be cut so that even the last drop of blood flows out of its body. If the animal is beheaded with a stroke, the blood congeals in its veins which makes the flesh distasteful and pernicious to health.

Chapter 1| The proper time for sacrifice

4818: Jundab b. Sufyan reported: I was with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) on the day of ‘Id al-Adha. While he had not returned after having offered (the Id prayer) and finished it, he saw the flesh of the sacrificial animals which had been slaughtered before he had completed the prayer. Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: One who slaughtered his sacrificial animal before his prayer or our prayer (‘Id), he should slaughter another one in its stead, and he who did not slaughter, he should slaughter by reciting the name of Allah.

4819: Jundab b. Sufyan reported: I was with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) (on the occasion) of ‘Id al-Adha. After he had completed the prayer with people, he found that the goats had been slaughtered, whereupon he said: He who slaughtered sacrificial animal before the prayer should slaughter a goat (again) in its stead and he who has not slaughtered he should slaughter it by reciting the name of Allah.

4820: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of al-Aswad b. Qais with the same chain of transmitters.

4821: Jundab al-Bajali reported: I saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) observing (‘Id) prayer on the Day of Sacrifice (10th of Dhu’l-Hijja) and then delivering a sermon and he said: He who sacrificed the (animal) before offering (‘Id) prayer, he should offer again in its stead, and he who did not sacrifice the animal should slaughter it by reciting the name of Allah.

4822: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba through another chain of transmitters.

4823: Al-Bara’ reported: My maternal uncle Abu Burda sacrificed his animal before (‘Id) prayer. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: That is a goat (slaughtered for the sake of) flesh (and not as a sacrifice on the day of Adha). He said: I have a lamb of six months. Thereupon he said: Offer it as a sacrifice, but it will not justify for anyone except you, and then said: He who sacrificed (the animal) before (‘Id) prayer, he in fact slaughtered it for his own self, and he who slaughtered after prayer, his ritual of sacrifice became complete and he in fact observed the religious practice of the Muslims.

4824: Al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib reported: That his maternal’uncle Abu Burda b. Niyar sacrificed his animal earlier than the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) had sacrificed. Thereupon he said: Apostle of Allah, it is the day of meat and it is not desirable (to have longing for it and not to make use of it immediately), so I hastened in offering my animal as a sacrifice, so that I might feed my family and neighbours and my kith and kin.

Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Offer again your sacrifice. He said: Messenger of Allah, I have a small milch goat of less than one year, and that is better than two dry goats (from which only) meat (can be acquired). Thereupon he said: That is better than the two animals of sacrifice on your behalf, and the sacrifice of a goat, of less than six months shall not be accepted as a sacrifice on behalf of anyone after your (sacrifice).

4825: Al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) delivered an address on the day (of Nahr) in which he said: None of you should offer sacrifice of animals until he has completed the (‘Id) prayer. Thereupon my maternal uncle said: Messenger of Allah, it is the day of meat, so it is not desirable (to keep my family in the state of longing). The rest of the hadith is the same.

4826: Al-Bara’ reported:Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: He who observes prayer like our prayer and turns his face towards our Qibla (in prayer) and who offers sacrifices (of animals) as we do, he must not slaughter the (animal as a sacrifice) until he has completed the prayer. Thereupon my maternal uncle said: Messenger of Allah, I have sacrificed the animal on behalf of my son. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: This is the thing in which you have made haste for your family. He said: I have a goat with me better than two goats. Thereupon he said: Sacrifice it for that is the best.

4827: Al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib reported:

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: The first (act) with which we started our day (the day of ‘Id-ul Adha) was that we offered prayer. We then returned and sacrificed the animals and he who did that in fact adhered to our Sunnah (practice).

And he who slaughtered the (animal on that day before the ‘Id prayer), for him (the slaughtering of animal was directed to the acquiring of) meat for his family, and there is nothing of the sort of sacrifice in it. It was Abu Burda b. Niyar who had slaughtered (the animal before the ‘Id prayer). He said: I have a small lamb, of less than one year, but better than that of more than a year. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) qaid: Sacrifice it, but it will not suffice (as a sacrifice) for anyone after you.

4828: A hadith like this has been narrated on the authority of al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib through another chain of transmitters.

4829: al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) addressed us on the day of Nahr after the (‘Id) prayer. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4830: Al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib reported:  Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) addressed us on the day of Nahr and said: None should sacrifice the animal unless he has completed the (‘Id) prayer. A person said: I have a milch goat of less than one year, better than two fat goats. Thereupon he said: Sacrifice it, and no goat of less than a year of age will be accepted as sacrifice after you.

4831: Al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib reported:  That Abu Burda slaughtered the animal as a sacrifice before the (‘Id) prayer. Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Offer a substitute for it (since it does not absolve you of the responsibility of sacrifice). Thereupon he said: Allah’s Messenger. I have nothing with me but a goat of less than six months. Shu’ba (one of the narrators) said: I think he (al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib also) said: And it is better than a goat of one year. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Make it a substitute for that (and sacrifice it), but it will not suffice for anyone (as a sacrifice) after you.

4832: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters, but did not mention tht doubt (expressed in his statement) That is (the goat of less than a year) is better than a goat of more than one year.

4833: Anas (b. Malik) reported:  Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said on the day of Nahr (Sacrifice): He who slaughtered (the animal as a sacrifice) before the (‘Id) prayer. should repeat it (i. e. offer another animal). Thereupon a person stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, that is the day when meat is much desired, and he also made a mention of the need of his neighbour, and perhaps Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) attested it.

He (the person who had sacrificed the animal before the ‘Id prayer) said: I have a goat of less than one year of age with me and I like it more than two fleshy goats; should I offer it as a sacrifice? He permitted him to do so. He (the narrator) said: I do not know whether this permission was granted to anyone else besides him or not. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) then turned towards two rams. and he slaughtered them, and the people’ came to the goats and got them distributed amongst themselves (for offering them as sacrifice).

4834: Anas b. Malik reported:  that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) offered the ‘Id prayer and then delivered the sermon giving the command: He who slaughtered the animal before prayer should slaughter (another animal as a sacrifice). The rest of the hadith is the same.

4835: Anas b. Malik reported:  Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) addressed us on the day of ‘Id al-Adha. He smelt the odour of flesh and he prohibited thern from slaughtering (the animals before the ‘Id prayer), saying: He who slaughtered the animals (before the ‘Id prayer) should do that again (as it is not valid as a sacrifice).

Chapter 2| Of What Age The Animal Is To Be Sacrificed

4836: Jabir reported:  Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Sacrifice only a grown-up animal, unless it is difficult for you, in which case sacrifice a ram (of even less than a year, but more than six months’ age).

4837: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:  Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) led us in the ‘Id prayer in Medina on the Day of Sacrifice. Some persons slaughtered their animals ahead of him under the impression that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) had-already offered sacrifice. Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Those who had slaughtered their animals ahead of him should slaughter the other ones in their stead. And they should not sacrifice the animal before Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had sacrificed (his animal)

4838: Uqba b. ‘Amir reported:  That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave the gifts of goats to be distributed amongst his Companions. They sacrificed them, but a lamb of one year of age was left. (Someone) made a mention of that to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), whereupon he said: You sacrifice it.

4839: Amir al-Juhani reported:  Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) distributed sacrificial animals (amongst us for sacrificing them on ‘Id al-Adha). So we sacrificed them. There fell to my lot a lamb of less than one year I said: Allah’s Messenger, there has fallen to my lot a lamb (Jadha’a), whereupon he said: Sacrifice that.

4840: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of ‘Uqba b. ‘Amir al-Juhan with a slight change of wording.

Chapter 3| It is meritorious to sacrifice the animal with one’s own hand and so is meritorious the recitation of Bismillah (in the name of Allah) and Takbir (Allah-o-Akbar)

4841: Anas reported:  That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sacrificed with his own hands two horned rams which were white with black markings reciting the name of Allah and glorifying Him (saying Allah-o-Akbar). He placed his foot on their sides (while sacrificing).

4842: Anas reported:  That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sacrificed two horned rams of white colour with black markings over them. He also stated: I saw him sacrificing them with his own hand and saw him placing his foot on their sides, and recited the name of Allah and Glorified Him.

4843: Shu’ba reported:  Qatada informed me that he had heard Anas saying that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be npon him) sacrificed (the horned rams) and like that. I said: Did you (Qatada) hear from Anas? He said. Yes.

4844: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Anas with a slight variation of wording.

4845: ‘A’isha reported:  That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded that a ram with black legs, black belly and black (circles) round the eyes should be brought to him, so that he should sacrifice it. He said to ‘A’isha: Give me the large knife, and then said: Sharpen it on a stone. She did that. He then took it (the knife) and then the ram; he placed it on the ground and then sacrificed it, saying: Bismillah, Allah-humma Taqabbal min Muhammadin wa Al-i-Muhammadin, wa min Ummati Muhammadin (In the name of Allah,” O Allah, accept [this sacrifice] on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the Umma of Muhammad” ).

Chapter 4| Permissibility of slaughtering the animal with anything which may make its blood flow, except tooth, nail and bone.

4846: Rafi’ b. Khadij is reported to have said:  Allah’s Messenger, we are going to encounter the enemy tomorrow, but we have no knives with us. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Make haste or be careful (in making arrangements for procuring knives) which would let the blood flow (and along with it) the name of Allah is also to be recited. Then eat, but not the tooth or nail. And I am going to tell you why it is not permissible to slaughter the animal with the help of tooth and bone; and as for the nail.

It is a bone, and the bone is the knife of Abyssinians. He (the narrator) said: There fell to our lot as spoils of war camels and goats, and one of the camels among them became wild. A person (amongst usl struck It with an arrow which brought it under control. Whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: This camel became wild like wild animals, so if you find any animal getting wild, you do the same with that.

4847: Rafi’ b. Khadij reported:  While we were with Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) in Dhu’I-Hulaifa in Tihama, we got hold of goats and camels. Some persons (amongst us) made haste and boiled (the flesh of goats and camels) in their earthen pots. He then commanded and these were turned over; then he equalised ten goats for a camel. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4848: Rafi’ b. Khadij reported:  From his grandfather that he said: Allah’s Messenger, we are going to encounter the enemy tomorrow, but we do not have long knives with us, should we then slaughter them with the peel of the reed? The rest of the hadith is the same. (And at the end the words are):” A camel became wild (and got out of our control). We attacked it with arrows until we made it fall down.” This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Sa’id b. Masruq with the same chain of transmitters with a slight variation of words.

4849: Rafi’ b. Khadij reported:  That he said: Allah’s Messenger, we are going to encounter the enemy tomorrow. And we do not have large knives with us. The rest of the hadith is the same, but no mention is made of this:” The people hastened and they boiled (flesh) in the earthen pots. He (the Holy Prophet), cammanded and these were turned over and the narrator narrated the whole event.

Chapter 5| It was not permissible to eat the flesh of sacrificial animals beyond three days at the beginning of islam, but this prohibition was abrogated, and now it is permissible.

4850: Abu Ubaid reported:

I was with ‘Ali b. Abi Talib on the occasion of the ‘Id day. He started with the ‘Id prayer before delivering the sermon, and said: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade us to eat the flesh of our sacrificial animals beyond three days.

4851: Abu ‘Ubaid, the freed slave of Ibn Azhar, reported:  That he said ‘Id (prayer) with Umar b. al-Khattab, and then said the ‘Id (prayer) with ‘Ali b. Abu Talib. He (the narrator further) reported: He led us in prayer before delivering the sermon and then addressed the people saying: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has forbidden you to eat the flesh of your sacrificial animals beyond three nights, so do not eat that.

4852: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters.

4853: Ibn ‘Umar reported kllah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) having said: None of you shculd eat the flesh of his sacrificial animal beyond three days.

4854: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar through another chain of transmitters.

4855: Ibn ‘Umar reported:  That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade that the flesh of sacrificial animals be eaten beyond three (days) Salim (son of Ibn Umar) said: Ibn ‘Umar did not eat the flesh of the sacrificial animals beyond three (days). Ibn Abu ‘Umar said:” Beyond three days.”

4856: Abdullah b. Waqid reported:  Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (people) to cat the flesh of sacrificed animals beyond three days. Abdullah b. Abu Bakr said, I made a mention of that to ‘Amra, whereupon she said: He has told the truth, for I heard ‘A’isha say: The poor among the people of the desert come (to the towns) on the occasion of Id al-Adha during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). Upon this Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Retain with you (the flesh) sufficing for three (days), and whatever is left out of that give in charity.

After this. they (the Muslims) said: Allah’s Messenger, the people make waterskins with the (hides) of their sacrificed animals and they melt fat out of them. Thereupon he said. What the then? They said: You forbade (us) to eat the flesh of sacrificial animals beyond threoq (days), whereupon he said: I forbade you for those (poor persons) who flocked (to the towns on this occasion for getting meat) but now when (this situation has improved) you may eat, preserve and give -in charity.

4857: Jabir reported:  That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade eating of the flesh of sacrificed animals beyond three (days). but afterwards said: Eat, make a provision, and keep it.

4858: Jabir b. Abdullah reported:  We did not eat the flesh of our sacrificial animals beyond three days in Mina. Then Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) permitted us saying: Eat and make it a provision (for journey). I asked ‘Ata’ whether Jabir had also said: Till we came to Medina. He said: Yes.

4859: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:  We did not eat the flesh of sacrificed animals beyond three (days), but then Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded us to make it a provision for journey and cat it (beyond three days).

4860: Jabir reported: We made provision (out of the flesh of sacrificed animals for our journey) to Medina during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him).

4861: Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported:  Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: O people of Medina, do not eat the flesh of sacrificed animals beyond three days. Ibn al-Muthanni said: Three days. They (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) complained to the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) that they had children and servants of theirs (to feed), whereupon he said: Eat, and feed others, and store, and make it a provision of food.

4862: Salama b. al-Akwa’ reported:  Allah’s Messenger (way peace be upon him) having said: He who sacrifices (animal) among you nothing should be left in his house (out of its flesh) on the morning of the third day. When it was the next year they (his Companions) said: Should we do this year as we did daring the previous year? Thereupon he said: Don’t do that, for that was a year when the people were hard pressed (on account of poverty). so I wanted that the (flesh) might be distributed amongst them.

4863: Thauban reported:  That Allah’s Messenger (way peace be upon him) slaughtered his sacrificial animal and then said: Thauban, make his meat usable (for journey), and I continuously served him that until he arrived in Medina.

4864: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Mu’awiya b. Salih with the same chain of transmitters.

4865: Thauban, the freed slave of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to me on the occasion of Hajjat-al-Wada’ (the Farewell Pilgrimage): Make the flesh usable. So I made it usable (for him) and he ate it constantly until he reached Medina. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Yabya b. Hamza with the same chain of transmitters, but he did not say: On the occasion of Hajjat-al-Wada’.

4866: Abdullah b. Buraida reported on the authority of his father:  That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said this: I prohibited you from visiting the graves, but (now) you may visit them, and I prohibited you (from eating) the flesh of sacrific- ed animals beyond three days, but now keep it as long as you like. I prohibited you from the use of Nabidh except (that preoared) in dry waterskins. Now drink (Nabidh prepared in any utensil), but do not drink when it becomes intoxicant.

4867: Ibn Buraida, on the authority of his father, reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: I used to forbid you. The rest of the hadith is the same.

Chapter 6| Sacrificing of Fara’ and ‘Atira are idolatrous practices.

4868: Abu Huraira reported:  Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: (The sacrifice of Fara’ and ‘Atira) has no (sanction in Islam). Ibn Rafi’ made this addition in his narration that Fara’ means the first-born young one of a camel.

Chapter 7| It is not permissible for one who intends to sacrifice the animal to get one’s hair or nails cut after the beginning of Dhu’l-Hijja.

4869: Umm Salama reported:  Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: When any one of you intending to sacrifice the animal enters in the month (of Dhu’l-Hijja) he should not get his hair or nails touched (cut). It was said to Sufyan that some of the (scholars) did not deem this hadith to be Maffu’. He said: But I deem it as Marfu’ (i. e. chain of narration traceable right up to the Holy Prophet).

4870: Umm Salama reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: If anyone of you intends to offer sacrifice he should not get his hair cut or nails trimmed.

4871: Umm Salama reported:  (these words) directly from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him): If anyone has in his possession a sacrificial animal to offer as a sacrifice (on ‘Id al-Adha), he should not get his hair cut and nails trimmed after he has entered the first days of Dhu’l Hijja

4872: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Amr b. Muslim with the same chain of transmitters.

4873: Umm Salama, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) to have said: He who has a sacrificial animal with him whom (he intends) to offer as sacrifice, and he enters the month of Dhu’I-Hijja, he should not get his hair cut or nails trimmed until he has sacrificed the animal.

4874: ‘Amr b. Muslim b. ‘Ammar al-Laithi reported:  While we were in a bathroom just before ‘Id al-Adha some of the persons tried to remove the hair with the help of hair-removing chemicals. Thereupon some of the people owning the bath (or some of the people sitting therein) said that Sa’id b. Musayyib did not approve of it, or he prohibited it. Then I met Sa’id b. Musayyib and made a mention of that to him, whereupon he said: O my nephew, this is the hadith which has been forgotten, and abandoned. Umm Salama, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), narrated to me Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said as narrated above.

4875: Amr b. Muslim al-Jundani reported:  That Ibn Musayyib had told him that it was Umm Salama, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), who had informed him of that as narrated above.

Chapter 8| It is forbidden to sacrifice the animal for anyone besides Allah, the Exalted, and curse upon one who does it.

4876: Abu Tufail ‘Amir b. Withila reported:  I was in the company of ‘Ali b. Abi Talib, when a person came to him, and said: What was it that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) told you in secret? Thereupon he (liadrat ‘All) was enraged and said: Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) did not tell me anything in secret that he hid from people, except that he told me four things.

He said: Commader of Faithful, what are these? He said: Allah cursed him who cursed his father; Allah cursed him who sacrificed for anyone besides Allah; and Allah cursed him who accommodates an innovator (in religion) ; and Allah cursed him who changed the minarets (the boundary lines) of the land.

4877: Abu Tufail reported:  We said to ‘Ali b. Abi Talib: Inform us about something which Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) told you in secret, whereupon he said: He told me nothing in secret which he bid from people, but I heard him say: Allah cursed him who sacrificed for anyone besides Allah; and cursed him who accommodated an innovator; and Allah cursed him who cursed his parents and Allah cursed him who changed the boundary lines (of the land possessed by him).

4878: Abu Tufail reported:  ‘Ali was asked whether Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had showed special favour (by disclosing to him) a thing (which he kept secret from others). Thereupon he said: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) singled us not for (disclosing to us) anything (secret) which he did not make public, (but those few things) which lie in the sheath of my sword. He drew out the written document contained in it and on that (it was mentioned): Allah cursed him who sacrificed for anyone else besides Allah; and Allah cursed him who stole the signposts (demarcating the boundary lines of the) land; and Allah cursed him who cursed his father; and Allah cursed him who accommodated an innovator (in religion).

Sahih Muslim| The Book Of Games – Kitab As-Said

Sahih Muslim - Book 21 - The Book Of Games and Animals

Sahih Muslim| The Book Of Games

Sahih Muslim |Book 21
The Book of: The Book of Games and the Animals Which May Be Slaughtered and the Animals That Are To Be Eaten – Kitab As-Said W’al-Dhabah’ih WaMa Yu’kulu Min Al-Hayawan. Contents of Book 20:  13 Chapters, 79 Hadith

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The Book of Games and the Animals Which May Be Slaughtered and the Animals That Are To Be Eaten – Kitab As-Said W’al-Dhabah’ih WaMa Yu’kulu Min Al-Hayawan.

Chapter 1| Hunting with the help of trained dogs

4732: ‘Adi b. Hatim reported: I said:
Messenger of Allah, I set off trained dogs and they catch for me (the game) and I recite the came of Allah over it (I slaughter the game by reciting Bismillah-i-Allah-o-Akbar), whereupon he said: When you set off your trained dogs and you recited the name of Allah (while setting them off), then eat (the game).

I said: Even if them (the trained dogs) kill that (the game)? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Even if these kill, but (on the condition) that no other dog, which you did not set off (along with your dogs), participates (in catching the game). I said to him: I throw Mi’rad, a heavy featherless blunt arrow, for hunting and killing (the game). Thereupon he said: When you throw Mi’rad, and it pierces, then eat, but if it falls flatly (and beats the game to death), then do not eat that.

4733: ‘Adi b. Hatim reported:
I asked Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) saying: We are a people who hunt with these (trained) dogs, then (what should we do)? Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: When you set of your trained dogs having recited the name of Allah, then eat what these (hounds) have caught for you, oven if it (the game) is killed, provided (the hunting dog) has not eaten (any part of the game). If it has eaten (the game), then you don’t eat it as I fear that it might have caught for its own self. And do not eat in case other dogs have joined your trained dogs.

4734: ‘Adi b. Hatim reported:
That he asked the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) about (hunting) with the help of an arrow having a stub end. He said: If it strikes (the game) with its point, then eat, but if it strikes flatly and it dies, that is Waqidh (beaten into death), do not eat that. I asked the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) about (hunting with the help of) dogs, whereupon he said.

When you send your dog (for hunting) reciting the name of Allah, then eat (the game), but if some part of it is eaten (by the dogs, then do not eat that, for it (your dog) has caught that (the-game) for itself. I (again) said: If I find along with my dog another dog, and do not know which of (the dogs) has caught (the game). then (what should I do)? Thereupon he (‘Allah’s Messenger) said: Then don’t eat that, for you recited the name of Allah on your dog and not on the other one.

4735: Adi b. Hatim reported:
I asked Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about Mi’rad (i. e. hunting with the help of arrow having a stub end, and he stated the same (as we find in the previous hadith).

4736: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of ‘Adi b. Hatim with a slight variation of words.

4737: ‘Adi b. Hatim reported: I asked Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about hunting the game with the help of Mi’rad, whereupon he said: If it strikes (the game) with its point, then eat it, but if it strikes flat, that is (the game is) beaten (into death), (then do not eat that) ‘Adi further said:

I asked him about hunting with the help of a dog, whereupon he said: If that (the dog) catches it (the game) for you and does not eat out of that, then you eat (the game) for Dhakat (slaughtering) of that is its being caught by it (by the dog). But if you find another dog besides it, and you fear that that dog (the second one) had caught it (the game) along with that (your dog) and killed it. then don’t eat; for you recited the name of Allah on your dog and did not recite that on the other one (which joined your dog incidentally).

4738: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zakariya b. Abu Za’ida with the same chain of transmitters.

4739: Sha’bi reported:
I heard Adi b. Hatim say-and he was our neighbour, and our partner and co worker at Nahrain-that he asked Allah’s Apostle (may peace he upon him) saying: I let off my dog and find another dog along with my dog and that (any one of them) catches the (game), but I do not know which one had caught it, whereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Then don’t eat that, for you recited the name of Allah while letting off your dog and did not recite on the other.

4740: This hadith has been narrated oif the authority of ‘Adi b. Hatim through another chain of transmitters.

4741: Adi b. Hatim reported:
Allah’s Messenger (way peace be upon him) said to me: When you let off your dog, recite the name of Allah, and if it catches (game for you) and you find it alive, then slaughter it; if you find it killed and that (your dog) has eaten nothing out of that, (even then) you may eat it; but if you find along with your dog another dog, and (the game an) dead, then don’t eat, for you do not know which of the two has killed it.

And if you shoot your arrow, recite the name of Allah, but if it (game) goes out of your sight for a day and you do not find on that but the mark of your arrow, then eat that it you so like, but if you find it drowned in water, then don’t eat that.

4742: ‘Adi b. Hatim reported:
I asked Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about hunting. He said: When you shoot your arrow, recite the name of Allah, and if you find it (the arrow) killed (that). then eat, except when you find it fallen into water, for in that case you do not know whether it is water that caused its death or your arrow.

4743: Abu Tha’laba al-Khushani reported:
I came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Allah’s Messenger, we are in the land of the People of the Book, (so) we eat in their utensils, and (live) in a hunting region. where I hunt with, the help of my bow, and hunt with my trained dog, or with my dog which is not trained. So inform me what is lawful (Halal) for us out of that.

He (the Holy Prophet) said: Regarding what you have mentioned of the fact that you live in the land belonging to the People of the Book and so you eat in their utensils, but if you can get utensils other than theirs, then don’t eat in them; but if you do not find any, then wash them and eat in them.

And regarding what you have mentioned about (your living) in a hunting region, what you hunt, (strike) with the help of your bow, recite the name of Allah (while shooting an arrow) and then eat; and what you catch with the help of your trained dog, recite the name of Allah (while letting oil) the dog and then eat it, and what you get with the help of your untrained dog, (if you find it alive) and slaughter it (according to the law of the Shari’ah), eat it.

4744: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Haiwa with the same chain of transmitters, but with a slight variation of words.

Chapter 2| When the game goes out of sight, but is later on found

4745: Abu Tha’laba reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: If you shoot with your arrow and (the game) goes out of your sight and you find it (later on), then eat that if it has not gone rotten.

4746: Abu Tha’laba reported:
Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying about one who comes three days later on the game he has shot: Eat it, provided it has not gone rotten.

4747: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Tha’laba al- Khushani with a slight variation of (words): He (the Holy Prophet) said in regard to the game killed by (a trained) dog: Eat after three days provided it has not gone rotten.

Chapter 3| It is unlawful to eat fanged beasts of prey and birds with talons

4748: Abu Tha’laba reported:
That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon prohibited the eating of every fanged beast of prey. Zuhri added: We did not bear of it until we came to Syria.

4749: Abu Tha’laba al-Khushani reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) prohibited the eating of all fanged beasts. Ibn Shihab said: I did not bear of this from our ‘Ulama’ in the Hijaz, until Abu Idris narrated that to me and he was one of the jurists of Syria.

4750: Abu Tha’laba al-Khushani reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having prohibited the eating of all fanged beasts of prey. This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters, but with a slight variation of words.

4751: Abu Huraira reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The eating of all fanged beasts of prey is unlawful. This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters.

4752: Ibn ‘Abbas reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) prohibited the eating of all fanged beasts of prey, and all the birds having talons.

4753: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Shu’ba.

4754: Ibn Abbas reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade (the eating) of all the fanged beasts of prey, and of all the birds having talons.

4755: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas through a different chain of transmitters.

Chapter 4| It is permissible to eat the animals of water even if they are dead.

4756: Jabir reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) sent us (on an expedition) and appointed Abu ‘Ubaida our chief that we might intercept a caravan of the Quraish and provided us with a bag of dates. And he found for us nothing besides it. Abu Ubaida gave each of us one date (everyday). I (Abu Zubair, one of the narrators) said: What did you do with that? He said: We sucked that just as a baby sucks and then drank water over that, and it sufficed us for the day until night.

We beat off leaves with the help of our staffs, then drenched them with water and ate them. We then went to the coast of the sea, and there rose before us on the coast of the sea something like a big mound. We came near that and we found that it was a beast, called al-‘Anbar (spermaceti whale). Abu ‘Ubaida said. It is dead. He then said: No (but it does not matter), we have been sent by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in the path of Allah and you are hard pressed (on account of the scarcity of food), so you eat that.

We three hundred in number stayed there for a month, until we grew bulky. He (Jabir) said: I saw how we extracted pitcher after pitcher full of fat from the cavity of its eye, and sliced from it compact piece of meat equal to a bull or like a bull. Abu ‘Ubaida called forth thirteen men from us and he made them sit in the cavity of its eye, and he took hold of one of the ribs of its chest and made it stand and then saddled the biggest of the camels we had with us and it passed under it (the arched rib), and we provided ourselves with pieces of boiled meat (especially for use in our journey).

When we came back to Medina, we went to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and made a mention of that to him, whereupon he said: That was a provision which Allah had brought forth for you. Is there any piece of meat (left) with you, so tnat you give to us that? He (Jabir) said: We sent to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) tome of that (a piece of meat) and he ate it.

4757: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) sent us (on an expedition). We were three hundred riders and our chief (leader) was ‘Ubaida b. al-Jarrah. We were on the look out for a caravan of the Quraish. So we stayed on the coast for half a month, and were so much afflicted by extreme hunger that we (were obliged) to eat leaves. That is why it was called the Detachment of the Leaves. The ocean cast out for us an animal which was called al-‘Anbar (whale). We ate of that for half of the month and rubbed its fat on our (bodies) until our bodies became stout.

Abu ‘Ubaida caught hold of one of its ribs and fixed that up. He then cast a glance at the tallest man of the army and the highest of the camels. and then made him ride over that, and that-tnan passed beneath it (the rib), and many a man could sit in its eye-socket, and we extracted many pitchers of fat from the cavity of its eye. We had small bags containing dates with us (before finding the whale). ‘Ubaida gave every person amongst us a handful of dates (and when the provision ran short), he then gave each one of us one date. And when that (stock) was exhausted, we felt its loss.

4758: ‘Amr reported on the authority of Jabir:
That in the expedition of Khabat (leaves) a person slaughtered three camels, then three, then three, then Abu ‘Ubaida forbade him (to do so fearing that the rides may become short).

4759: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) sent us (on an expedition), and we were three hundred in number, and we were carrying our bags of provisions around our necks.

4760: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent on in expedition a detachment consisting of three hundred (persons) and appointed Abu ‘Ubaida b. Jarrah as their chief. Their provisions ran short: ‘Abu ‘Ubaida collected their provisions in the provision bag. and he fed us (for some time). Later on when the provisions ran short he gave us one date every day.

4761: Jabir b. Abdullah reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent an expedition to the sea coast and I was one among them. The rest of the hadith is the same with a slight variation of wording that in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Wahb b. Kaisan (the words are):” The army ate out of that (the whale) for eighteen days.”

4762: Jabir b. Abdullah reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent an expedition to the land of the tribe of Juhaina, and appointed a person as a chief over them.

Chapter 5| The eating of the flesh of domestic asses is Unlawful.

4763: ‘Ali b. Abi Talib reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade on the Day of Khaibar temporary marriage (Muta’) with women and the eating of the flesh of domestic asses.

4764: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri through a different chain of transmitters with a slight variation of wording.

4765: Abu Tha’laba reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) prohibited (the eating) of the flesh of domestic asses.

4766: Ibn Umar reported that Allah’s Messenger (way peace be upon him) forbade the eating of the flesh of domestic asses.

4767: Ibn ‘Umar reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade the eating of the (flesh) of domestic asses on the Day of Khaibar in spite of the fact that people needed that.

4768: Shaibani reported:
I asked ‘Abdullah b. Abu Aufa about (the lawfulness or unlawfulness of) the flesh of the domestic asses. He said: We experienced hunger on the Day of Khaibar as we were with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). We found domestic asses in the exterior of Medina.

We slaughtered them and our earthen pots were boiling when the announcer of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) made an announcement that the earthen pots should be turned upside down and nothing of the flesh of the domestic asses should be eaten. I said: What kind of prohibition is it that he (the Holy Prophet) has made? He said: We discussed it amongst -ourselves. Some of us aaid that it has been declared unlawful for ever, (whereas others said) it has been declared unlawful since one-fifth (of the booty) has not been given (to the treasury, as is legally required).

4769: Sulaiman Shaibini reported:
I heard Abdullah b. Abu Aufa say: We were smitten with hunger during the nights of Khaibar. On the Day of Khaibar, we fell upon domestic asses and we slaughtered them, and when our earthen pots boiled with them, the announcer of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) made an annoancement that the earthen pots should be turned over, and nothing should be eaten of the flesh of the domestic asses. Some of the people said that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had forbidden (the use of this flesh) for one-fifth (due to the State) has not been paid, while others said: He prohibited it for ever.

4770: ‘Adi (he was the son of Thabit) said:
I heard al-Bara’ and ‘Abdullah b. Abu Aufa say: We found domestic asses and we cooked them. Then the announcer of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) made an announcement that the earthen pots should be turned over.

4771: Al-Bara’ said:
We found on the Day of Khaibar domestic asses, and the announcer of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) made an announcement that the earthen pots should be turned over.

4772: Bara was heard saying: We were forbidden (to eat) the flesh of the domestic asses.

4773: Bara’ b. ‘Azib reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded us to throw away the flesh of domestic asses whether uncooked or cooked; he then never commanded us to eat that. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Asim with the same chain of transmitters.

4774: Ibn ‘Abbas reported:
I do not know whether Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) prohibited (the eating of the domestic ass) due to the fact that they were the beasts of burden for the people, so he (the Holy Prophet) did not like their beasts of burden to be destroyed (as a matter of expediency), or he prohibited the use of the flesh of domestic asses (not as an expediency but as a law of the Shari’ah) on the Day of Khaibar.

4775: Salama b. Akwa’ reported:
We went to Khaibar with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). Then Allah granted (us) victory over them. On that very evening of the day when they had been granted victory, they lit many fires. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: What are those fires and what for those have been lit? They said: (These have been lit) for (cooking) the flesh.

Thereupon he said: Of what flesh? They said: For the flesh of the domestic asses. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace bo upon him) said: Throw that away and break them (the earthen pots in which the fiesa was being cooked). A person said: Messenger of Allah, should we throw it away and wash them (the cooking pots)? He said: You may do so.

4776: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Yazid b. Abu Ubaid.

4777: Anas reported:
When Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) conquered Khaibar, we caught hold of the asses outside the village. We cooked them (their flesh). Then the announcer of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) made the announcement: Listen, verily Allah and His Messenger have prohibited you (the eating of) their (flesh), for it is a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing. Then the earthen pots were turned over along with what was in them, and these were brimming (with flesh) at that time.

4778: Anas b. Malik reported:
When it was the Day of Khaibar a visitor came and said: Messenger of Allah, the asses have been eaten. Then another came and said: Messenger of Allah, the asses are being destroyed. Then Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded Abu Talha to make an announcement that Allah and His Messenger have prohibited you (from eating) of the flesh of (domestic) asses, for these are loathsome or impure. He (the narrator) said: The earthein pots were turned over along with what was in them.

Chapter 6| Pertaining to the eating of the flesh of the Horse.

4779: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) prohibited eating of the flesh of domestic asses on the Day of Khaibar, and permitted the cooking of the flesh of horses.

4780: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah is reported to have said:
We ate during the time of Khaibar the (flesh) of horses and of wild asses, but Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) prohibited us (to eat) the flesh of domestic asses. This hadith has hen transmitted on the authority of Ibn Juraij.

4781: Asma’ reported: We slaughtered a horse and ate it during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him).

4782: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Hisham.

Chapter 7| Pertaining to the flesh of the lizard.

4783: Ibn ‘Umar reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about the eating of (the flesh) of the lizard, whereupon he said: I am neither the eater of it nor its prohibitor.

4784: Ibn ‘Umar reported:
A person asked Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about the eating of the lizard, whereupon he said. I neither eat it, nor do I prohibit it.

4785: Ibn ‘Umar reported:
That a person asked Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as he was sitting on the pulpit about the eating of the lizard, whereupon he said: I neither eat it, nor do I prohibit it.

4786: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Ubaidullah with the same chain of transmitters.

4787: A hadith pertaining to the eating of the lizard is transmitted from the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar, but in this very hadith narrated through a different chain of transmitters there is a slight variation of wording (and the words are):” A lizard was brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) but he neither ate that nor declared it unlawful.” And in the hadith transmitted through Usama (the words are):” The man (inquirer) was standing in the mosque and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was sitting on the pulpit.”

4788: Ibn ‘Umar reported:
That there were some persons with Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) from among his Companions, Sa’d being one of them. There was brought to them the flesh of the lizard when a lady amongst the wives of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: It is the flesh of the lizard. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (way peace be upon him) &aid: Eat, for it is lawful, but it is not my diet.

4789: Taubat Al-‘Anbari reported:
Al-Sha’bi (one of the narrators) asked me if I had heard the hadith transmitted on the authority of Hasan from the Prophet (may peace be upon him). He said: I sat in the company if Ibn ‘Umar for two years or a year and a half but I did not hear narrated from Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) but this one (pertaining to the flesh of the lizard) as narrated by Mu’adh.

4790: ‘Abdullah b. ‘Abbas reported:
I and Khalid b. Walid went to the apartment of Maimuna along with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and there was presented to him a roasted lizard. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) stretched his hand towards It, whereupon some of the women who had been in the house of Maimuna said: Inform Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) what he intends to eat.

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) lifted his hand. I said: Messenger of Allah, Is it forbidden? He said: No. It is not found in the land of my people, and I feel that I have no liking for it. Khalid said: I then chewed and ate it, while, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was looking (at me).

4791: ‘Abdullah b. ‘Abbas reported:
That Khalid b. Walid who is called the Sword of Allah had informed him that he visited Maimuna, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), in the company of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and she was the sister of his mother (that of Khalid) and that of ‘Ibn Abbas, and he found with her a roasted lizard which her sister Hufaida the daughter of al-Harith had brought from Najd, and she presented that lizard to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). It was rare that some food was presented to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and it was not mentioned or named.

While Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was about to stretch forth his hand towards the lizard, a woman from amongst the women present there informed the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) what they had presented to him. They said: Messenger of Allah, it is a lizard. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) withdrew his hand, whereupon Khalid b. Walid said: Messenger of Allah, is a lizard forbidden?

There opon he  said: No, but it is not found in the land of my people, and I feel that I have no liking for it. Khalid said: I then chewed and ate it, and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was looking at me and he did not forbid (me to eat it).

4792: Khalid b. Walid reported:
That he visited Maimuna daughter of al-Harith with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), and she was the sister of his mother. She presented to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) the flesh of a lizard which Umm Hufaid daughter of al-Harith had brought from Najd, and she had been married to a person belonging to Banu Ja’far.

It was the habit of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) not to eat anything until he knew what that was. The rest of the hadith is the same but with this (addition):” Ibn al-Asamm narrated it from Maimuna and he was under her care.”

4793: Ibn ‘Abbas reported:
While we were in the house of Maimuna there were brought to Allah’s Messenger two roasted lizards. Here no mention is made of al- ‘Asamm narrating from Maimuna.

4794: Ibn ‘Abbas reported:
That there had been brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) the flesh of a lizard and Khalid b. Walid was also present there. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4795: Sa’id b. Jubair reported:
That he heard Ibn ‘Abbas says: The sister of my mother Umm Hufaid presented to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) clarified butter (ghee), cheese and some lizards. He ate out of the clarified butter and cheese, but lett the lizard finding no liking for it. But it was eaten on the table of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). Had it been forbidden (haram), it could not be eaten on the table of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him).

4796: Yazid b. al-Asamm reported:
A newly wedded person of Medina invited us to a wedding feast, and he served us thirteen lizards. There were those who ate it and those who abandoned it. I met Ibn ‘Abbas the next day, and informed him (about this) in the presence of many persons. Some of them said that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had observed: I neither eat it nor forbid (anyone) from eating it, nor declare it to be unlawful. Thereupon Ibn ‘Abbas said: Sad it is what you say! Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) has not been sent, but (to declare in clear words) the lawful and the unlawful (things).

We were once with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be. upon him) as he was with Maimuna, and there were with him al-Fadl b. ‘Abbas, Khalid b. Walid and some women (also) when a tray of food containing flesh was presented to him. As Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) was about to eat that, Maimuna said: It is the flesh of the lizard. He withdrew his hand saying: That is the flesh which I never eat; but he said to them (those who were present there): You may eat. Al-Fadl ate out of that, so did Khalid b Walid, and the women. Maimuna (however) said: I do not eat anything but that which Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) eats.

4797: Abu Zubair reported:
That he heard Jabir b. ‘Abdullah saying that there was presented to Allah’s Messenger (the flesh) of the lizard, but he refused to eat that, saying: I do not know; perhaps it (lizard) might (be one of those natives of) the distant past whose (forms) had beer, distorted.

4798: Abu Zubair reported:
I asked Jabir about ithe eating) of the lizard, whereupon he said: Don’t eat that as he (the Holy Prophet) felt disgust. He (the narrator) said that Umar b. al-Khattab reminded: Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) did not declare it to be unlawful. Allah, the Exalted and Majestic, has (made it a source) of benefit for more than one (persons). It is a common diet of the shepherds. Had it been with me, I would have eaten that.

4799: Abu Sa’id reported:
Tthat a person said: Messenger of Allah, we live in a land abounding in lizards, so what do you command or what verdict you give (about eating of it)? Thereupon he said: It was mentioned to me that a people from among Bani Isra’il were distorted (so there is a likelihood that those people might have been distorted in the shape of lizards). So he neither commanded (us to eat that) nor forbade (us). Abu Sa’id said: After some time Umar said: Allah, the Exalted and Majestic, has made it (a source of) benefit for more than one (person), for it is the common diet of shepherds. Had it been with me, I would have eaten that. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) disliked it.

4800: Abu Sa’id reported:
That an Arab of the desert came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: I live in a low land abounding in lizards, and these are the common diet of my family, but he (the Holy Prophet) did not make any reply. We said to him: Repeat it (your problem) and so he repeated it, but he did not make any reply.

(It was repeated thrice ) Then Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) called him out at the third time saying: O man of the desert, verily Allah cursed or showed wrath to a tribe of Bani Isra’il and distorted them to beasts which move on the earth. I do not know, perhaps this (lizard) may be one of them. So I do not eat it, nor do I prohibit the eating of it.

Chapter 8| Permissibility of eating locusts

4801: Ibn Abu Aufa reported: We went on seven expeditions with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and ate locusts.

4802: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Ya’fur with the same chain of transmitters. Abu Bakr (one of the narrators) said” seven expeditions,” whereas Ishaq said” six,” and Ibn Umar said” six” or” seven”.

4803: This hadith is narrated on the authority of Abu Ya’fur with the same chain of transmitters, and he mentioned seven expeditions.

Chapter 9| Permissibility of eating the flesh of the hare.

Book 021, Number 4804: Anas b. Malik reported:
We chased a hare at Marr az-Zahrin (a valley near Mecca). They (my companions) ran, but felt exhausted; I also tried until I caught hold of it. I brought it to Abu Talha. He slaughtered it and sent its haunch and two hind legs to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) through me; and he accepted them. This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Yahya with a slight change of wording.

Chapter 10| It is permissible to make use of things necessary for hunting and chasing but the use of small pebbles is disapproved.

Book 021, Number 4805: Ibn Buraida reported:
That Abdullah b. al-Mughaffal saw a person from amongst his companions throwing small pebbles, whereupon he said: Don’t throw pebbles. for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) did not like it, or he forbade flinging of pebbles since neither the game is taken thereby, nor an enemy defeated. but it may break a tooth or put out an eye. He, afterwards, again saw him flinging pebbles, and said to him: I inform you that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not approve or he forbade flinging of pebbles, but if I see you again flinging pebbles. I will not speak with you.

4806: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Kahmas.

4807: ‘Abdullah b. Mughaffal reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) prohibited throwing of pebbles. Ibn Ja’far reported (in the narration transmitted by him) that he (the Holy Prophet) said: It neither inflicts defeat to the enemy nor kills the game but breaks the tooth and puts the eye out. This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ibn Mahdi with a slight variation of wording.

4808: Sa’id b. Jubair reported:
That a near one of ‘Abdullah b. Mughaffal threw pebbles. He prohibited him (to do so). He said that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had prohibited the throwing of pebbles by saying: It does not catch the game, nor does it inflict defeat on the enemy, but breaks the tooth and puts the eye out.

He (the near one of Abdullah b. Mughadal) again repeated it (the act of throwing of pebbles) whereupon he said: I narrate to you that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon hish) disliked and prohibited throwing of pebbles, but I see you again throwing pebbles; I (would therefore) not speak with you.

4809: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ayyub with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 11| Good attitude even in slaughter and killing and sharpening of large knife.

4810: Shaddid b. Aus said:
Two are the things which I remember Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: Verily Allah has enjoined goodness to everything; so when you kill, kill in a good way and when you slaughter, slaughter in a good way. So every one of you should sharpen his knife, and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably.

4811: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Khalid al-Hadhdha’ through different chains o transmitters.

Chapter 12| It is forbidden to tie the animals (and then kill them).

4812: Hishim b. Zaid b. Anas b. Milik reported:
I visited the house of al-Hakam b. Ayyub along with my grandfather Anas b. Milik, (and there) some people had made a hen a target and were shooting arrows at her. Thereupon Asas said that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had forbidden tying of the animals (and making them the targets of arrows, etc.). This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba through other chains of transmitters.

Chapter 13| It is forbidden to tie the animal and make it a target of arrows.

4813: Ibn ‘Abbas reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: Do not make anything having life as a target.

4814: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba through a different chain of transmitters.

Book 021, Number 4815: Sa’id b. Jubair reported:
That Ibn ‘Umar happened to pass by a party of men who had tied a hen and were shooting arrows at it. As soon as they saw Ibn ‘Umar, they scattered from it. Thereupon Ibn Umar said: Who has done this? Verily Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has invoked curse upon him who does this.

4816: Sa’id b. Jubair reported:
That Ibn ‘Umar happened to pass by some young men of the Quraish who had tied a bird (and th, is made it a target) at which they had been shooting arrows Every arrow that they missed came into the possession of the owner of the bird. So no sooner did they see Ibn ‘Umar they went away. Thereupon Ibn ‘Umar said: Who has done this? Allah has cursed him who does this. Verily Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) invoked curse upon one who made a live thing the target (of one’s marksmanship).

4817: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade that any beast should be killed after it has been tied.

Sahih Muslim| The Book Of Government – Kitab Al-Imara

Sahih Muslim - Book 20 - The Book Of GOVERNMENT - Kitab Al-Imara

Sahih Muslim| The Book Of Government

Sahih Muslim |Book 20
The Book of: The Book Of Government – Kitab Al-Imara
Contents of Book 20:
  56 Chapters, 258 Hadith

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Introduction| Kitab Al-Imara

Islam is a social religion, not in the sense that it is through society alone that religion breathes its sacred spirit in the individuals, but in the sense that it aims at inculcating God-consciousness both in individual and society. Jesus said: The Kingdom of Heaven is within you. Islam fully subscribes to this view, since no just kingdom can be founded on earth by unjust men, who have not first created the Kingdom of Heaven in their hearts, but Islam goes a step forward and says that the creation of the Kingdom of Heaven within heart is not enough; this Kingdom of Heaven within must be externalized into a Kingdom of Heaven on earth, so that the organised life of man may be built up on the basis of love, fraternity and justice.

It thus becomes clear that the Islamic State is not an end in itself, but a means to an end, the end being the development of a community of people who stand up for equity and justice, for right against wrong or, to phrase it differently, for the creation of such conditions as would enable the greatest possible number of human beings to live spiritually, morally and physically in accordance with the teachings of Islam.

Thus the founding of an Islamic State is not a sort of” worldly activity,” something undesirable, as some people wrongly suppose, but the sine qua non of social justice, as demanded by Islam.” The state,” says Dr lqbal,” from the Islamic standpoint, is an endeavour to transform these ideal principles into space-time forces, an aspiration to realize them in a definite human organization. It is in this sense alone that state in Islam is a theocracy, not in the sense that it is headed by a representative of God on earth who can always screen his despotic will behind his supposed infallibility.

As this State is meant to enforce the law of the Shari’ah within its territorial jurisdiction, it is duty bound to make itself an efficient organ for transforming the high ideals of Islam into reality. The Qur’an, while enumerating the main functions of the Islamic State, says:” Those who, if We establish them in the land, observe worship, and pay the poor-due and enjoin good and forbid evil” (xxii. 41). This shows that the function of an Islamic State is not only to defend its citizens from external attack and internal disorder, but also to enable individual man and woman to realise the tenets of Islam and their beliefs. in the socioeconomic concerts of their practical life.

So far as the nature of the Islamic State is concerned, it is theocracy with regard to God in the sense that the de jure sovereignty belongs to Allah Whose de facto sovereignty is inherent and manifest in the working of the entire universe and Who enjoys exclusively the sovereign prerogative over all the creation. The Holy Qur’an has stressed this point in so many verses: ” The Command is for none but for Allah: He has commanded that ye obey none but Him: that is the right path” (xii. 40). ” Follow the revelation sent unto you from your Lord, and do not follow the (so-called) guardians other than Him” (vii. 3).

” And those who do not make their decisions in accordance with that revealed by Allah are (in fact) the deniers of Truth” (v. 44). It thus becomes quite clear that a State established on the basis of God’s sovereignty cannot enforce any law in contravention of the Qur’an and the Sunnah even if all the citizens make a demand for it. An Islamic State is, therefore, theocratic in one aspect as it is run according to God-given laws, but it is altogether a differmt theocracy of which Europe has had the bitter experience and in which, a priestly clan is sharply marked off from the rest of the population and exercises an unchecked domination and enforces laws of its own making in the name of God, and thus imposes its own godhood upon the common people.

The priest puts himself as a mediator between the masses and the unseen God. Such a system is quite un-Islamic. The theocracy built by  Islam is not ruled by a particular religious class, but by the whole community of Muslims including the rank and file. as Allah has not appointed a particular individual, group, race or class as the representative of the Real Sovereign upon the earth, but the whole community. The Qur’an says:” Allah has promised to those among you who believe and do righteous deeds that He will assuredly make them to succeed (the present) rulers and grant them vicegerency in the land just as He made those before them to succeed (others)” (ixiv. 55).

This verse makes it clear that all believers have been conferred upon the Caliphate and not a special class or dynasty. Moreover, the Caliphate granted by Allah to the faithful is the popular vicegerency and not a limited one and thus it is run with the consent of the people. The concepts of the Divine Right of Kingship and the infallibility of clergy are alien to the spirit of Islam. Every Muslim stands on equal level with the other Muslim as the vicegerent of the Lord upon the earth. None of them, therefore, enjoys any preference to the other by virtue of high birth or belonging to a special religious group.

History is teplete with instances of Caliphs being brought to the court and publicly criticised by ordinary men and women. Even a lowliest villager could dare tell the Commander of the Faithful that he would set him straight like a spindle if he deviates an inch from the poth of righteousness. This shows that the rulers and the officials in the Islamic State are answerable both to God and man for their actions, and the people have every right to criticise. not only their public behaviour, but even their private activities.

In the context of such heavy responsibilities the heading of the Islamic State or assumption of any other important portfolio in its set-up is a very difficult job so much so that that Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) compared it to the slaughtering of one with a blunt knife. No person, therefore. who is conscious of the responsibilities of the job, covets to assume that; he rather shirks it and accepts it only when he is compelled to do so. The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) declared that person to be quite unfit for office in an Islamic State who is covetous of it, as he is either ignorant of its grave responsibilities or desires to take undue advantage of his official power.

We enumerate below some of the important rights and duties of an Islamic State.

As for the rights, the Islamic State can claim full loyalty from all its citizen wholehearted cooperation in all sectors of life and complete obedience to the law of the land and the commands of the rulers so long as they are in comformity with the Laws of the Shari’ah. But where the rulers transgress the limits of the citizens have the right, not only to withdraw co-operation, but also to check the rulers from acting against the Commands of Aliah and His Apostle (may peace be upon him).

The citizens are also required to pay taxes due to the State quite willingly and not to misappropriate its funds, and to participate in Jihad in any capacity for which they are deemed fit by the authorities of the Islamic State. So far as the duties of the Islamic State are concerned, the first and foremost duty is to protect the life, property and honour of every citizen, irrespective of his caste, creed, colour, religion or social status.

Moreover, it is also the duty of the Islamic State to protect the freedom and individual liberty of every citizen so long as there is no valid reason to curtail it. It cannot be done as an arbitrary act. The State is authorised to lay hands upon it through due process of law.

Again, freedom of expression is one of the fundamental rights of the citizen which an Islamic State must respect.

Then, it is also the duty of the Islamic State to see that no citizen remains unprovided for in respect of the basic necessities of life, viz, food, othing, shelter, medical aid and education, for the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said:” The government is the guardian of those who have no guardian.” Moreover, the State is bound to create such conditions in which the good reigns supreme in the society and evil is suppressed and exterminated, and its citizens learn to live as good Muslims.

Chapter 1| The people are subservient to the Quraish and the caliphate is the right of the Quraish

4473: It has been narrarted on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims among them being subservient to the Muslims among them, and the disbelievers among the people being subservient to the disbelievers among them.

4474: It has been narrated on the authority of Hammam b. Munabbih who said: This is one of the traditions narrated by Abu Huraira from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) who said: People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims among them being subservient to the Muslims among them, and the disbelievers among them being subservient to the disbelievers among them.

4475: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. ‘Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: People are the followers of Quraish in good as well as evil (i. e. in the customs of Islamic as well as pre-Islamic times).

4476: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The Caliphate will remain among the Quraish even if only two persons are left (on the earth),

4477: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura who said: I joined the company of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) with my father and I heard him say: This Caliphate will not end until there have been twelve Caliphs among them. The narrator said: Then he (the Holy Prophet) said something that I could not follow. I said to my father: What did he say? He said: He has said: All of them will be from the Quraish.

4478: It has been reported on the authority of Jabir b. Samura who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: The affairs of the people will continue to be conducted (well) as long as they are governed by twelve men. Then the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said words which were obscure to me. I asked my father: What did the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say? He said: All of the (twelve men) will be from the Quraish.

4479: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura through another chain of transmitters.

4480: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: Islam will continue to be triumphant until there have been twelve Caliphs. Then the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said something which I could not understand. I asked my father: What did he say? He said: He has said that all of them (twelve Caliphs) will be from the Quraish.

4481: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: This order will continue to be dominant until there have been twelve Caliphs. The narrator says: Then he said something which I could not understand, and I said to my father: What did he say? My father told me that he said that all of them (Caliphs) would be from the Quraish.

4482: It has been reported on the authority of Jabir b. Samura who said: I went with my father to the Messenger of Allah (may peeace be upon him) and I heard him say: This religion would continue to remain powerful and dominant until there have been twelve Caliphs. Then he added something which I couldn’t catch on account of the noise of the people. I asked my father: What did he say? My father said: He has said that all of them will be from the Quraish.

4483: It has been narrated on the authority of Amir b. Sa’d b. Abu Waqqas who said: I wrote (a letter) to Jabir b. Samura and sent it to him through my servant Nafi’, asking him to inform me of something he had heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He wrote to me (in reply): I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say on Friday evening, the day on which al-Aslami was stoned to death (for committing adultery): The Islamic religion will continue until the Hour has been established, or you have been ruled over by twelve Caliphs, all of them being from the Quraish.

Also heard him say: A small force of the Muslims will capture the white palace, the police of the Persian Emperor or his descendants. I also heard him say: Before the Day of Judgment there will appear (a number of) impostors. You are to guard against them. I also heard him say: When God grants wealth to any one of you, he should first spend it on himself and his family (and then give it in charity to the poor). I heard him (also) say: I will be your forerunner at the Cistern (expecting your arrival).

4484: Ibn Samura al-‘Adawi reported: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) say, and he then narrated (the above-mentioned hadith).

Chapter 2| Appointing anyone as a succeeding caliph or leaving aside the question of appointment.

4485: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar who said: I was present with my father when he was wounded. People praised him and said: May God give you a noble recompense! He said: I am hopeful (of God’s mercy) as well as afraid (of His wrath) People said: Appoint anyone as your successor. He said: Should I carry the burden of conducting your affairs in my life as well as in my death? (So far as Caliphate is concerned) I wish I could acquit myself (before the Almighty) in a way that there is neither anything to my credit nor anything to my discredit.

If I would appoint my successor, (I would because) one better than me did so. (He meant Abu Bakr.) If I would leave You alone, (I would do so because) one better than me, i. e. the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), did so. ‘Abdullah says: When he mentioned the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) I understood that he would not appoint anyone as Caliph.

4486: It has been reported on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar who said:

I entered the apartment of (my sister) Hafsa. She said: Do yoa know that your father is not going to nominate his successor? I said: He won’t do that (i. e. he would nominate). She said: He is going to do that. The narrator said: I took an oath that I will talk to him about the matter. I kept quiet until the next morning, still I did not talk to him, and I felt as if I were carryint, a mountain on my right hand. At last I came to him and entered his apartment. (Seeing me) he began to ask me about the condition of the people, and I informed him (about them).

Then I said to him: I heard something from the people and took an oath that I will communicate it to you. They presume that you are not going to nominate a successor. If a grazer of camels and sheep that you had appointed comes back to you leaving the cattle, you will (certainly) think that the cattle are lost. To look after the people is more serious and grave. (The dying Caliph) was moved at my words. He bent his head in a thoughtful mood for some time and raised it to me and said: God will doubtlessly protect His religion. If I do not nominate a successor (I have a precedent before me), for the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not nominate his successor.

And if I nominate one (I have a precedent), for Abu Bakr did nominate. The narrator (Ibn Umar) said: By God. when he mentioned the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr, I (at once) understood that he would not place anyone at a par with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and would not nominate anyone.

Chapter 3| Prohibition of a desire for a position of authority and covetousness thereof.

4487: It has been reported on the authority of ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Samura who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to me: ‘Abd al-Rahman, do not ask for a position of authority, for if you are granted this position as a result of your asking for it, you will be left alone (without God’s help to discharge the responsibilities attendant thereon), and it you are granted it without making any request for it, you will be helped (by God in the discharge of your duties).

4488: The same tradition has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters.

4489: It has been narrated by Abu Musa who said: Two of my cousins and I entered the apartment of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). One of them said: Messenger of Allah, appoint us rulers of some lands that the Almighty and Glorious God has entrusted to thy care. The other also said something similar. He said: We do not appoint to this position one who asks for it nor anyone who is covetous for the same.

4490: It has been reported on the authority of Abu Musa who said:

I went to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and with me were two men from the Ash’ari tribe. One of them was on my right hand and the other on my left. Both of them made a request for a position (of authority) while the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) was brushing his teeth with a tooth-stick. He said (to me): Abu Musa (or ‘Abdullah b. Qais), what do you say (about the request they have made)? I said: By God Who sent thee on thy mission with truth, they did not disclose to me what they had in their minds, and I did not know that they would ask for a position.

The narrator says (while recalling this hadith): I visualise as if I were looking at the miswak of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) between his lips. He (the Holy Prophet) said: We shall not or shall never appoint to the public offices (in our State) those who with to have them, but you may go, Abu Musa (or Abdullah b. Qais) (to take up your assignment). He sent him to Yemen as governor. then he sent Mu’adh b. jabal in his wake (to help him in the discharge of duties).

When Mu’adh reached the camp of Abu Musa, the latter (received him and) said: Please get yourself down; and he spread for him a mattress, while there was a man bound hand and foot as a prisoner. Mu’adh said: Who is this? Abu Musa said: He was a Jew. He embraced Islam. Then he reverted to his false religion and became a Jew. Mu’adh said: I won’t sit until he is killed according to the decree of Allah and His Apostle (may peace be upon him) (in this case). Abu Musa said: Be seated. It will be done.

He said: I won’t sit unless he is killed in accordance with the decree of Allah and His Apostle (may peace be upon him). He repeated these words thrice. Then Abu Musa ordered him (to be killed) and he was kilied. Then the two talked of standing in prayer at night. One of them, i. e. Mu’adh, said: I sleep (for a part of the night) and stand in prayer (for a part) and I hope that I shall get the same reward for steeping as I shall get for standing (in prayer).

Chapter 4| Undesirability of getting a position of authority without necessity.

4491: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Dharr who said: I said to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him): Messenger of Allah, will you not appoint me to a public office? He stroked my shoulder with his hand and said: Abu Dharr, thou art weak and authority is a trust. and on the Day of judgment it is a cause of humiliation and repentance except for one who fulfils its obligations and (properly) discharges the duties attendant thereon.

4492: It has been reported on the authority of Abu Dharr: That the Messenger of of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Abu Dharr, I find that thou art weak and I like for thee what I like for myself. Do not rule over (even) two persons and do not manage the property of an orphan.

Chapter 5| The merits of a just ruler and the demerits of a tyrant ruler.

4493: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar:

That the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Behold! the Dispensers of justice will be seated on the pulpits of light beside God, on the right side of the Merciful, Exalted and GlorioUS. Either side of the Being is the right side both being equally mrneritorious. (The Dispensers of justice are) those who do justice in their rules, in matters relating to their families and in all that they undertake to do.

4494: It has been reported on the authority of Abd al-Rahman b. Shumasa who said: I came to A’isha to inquire something from her. She said: From which people art thou? I said: I am from the people of Egypt. She said: What was the behaviour of your governor towards you in this war of yours? I said: We did not experience anything bad from him. If the camel of a man from us died, he would bestow on him a camel. If any one of us lost his slave, he would give him a slave.

If anybody was in need of the basic necessities of life, he would provide them with provisions. She said: Behold! the treatment that was meted out to my brother, Muhammad b. Abu Bakr, does not prevent me from telling you what I heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said in this house of mine: O God, who (happens to) acquire some kind of control over the affairs of my people and is hard upon them-be Thou hard upon him, and who (happens to) acquire some kind of control over the affairs of my people and is kind to them-be Thou kind to him.

4495: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abd al-Rahman b. Shumasa with another chain of transmitters.

4496: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar: That the Holy Prophet (May be upon him) said: Beware. every one of you is a shepherd and every one is answerable with regard to his flock. The Caliph is a shepherd over the people and shall be questioned about his subjects (as to how he conducted their affairs).

A man is a guardian over the members of his family and shal be questioned about them (as to how he looked after their physical and moral well-being). A woman is a guardian over the household of her husband and his children and shall be questioned about them (as to how she managed the household and brought up the children). A slave is a guardian over the property of his master and shall be questioned about it (as to how he safeguarded his trust). Beware, every one of you is a guardian and every one of you shall be questioned with regard to his trust.

4497: This tradition has been narrated through more; than one chain of transmitters.

4498: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar, but there is (a slight change of wording) in the hadith transmitted through Zuhri that he said:” I think that he (the narrator) said: The man is a custodian of the wealth of his father, and he would be answerable for what is in his custody.”

4499: A hadith having the same meaning has been transmitted on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar.

4500: It has been narrated on the authority of Hasan who said: Ubaidullah b Ziyad visited Ma’qil b. Yasir al-Muzani in his last iliness. Ma’qil said (to him): I am narrating to you a tradition I heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). If I knew that I am to survive this illness. I would, not narrate it to you. I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: If God appointed anyone ruler over a people and he died while he was still treacherous to his people, God would forbid his entry into Paradige.

4501: It has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters on the authority of Hasan who said: Ibn, Ziyad paid a visit to Ma’qil b. Yasir who was seriously ill. Here follows the same tradition as has gone before with the addition that Ibn Ziyad asked: Why didn’t you narrate this tradition to me before this day? Ma’qil reprimanded him and said: I did not narrate it to you or I was not going to narrate it to you.

4502: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Malik: that Ubaidullah b. Ziyad visited Ma’qil b. Yaser in the latter’s illness. Ma’qil said to him: I am narrating to you a tradition. If I were not at death’s door, I would not narrate it to you. I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) say: A ruler who, having obtained control over the affairs of the Muslims, does not strive for their betterment and does not serve them sincerely shall not enter Paradise with them.

4503: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu al-Aswad who said: My father related to me that Ma’qil b. Yasir fell ill. ‘Ubaidullah b. Ziyad called on him to inquire after his health. Here follows the tradition as narrated by Hasan from Ma’qil.

4504: It has been narrated on the authority of Hasan that A’idh b. ‘Amr who was one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) called on ‘Ubaidullah b. Ziyad and said (to him): O my son, I have heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: The worst of guardians is the cruel ruler. Beware of being one of them. Ubaidullah said (to him out of arrogance): Sit you down. You are from the chaff of the Companions of Muhammad (may peace be upon him). A’idh said: Was there worthless chaff among them? Such worthless chaff appeared after them and among other people.

Chapter 6| Misappropriation of booty is a serious offence.

4505: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira who said: One day the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood among us (to deliver a sermon). He talked about the misappropriation of booty, and declared it to be a serious matter and a grave sin. Then he said: I shouldn’t find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment with a growling camel mounted on his neck, and should appeal to me for help saying:” Messenger of Allah, help me.” and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I already communicated to you.

I shouldn’t find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment with a bleating ewe mounted on his neck, and he should say to me:” Messenger of Allah, help me,” and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I conveyed to you. I shouldn’t find that one of you should come on the Day of Judgment with a Person crying loudly mounted on his neck, and he should say to me:” Messenger of Allah, help me,” and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I conveyed to you.

I shouldn’t find that any one of you should come on the Day of Judgment with fluttering clothes wrapped round his neck and he should say to me:” Messenger of Allah, help me,” and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I conveyed to you. I shouldn’t find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment with a heap of gold and silver placed on his neck and he should say to me:” Messenger of Allah, help me.” and I should say: I have no authority to help you; I already conveyed to you (the warning from the Almighty).

4506: The above tradition has been narrated on the same authority through different chains of transmitters.

4507: Abu Huraira has narrated this hadith with a slight variation of words.

4508: Abu Huraira has narrated this hadith similar to the above mentioned hadith.

Chapter 7| Acceptance of gifts on the part of state officers is forbidden.

4509: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Humaid as-Sa’idi who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed a man from the Asad tribe who was called Ibn Lutbiyya in charge of Sadaqa (i. e. authorised hign to receive Sadaqa from the people on behalf of the State. When he returned (with the collictions), he said: This is for you and (this is mine as) it was presented to me as a gift.

The narrator said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upod him) stood on the pulpit and praised God and extolled Him. Then he said: What about a State official whom I give an assignment and who (comes and) says: This is for you and this has been presented to me as a gift? Why didn’t he remain in the house of his father or the house of his mother so that he could observe whether gifts were presented to him or not.

By the Being in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad, any one of you will not take anything from it but will bring it on the Day of Judgment, carrying on his neck a camel that will be growling, or a cow that will be bellowing or an ewe that will be bleating. Then he raised his hands so that we could see the whiteness of his armpits. Then he said twice: O God, I have conveyed (Thy Commandments).

4510: It has been reported on the authority of Abu Humaid as-Sa’idi who said:

The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) appointed Ibn Lutbiyya, a man from the Azd tribe, in charge of Sadaqa (authorizing him to receive gifts from the people on behalf of the State). He came with the collectio, gave it to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). and said: This wealth is for you and this is a gift presented to me. The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said to him: Why didn’t you remain in the house of your father and your mother to see whether gifts were presented to you or not. Then he stood up to deliver a sermon. Here follows the tradition like the tradition of Sufyan.

4511: It has been reported on the authority of Abu Humaid as-Sa’idi who said:

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed a man from the Azd tribe. called Ibn al-, Utbiyya, in charge of Sadaqat to be received from Banu Sulaim. When he came (back), the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) asked him to render his account. He said: This wealth is for you (i. e. for the public treasury) and this is a gift (presented to me).

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: You should have remained in the house of your father and your mother, until your gift came to you if you spoke the truth; then he addressed us. He praised God and extolled Him, and afterwards said: I appoint a man from you to a responsible post sharing with the authority that God has entrusted to me, and he comes to me saying: This wealth is for you (i. e. for the public treasury) and this is a gift presented to me. Why did he not remain in the house of his father and his mother and his gift came to him, if he was truthful?

By God, any one of you will not take anything from (the public funds) without any justification, but will meet his Lord carrying it on himself on the Day of judgment. I will recognise any one of you meeting Allah and carrying a growling camel, or a cow bellowing or a goat bleating. Then he raised his hands so high that whiteness of his armpits could be seen. Then he said: O my Lord, I have conveyed (Thy Commandments). The narrator says: My eyes saw (the Holy Prophet standing in that pose) and my ears heard (what he said).

4512: This tradition has been hanoed down through a different chain of transmitters on the authority of Hisham with aslight variation in the wording.

4513: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Humaid as-Sa’idi that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed a man in charge of Sadaqa (authorising him to receive charity from the people on behalf of the State). He came (back to the Holy prophet) with a large number of things and started saying: This is for you and this has been presented to me as a gift. Here follows the tradition that has gone before except that ‘Urwa (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) asked Abu Humaid: Did you hear it from the Messenger of Allah (himself) (may peace be upon him)? He replied: My ears heard it from his mouth.

4514: It has been reported on the authority of ‘Adi b. ‘Amira al-Kindi who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: Whoso from you is appointed by us to a position of authority and he conceals from us a needle or something smaller than that, it would be misappropriation (of public funds) and will (have to) produce it on the Day of Judgment.

The narrator says: A dark-complexioned man from the Ansar stood up-I can visualise him still-and said: Messenger of Allah, take back from me your assignment. He said: What has happened to you? The man said: I have heard you say so and so. He said: I say that (even) now: Whoso from you is appointed by as to a position of authority, he should bring everything, big of small, and whatever he is given therefrom he should take, and he should restrain himself from taking that which is forbidden.

4515: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Isma’il with the same chain of transmitters.

4516: Adi b. ‘Amira al-Kindi heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying (as) was narrated in the (above-mentioned) hadith.

Chapter 8| Obedience to the ruler is forbidden in matters sinful, but is otherwise obligatory.

4517: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Juraij: That the Qur’anic injunction:” 0 you who believe, obey Allah, His Apostle and those in authority from amongst You” (iv. 59) -was revealed in respect of ‘Abdullah b. Hudhafa b. Qais b. Adi al-Sahmi who was despatched by the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) as leader of a military campaign. The narrator said: He was informed of this fact by Ya’la b. Muslim who was informed by Sa’id b. Jubair who in turn was informed by Ibn Abbas.

4518: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira: That the Holy prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Whoso obeys me obeys God, and whoso disobeys me disobeys God. Whoso obeys the commander (appointed by me) obeys me, and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me. The same tradition transmitted by different persons omits the portion: And whose disobeys the commander disobeys me.

4519: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira: That the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Whoso obeys me obeys God; and whose disobeys me disobeys God. Whoso obeys my commander obeys me, and whoso disobeys my commander disobeys me.

4520: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through another chain of transmitters.

4521: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira by more than one chain of transmitters.

4522: Hammam b. Munabbih has transmitted this hadith on the authority of Abu Huraira.

4523: According to one version of the tradition, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Whoso obeys the commander. He did not say:” My commander.”

4524: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: It is obligatory for you to listen to the ruler and obey him in adversity and prosperity, in pleasure and displeasure, and even when another person is given (rather undue) preference over you.

4525: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Dharr who said: My friend (i. e. the Holy Prophet) advised me to listen (to the man in position of authority) and obey (him) even if he were a slave maimed (and disabled).

4526: In another version of the tradition, we have the wording:” An Abyssinian slave maimed and disabled.”

4527: Abu ‘Imran narrated this hadith with a slight change of wording.

4528: It has been narrated on the authority of Yahya b. Husain who learnt the tradition from his grandmother. She said that she heard the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) delivering his sermon on the occasion of the Last Pilgrimage. He was saying: If a slave is appointed over you and he conducts your affairs according to the Book of Allah, you should listen to him and obeey (his orders).

4529: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters, and he said:” a negro slave”.

4530: In other versions of the above tradition, the wordings are” an Abyssinian slave.” and” a maimed Abyssinian slave”.

4531: Another version of the tradition does not qualify the slave with the epithets” maimed,”” an Abyssinian” but makes the addition:” I have heard the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) (say this) at Mina or ‘Arafat.”

4532: It has been narrated on the authority of Yahya b. Husain who learnt the tradition from his grandmother. Umm Husain. He said’: I heard her say: I performed Hajjat-ul-Wada’ in the company of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said a lot of things (on this occasion). Then I heard him say: If a maimed slave is appointed a commander over you the narrator says: I think she said:” a black stave” who leads you according to the Book of Allah, then listen to him and obey him.

4533: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen (to the ruler appointed over him) and obey him whether he likes it or not, except that he is ordered to do a sinful thing. If he is ordered to do a sinful act, a Muslim should neither. listen to him nor should he obey his orders.

4534: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of ‘Ubaidullah.

4535: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman from ‘Ali that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent a force (on a mission) and appointed over them a man. He kindled a fire and said: Enter it. Some people made up their minds to enter it (the fire), (carrying out the order of their commander), but the others said: We fled from the fire (that’s why we have come into the fold of Islam).

The matter was reported to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said to those who Contemplated entering (the fire at the order of their commander): If you had entered it, you would have remained there until the Day of Judgment. He commanded the act of the latter group and said: There is no submission in matters involving God’s disobedience or displeasure. Submission is obligatory only in what is good (and reasonable).

4536: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘All who said: The Mersenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent an expeditionand appointed over the Mujahids a man from the Ansar. (While making the appointment), he ordered that his work should be listened to and obeyed. They made him angry in a matter. He said: Collect for me dry wood. They collected it for him. Then he said: Kindle a fire. They kindled (the fire).

Then he said: Didn’t the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) order you to listen to me and obey (my orders)? They said: Yes. He said: Enter the fire. The narrator says: (At this), they began to look at one another and said: We fled from the fire to (find refuge with) the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) (and now you order us to enter it). They stood quiet until his anger cooled down and the fire went out. When they returned, they related the incident to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said: If they had entered it, they would not have come out. Obedience (to the commander) is obligatory only in what is good.

4537: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of A’mash.

4538: It has been narrated on the authority of” Ubida who learnt the tradition from his father who, in turn, learnt it from his own father. ‘Ubada’s grandfather said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) took an oath of allegiance from us on our listening to and obeying the orders of our commander in adversity and prosperity, in pleasure and displeasure (and even) when somebody is given preference over us, on our avoiding to dispute the delegation of powers to a person deemed to be a fit recipient thereof (in the eye of one who delegates it) and on our telling the truth in whatever position we be without fearing in the matter ef Allah the reproach of the reproacher.

4539: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Ubada b. Walid with the same chain of transmitters.

4540: The same tradition has been handed down through more than one chain of transmitters.

4541: It has been narrated on the authority of Junida b. Abu Umayya who said: We called upon ‘Ubada b. Samit who was ill and said to him: May God give you health I Narrate to us a tradition which God may prove beneficial (to us) and which you have heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) called us and we took the oath of allegiance to him.

Among the injunctions he made binding upon us was: Listening and obedience (to the Amir) in our pleasure and displeasure, in our adversity and prosperity, even when somebody is given preference over us, and without disputing the delegation of powers to a man duly invested with them (Obedience shall be accorded to him in all circumstances) except when you have clear signs of his disbelief in (or disobedience to) God-signs that could be used as a conscientious justification (for non-compliance with his orders).

Chapter 9| When a ruler enjoins god-consciousness and does justice, he will have a (great) reward.

4542: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A commander (of the Muslims) is a shield for them. They fight behind him and they are protected by (him from tyrants and aggressors). If he enjoins fear of God, the Exalted and Glorious, and dispenses justice, there will be a (great) reward for him; and if he enjoins otherwise, it redounds on him.

Chapter 10| Fulfilment of the covenant made with the caliphs is imperative. the caliph to whom allegiance is sworn in the first instance has an established supremacy over those who assume powers later.

4543: It has been narrated by Abu Huraira: That the Holy Prophet (may pceace be upon him) said: Banu Isra’il were ruled over by the Prophets. When one Prophet died, another succeeded him; but after me there is no prophet and there will be caliphs and they will be quite large in number. His Companions said: What do you order us to do (in case we come to have more than one Caliph)? He said: The one to whom allegiance is sworn first has a supremacy over the others. Concede to them their due rights (i. e. obey them). God (Himself) will question them about the subjects whom He had entrusted to them.

4544: The same tradition has been transmitted by a different chain of narrators.

4545: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: After me there will be favouritism anad many things that you will not like. They (his Companions) said: Messenger of Allah, what do you order that one should do it anyone from us has to live through such a time? He said: You should discharge your own responsibility (by obeying your Amir), and ask God to cuncede your right (by guiding the Amir to the right path or by replacing him by one more just and God-fearing).

4546: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abd Rabb al-Ka’ba who said: I entered the mosque when ‘Abdullah b. ‘Amr b. al-‘As was sitting in the shade of the Ka’ba and the people had gathered around him. I betook myself to them and sat near him. (Now) Abdullah said: I accompanied the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on a journey. We halted at a place. Some of us began to set right their tents, others began to compete with one another in shooting, and others began to graze their beasts, when an announcer of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) announced that the people should gather together for prayer, so we gathered around the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

He said: It was the duty of every Prophet that has gone before me to guide his followers to what he knew was good for them and warn them against what he knew was bad for them; but this Umma of yours has its days of peace and (security) in the beginning of its career, and in the last phase of its existence it will be afflicted with trials and with things disagreeable to you. (In this phase of the Umma), there will be tremendous trials one after the other, each making the previous one dwindle into insignificance.

When they would be afflicted with a trial, the believer would say: This is going to bring about my destruction. When at (the trial) is over, they would be afflicted with another trial, and the believer would say: This surely is going to be my end. Whoever wishes to be delivered from the fire and enter the garden should die with faith in Allah and the Last Day and should treat the people as he wishes to be treated by them. He who swears allegiance to a Caliph should give him the piedge of his hand and the sincerity of his heart (i. e. submit to him both outwardly as well as inwardly).

He should obey him to the best of his capacity. It another man comes forward (as a claimant to Caliphate), disputing his authority, they (the Muslims) should behead the latter. The narrator says: I came close to him (‘Abdullah b. ‘Amr b. al-‘As) and said to him: Can you say on oath that you heard it from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)? He pointed with his hands to his ears and his heart and said: My ears heard it and my mind retained it. I said to him:

This cousin of yours, Mu’awiya, orders us to unjustly consume our wealth among ourselves and to kill one another, while Allah says:” O ye who believe, do not consume your wealth among yourselves unjustly, unless it be trade based on mutual agreement, and do not kill yourselves. Verily, God is Merciful to you” (iv. 29). The narrator says that (hearing this) Abdullah b. ‘Amr b. al-As kept quiet for a while and then said: Obey him in so far as he is obedient to God; and diqobey him in matters involving disobedience to God.

4547: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of A’mash with a different chain of transmitters.

4548: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abd Rabb al-Ka’ba as-Sa’idl who said: I saw a group of people near the Ka’ba…. Then he narrated the tradition as narrated by A’mash.

Chapter 11| Patience at the tyranny of the governors and their undue preferences.

4549: It has been narrated on the authority of Usaid b. Hudair:

That a man from the Ansar took the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) aside and said to him: Will you not appoint me governor as you have appointed so and so? He (the Messenger of Allah) said: You will surely come across preferential treatment after me, so you should be patient until you meet me at the Cistern (Haud-i-Kauthar).

4550: This tradition has been narrated on the same authority through a different chain of transmitters. Another version of the tradition narrated on the authority of Shu’ba does not include the words:” He took the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) aside.”

Chapter 12| Obedience to be shown to the (caliphs) even if they withhold the people’s due rights.

4551: It has been narrated on the authority of Alqama b. Wai’l al-Hadrami who learnt the tradition from his father. The latter said: Salama b. Yazid al-ju’afi asked the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him): Prophet of Allah, what do you think if we have rulers who rule over us and demand that we discharge our obligations towards them, but they (themselves) do not discharge their own responsibilities towards us? What do you order us to do?

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) avoided giving any answer. Salama asked him again. He (again) avoided giving any answer. Then he asked again-it was the second time or the third time-when Ash’ath b. Qais (finding that the Holy Prophet was unnecessarily being pressed for answer) pulled him aside and said: Listen to them and obey them, for on them shall he their burden and on you shall be your burden.

4552: It has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters. on the authority of Simak who said: Ash’ath b. Qais pulled him (Salama b. Yazid) when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Listen to them and obey them, for on them shall be the burden of what tney do and on you shall be the burden of what you do.

Chapter 13| Instruction to stick to the main body of the muslims in the time of trials and warning against those inviting people to disbelief. 

4553: It has been narrated on the authority of Hudhaifa b. al-Yaman who said: People used to ask the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) about the good times, but I used to ask him about bad times fearing lest they overtake me. I said: Messenger of Allah, we were in the midst of ignorance and evil, and then God brought us this good (time through Islam). Is there any bad time after this good one? He said: Yes. I asked: Will there be a good time again after that bad time? He said: Yes, but therein will be a hidden evil.

I asked: What will be the evil hidden therein? He said: (That time will witness the rise of) the people who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine. You will know good points as well as bad points. I asked: Will there be a bad time after this good one? He said: Yes. (A time will come) when there will be people standing and inviting at the gates of Hell. Whoso responds to their call they will throw them into the fire. I said: Messenger of Allah, describe them for us.

He said: All right. They will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language. I said: Messenger of Allah, what do you suggest if I happen to live in that time? He said: You should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader. I said: If they have no (such thing as the) main body and have no leader? He said: Separate yourself from all these factions, though you may have to eat the roots of trees (in a jungle) until death comes to you and you are in this state.

4554: It his been narrated through a different chain of transmitters, on the authority of Hudhaifa b. al-Yaman who said: Messenger of Allah, no doubt, we had an evil time (i. e. the days of Jahiliyya or ignorance) and God brought us a good time (i. e. Islamic period) through which we are now living Will there be a bad time after this good time? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Yes. I said: Will there be a good time after this bad time? He said: Yes. I said: Will there be a bad time after good time?

He said: Yes. I said: How? Whereupon he said: There will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and who will not adopt my ways? There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings. I said: What should I do.

Messenger of Allah, if I (happen) to live in that time? He replied: You will listen to the Amir and carry out his orders; even if your back is flogged and your wealth is snatched, you should listen and obey.

4555: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One who defected from obedience (to the Amir) and separated from the main body of the Muslims-if he died in that state-would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyya (i. e. would not die as a Muslim).

One who fights under the banner of a people who ate blind (to the cause for which they are fighting. i. e. do not know whether their cause is just or otherwise), who gets flared up with family pride, calls, (people) to fight for their. family honour, and supports his kith and kin (i. e. fignts not for the cause of Allah but for the sake of this family or tribe) -if he is killed (in this fight), he dies as one belonging to the days of Jhiliyya. Whoso attacks my Umma (indiscriminately) killing the righteous and the wicked of them, sparing not (even) those staunch in faith and fulfilling not his promise made with those who have been given a pledge of security-he has nothing to do with me and I have nothing to do with him.

4556: The same tradition has been narrated by the same authority through another chain of transmitters with a slight difference in wording.

4557: It has been narrated (through a different chain of transmitters) on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who defected from obedience (to the Amir) and separated from the main body of the Muslim-then he died in that state-would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahillyya. And he who is killed under the banner of a man who is blind (to the cause for which he is fighting), who gets flared up with family pride and fights for his tribe-is not from my Umma, and whoso from my followers attacks my followers (indiscriminately) killing the righteous and the wicked of them, sparing not (even) those staunch in faith and fulfilling not his obligation towards them who have been given a pledge (of security), is not from me (i. e. is not my follower).

4558: This hadlth has been narrated on the authority of Jarir with the same chain of transmitters with a slight variation in wording.

4559: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas that the messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One who found in his Amir something which he disliked should hold his patience, for one who separated from the main body of the Muslims even to the extent of a handspan and then he died would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyya.

4560: It has been narrated (through a different chain of transmitters) on the authority of Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upoh him) said: One who dislikes a thing done by his Amir should be patient over it, for anyone from the people who withdraws (his obedience) from the government, even to the extent of a handspan and died in that conditions, would die the death of one belonging to the days of jahilliyya.

4561: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Abdullah al-Bajali that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One who is killed under the banner of a man who is blind (to his just cause), who raises the slogan of family or supports his own tribe, dies the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyya.

4562: It has been reported on the authority of Nafi, that ‘Abdullah b. Umar paid a visit to Abdullah b. Muti’ in the days (when atrocities were perpetrated on the People Of Medina) at Harra in the time of Yazid b. Mu’awiya. Ibn Muti’ said: Place a pillow for Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman (family name of ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar). But the latter said: I have not come to sit with you.

I have come to you to tell you a tradition I heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). I heard him say: One who withdraws his band from obedience (to the Amir) will find no argument (in his defence) when he stands before Allah on the Day of Judgment, and one who dies without having bound himself by an oath of allegiance (to an Amir) will die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahillyya.

4563: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu ‘Umar that he visited Ibn Muti’, and related from the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) the tradition that has gone before.

4564: The same tradition has been transmitted by a different chain of narrators.

Chapter 14| Decision about one who tries to disrupt the unity of the muslims. 

4565: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Arfaja who said: I have heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: Different evils will make their appearance in the near future. Anyone who tries to disrupt the affairs of this Umma while they are united you should strike him with the sword whoever he be. (If remonstrance does not prevail with him and he does not desist from his disruptive activities, he is to be killed.)

4566: In another version of the tradition narrated on the same authority through a different chains of transmitters we have the words:” Kill him.”

4567: It has been narrated (through a still different chain of transmitters) on the Same authority (i. e. ‘Arfaja) who said similarly-but adding:” Kill all of them.” I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: When you are holding to one single man as your leader, you should kill who seeks to undermine your solidarity or disrupt your unity.

Chapter 15| When the oath of allegiance has been obtained for two caliphs.

4568: It has been narrated on the authority of Aba Sa’id al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When oath of allegiance has been taken for two caliphs, kill the one for whom the oath was taken later.

Chapter 16| Justification for hating the amirs for violating the laws of the Shari’ah.

4569: It has been narrated on the authority of Umm Salama: That the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: In the near future there will be Amirs and you will like their good deeds and dislike their bad deeds. One who sees through their bad deeds (and tries to prevent their repetition by his band or through his speech), is absolved from blame, but one who hates their bad deeds (in the heart of his heart, being unable to prevent their recurrence by his hand or his tongue), is (also) fafe ( so far as God’s wrath is concerned). But one who approves of their bad deeds and imitates them is spiritually ruined. People asked (the Holy Prophet): Shouldn’t we fight against them? He replied: No, as long as they say their prayers.

4570: It has been narrated (through a different chain of tmnamitters) on the authority of Umm Salama (wife of the Holy Prophet) that he said: Amirs will be appointed over you, and you will find them doing good as well as bad deeds. One who hates their bad deeds is absolved from blame. One who disapproves of their bad deeds is (also) safe (so far as Divine wrath is concerned). But one who approves of their bad deeds and imitates them (is doomed). People asked: Messenger of Allah, shouldn’t we fight against them? He replied: No, as long as they say their prayer. (” Hating and disapproving” refers to liking and disliking from the heart.)

4571: Another version of the tradition narrated on the same authority attributes the same words to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) except that it replaces kariha with ankhara and vice versa.

4572: Another version omits a portion at the end of the tradition-a portion which begins with man radiya wa taba and ends with the last word of the tradition.

Chapter 17| The best and the worst or your rulers.

4573: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Auf b. Malik:

That the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The best of your rulers are those whom you love and who love you, who invoke God’s blessings upon you and you invoke His blessings upon them. And the worst of your rulers are those whom you hate and who hate you and whom you curse and who curse you. It was asked (by those present): Shouldn’t we overthrow them with the help of the sword? He said: No, as long as they establish prayer among you. If you then find anything detestable in them. You should hate their administration, but do not withdraw yourselves from their obedience.

4574: It has been narrated on the authority of Auf b. Malik al-Ashja’i who said that he heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: The best of your rulers are those whom you love and who love you, upon whom you invoke God’s blessings and who invoke His blessing upon you. And the worst of your rulers are those whom you hate and who hate you, who curse you and whom you curse. (Those present) said: Shouldn’t we overthrow them at this? He said: No, as long as they establish prayer among you. No, as long as they establish prayer among you.

Mind you! One who has a governor appointed over him and he finds that the governor indulges in an act of isobedience to God, he should condemn the governor’s act, in disobedience to God, but should not withdraw himself from his obedience. Ibn Jabir said: Ruzaiq narrated to me this hadith. I asked him: Abu Miqdam, have you heard it from Muslim b. Qaraza or did he describe it to you and he heard it from ‘Auf (b. Malik) and he transmitted this tradition of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him)? Upon this Ruzaiq sat upon his knees and facing the Qibla said: By Allah, besides Whom there is no other God, I heard it from Muslim b. Qaraza and he said that te had heard it from Auf (b. Malik) and he said that he had heard it from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

4575: The above tradition has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters.

Chapter 18| It is good on the part of a leader to take the oath of allegiance from his forces when intending to fight and an account of the allegiance of god’s pleasure under the tree.

4576: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir who said: We were one thousand and four hundred on the Day of Hudaibiya. We swore fealty to hiin (the Holy Prophet) and ‘Umar was holding the latter’s hand (when he was sitting) under the tree (called) Samura (to administer the oath to the Companions). The narrator added: We took oath to the effect that we would not flee (from the battlefield if there was an encounter with the Meccans), but we did not take oath to fight to death.

4577: It has been narrated (through a different chain of transmitters) on the authority of Jabir who said: While swearing fealty to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) we did not take the oath to death but that we would not run away (from the battlefield).

4578: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Zubair who heard Jabir being questioned as to how many people were there on the Day of Hudaibiya He replied: We wore fourteen hundred. We swore fealty to him, and Umar was holding his hand while he was sitting Under the tree (to administer the oath). The tree was Samura (a wild tree found in desers). All of as took tha oath of fealty at his hands except Jadd b. Qais al-Ansari who hid himself under the belly of his camel.

4579: It has been narrated (through a different chain of transmitters) on the authority of Abu Zubair who heard Jabir being questioned as to whether the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) took the oath of fealty at Dhu’l-Hulaifa. He said: No! But he offered his prayers at that place, and he administered the oath of fealty nowhere except near the tree in (the plain oo Hudaibiya. Ibn Juraij said that he was informed by Abu Zabair who heard Jabir b. Abdullah say: The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) prayed over the well at Hudaibiya (as a result of which its scanty water rose up and increased so as to be sufficient for the 1400 or 1500 men who had encamped at the place).

4580: It has been narrated (through a different chain of transmitters) on the authority of Jabir who said: We were one thousand and four hundred on the Day of Hudaibiya when the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said to us: Today you are the best people on the earth. And Jabir said: If I had the eyesight, I could show you the place of the tree.

4581: It has been narrated on the authority of Salim b. Abu al-Ja’d who said: I asked Jabir b. ‘Abdullah about the number of the Companions (of the Holy Prophet who took the oath of fealty under) the tree. He said: If we were a hundred thousand, it (i. e. the water in the well at Hudaibiya) would have sufficed us, but actually we were one thousand and five hundred.

4582: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir who said: If we had been a hundred thousand in number, it (the water) would have sufficed us, but actually we were fifteen hundred.

4583: It has been narrated (through a different chain of transmitters) on the authority of Salim b. al-Ja’d who said: I asked Jabir: How many were you on the Day of Hudaibiya? He said: One thousand and four hundred.

4584: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. Abu Aufa who said: The Companions of the Tree (i e. those who swore fealty under the tree) were one thousand and three hundred, and the people of Aslam tribe were one-eighth of the Muhajirs.

4585: The same tradition has been handed down through a different chain of transmitters.

4586: It has been narrated on the authority of Ma’qil b. Yasar who aaid: I remember being present on the Day of the Tree, and the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) was taking the oath of the people and I was holding a twig of the tree over his head. We were fourteen hundred (in number). We did not take oath to the death, but to the effect that we would not run away from the battlefield.

4587: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Yunus with the same chain of transmitters.

4588: It has been narrated on the authority of Sa’id b. Musayyab who said: My father was one of those who swore fealty to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) near the tree. When we passed that way next year intending to perform the Hajj, the place of the tree was hidden to us. If you could point out clearly, you would (certainly) be knowing better. It has also been narrated on the authority of Sa’id b. Musayyib who learnt from his father that they were with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in the year of the Tree (i. e. in the year of the fealty of God’s pleasure sworn under the tree at Hudaibiya), but next year they forgot the spot of the tree.

4589: The tradition has been narrated on the authority of Sa’id b. Musayyib who learnt it from his father. The latter said: I had seen the tree. When I came to the spot afterwards, I could not recognise it.

4590: It has been narrated on the authority of Yazid b. Abu Ubaid (the freed slave of Salama b. al-Akwa’) who said: 1 asked Salama as to what effect he had sworn fealty to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on the Day of Hudaibiya. He said: To the effect that we will die fighting.

4591: The above tradition has also been handed down through a different chain of transmitters.

4592: It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Zaid who said: A person came to him and said: Here is Ibn Hanzala who is making people swear allegiance to him. He (, Abdullah) asked: To what effect? He replied: To the effect that they will die for him. ‘Abdullah said: I will never swear allegiance to this effect after the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

Chapter 19| It is forbidden to a Muhajir to return to his native place for the purpose of resettling there.

4593: It has been narrated by Salama b. al-Akwa’ that he visited al-Hajjaj who said to him: O son of al-Akwa’, you have turned apostate and have come to live again in the desert with the Bedouins (after your migration). He said: No, but the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) has permitted me to live in the desert.

Chapter 20| No migration after the conquest of mecca but allegiance could be sworn (to a rightful leader) on serving the cause of Islam, on fighting in the way of Allah and on following the path of virtue.

4594: It has been reported on the authority of Mujashi’ b. Mas’ud as-Sulami who said: I came to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) to offer him my pledge of migration. He said: The period of migration has expired (and those who wereto get the reward for this great act of devotion have got it). You may now give your pledge to serve the cause of Islam, to strive in the way of Allah and to follow the path of virtue.

4595: It has been reported on the authority of Mujashi’ b. Mas’ud who said: I brought my brother Abu Ma’bad to the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) after the conquest of Mecca and said: Messenger of Allah, allow him to swear his pledge of migration at your hand. He said: The period of migration is over with those who had to do it (and now nobody can get this meritorious distinctions) I said: For what actions will you allow him to bind himself in oath? He said: (He can do so) for serving the cause of Islam, for fighting in the way of Allah and for fighting in the cause of virtue. Abd Uthman said: I met Abd Ma’bad and told him what I had heard from Mujashi’. He said: He has told the truth.

4596: Another version of the tradition transmitted on the authority of Asim has the same wording but does not mention the name of Abu Ma’bad.

4597: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said on the day of the Conquest of Mecca: There is no Hijra now, but (only) Jihad (fighting for the cause of Islam) and sincerity of purpose (have great reward) ; when you are asked to set out (on an expedition undertaken for the cause of Islam) you should (readily) do so.

4598: The above tradition has been handed down through a different chain of transmitters.

4599: ‘A’isha reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was asked about migration, whereupon he said: There is no migration after the Conquest (of Mecca), but Jihad and sincere intention. When you are asked to set out (for the cause of Islam), you should set out.

4600: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id al-Khudari that a Bedouin asked the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) about Migration. He replied: Do you talk of Hijra? The affair of Hijra is very difficult. But have you got camels? The bedouin said: Yes. He asked: Do you pay the poor-rate payable on their account? He replied: Yes. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Go on doing good deeds (across the seas), for surely God will not leave any of your deeds unrewarded.

4601: This tradition has been handed down through a different chain of transmitter with the addition of the following words at the end:” Do you milk them on the day they arrive at the water? He replied: Yes.”

Chapter 21| How the women swore fealty (to the holy prophet).

4602: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘A’isha, the wife of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). She said: When the believing women migrated (to Medina) and came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), they would be tested in accordance with the following words of Allah. The Almighty and Exalted:” O Prophet, when believing women come to thee to take the oath of fealty to thee that they will not associate in worship anything with God, that they will not steal. that, they will not commit adultery…” to the end of the verse (lx. 62).

Whoso from the believing women accepted these conditions and agreed to abide by them were considered to have offered themselves for swearing fealty. When they had (formally) declared their resolve to do so, the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) would say to them: You may go. I have confirmed your fealty. By God, the hand of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) never touched the hand of a woman. He would take the oath of fealty from them by oral declaration. By God, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) never took any vow from women except that which God had ordered him to take, and his palm never touched the palm of a woman. When he had taken their vow, he would tell them that he had taken the oath from them orally.

4603: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Urwa:

That ‘A’isha described to him the way the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) took the oath of fealty from women. She said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) never touched a woman with his hand. He would only take a vow from her and when he had taken the (verbal) vow, he would say: You may go. I have accepted your fealty.

Chapter 22| Swearing fealty for listening to and obeying the orders of the leader as far as possible.

4604: It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. ‘Umar who said: We used to take oath to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) that we would listen to and obey his orders. He would tell us (to say in the oath): As far as it lies in my power.

Chapter 23| The age of majority

4605: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) inspected me on the battlefield on the Day of Uhud, and I was fourteen years old. He did not allow me (to take part in the fight). He inspected me on the Day of Khandaq-and I was fifteen yearsold, and he permitted me (to fight), Nafi’ said: I came to ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz who was then Caliph, and narrated this tradition to him. He said: Surely, this is the demarcation between a minor and a major. So he wrote to his governors that they should pay subsistence allowance to one who was fifteen years old, but should treat those of lesser age among children.

4606: This tradition has been handed down through a different chain Of transmitters with the following change in the wording:” I was fourteen years old and he thought me too young (to participate in the fight).”

Chapter 24| It is forbidden to take the Qur’an to the land of the infidels when it is feared that it might fall into their hands.

4607: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade that one should travel to the land of the enemy taking the Qur’an with him.

4608: It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Umar:

That the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to forbid that one should travel to the land of the enemy taking the Qur’an (with him) lest it should fall into the hands of the enemy.

4609: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar:

That the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Do not take the Qur’an on a journey with you, for I am afraid lost it should fall into the hands of the enemy. Ayyub (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) said: The enemy may seize it and may quarrel with you over it.

Chapter 25| Race between horses and their training for the competition.

4610: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had a race of the horses which had been especially prepared for the purpose from Hafya’ to Thaniyyat al-Wada’ (the latter being the winning post), and of those which had not been trained from Thaniyya to the mosque of Banu Zuraiq, and Ibn Umar was among those who took part in this race.

4611: This tradition has been handed down through another chain of transmitters with the addition of the following words from Abdullah b. ‘Umar:” I came first in the race and my horse jumped into the mosque with me.”

Chapter 26| Great benefit in the forelocks of the horses.

4612: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: There will be great benefit in the forelock of the horses until the Day of judgment.

4613: The same tradition has been handed down through a different chain of transmitters.

4614: It has been narrated on the authority of Jarir b. Abdullah who said: I saw that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was twisting the forelock of a horse with his fingers and he was saying: (A great) benefit. i. e. reward (for rearing them for Jihad) and spoils of war, has been tied to the forelocks of horses until the Day of Judgment.

4615: The above tradition has also been narrated on the authority of Yunus through a different chain of transmitters.

4616: The same tradition has been narrated on the authority of Urwat al-Bariqi who said that the Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Great good is attached to the forelock of the horses until the Day of Judgment.

4617: ‘Urwat al-Bariqi reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: Good is tied to the forelock of the horses. It Was said to him: Messenger of Allah, why is it so? He (the Holy Prophet said): For reward and booty until the Day of Judgment.

4618: This hadith has been narrated with the same chain of transmitters with the difference that here instead of” Urwat al-Bariqi” there is” Urwa b. ja’d.”

4619: A version of the tradition narrated on the authority of ‘Urwat al-Bariqi does not mention (the words):” reward and booty”.

4620: A version of the tradition transmitted on the authority of ‘Urwa b. al-ja’d does not mention” reward and booty”.

4621: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: There is a blessing in the forelocks of the war horses.

4622: A hadith like this has been narrated on the authority of Anas through another chain of transmitters.

Chapter 27| The horses of undesirable quality. 

4623: It has been narrated on the authority of Abn Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to dislike the Shikal horse.

4624: This tradition has been narrated on the authority of Sufyan with the addition from Abd ar-Razzaq (one of the narrators) explaining the meaning of shikal as a bone whose right back foot and left front foot or left back foot and right front foot are white.

Book 020, Number 4625: The tradition has been handed down through a different chain of transmitters.

Chapter 28| The merit of Jihad and campaigning in the way of Allah.

4626: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace upon him) said: Allah has undertaken to look after the affairs of one who goes out to fight in His way believing in Him and affirming the truth of His Apostles. He is committed to His care that Re will either admit him to Paradise or bring him back to his home from where he set out with a reward or (his share of) booty.

By the Being in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad. If a person gets wounded in the way of Allah, he will come on the Day of Judgment with his wound in the same condition as it was when it was first inflicted; its colour being the colour of blood but its smell will be the smell of musk. By, the Being in Whose Hand is Muhammad’s life, if it were not to be too hard upon the Muslime.

I would not lag behind any expedition which is going to fight in the cause of Allah. But I do not have abundant means to provide them (the Mujahids) with riding beasts, nor have they (i. e. all of them) abundant means (to provide themselves with all the means of Jihad) so that they could he left behind. By the Being in Whose Hand is Mubammgls lac, I love to fight in the way of Allah and be killed, to fight and again be killed and to fight again and be killed.

4627: The same tradition has been melted through another chain of transmitters.

4628: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira who said: Allah has undertaken to provide for one who leaves his home (only) to fight for His cause and to affirm the truth of His word; Allah will either admit him to Paradise or will bring him back home from where he had come out, with his reward and booty.

4629: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One who is wounded in the way of Allah-and Allah knows better who is wounded in His way-will appear on the Day of Judgment with his wound bleediing. The colour (of its discharge) will be the colour of blood, (but) its smell will be the smell of musk.

4630: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Haraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Every wound received by a Muslim in the way of Allah will appear on the Day of Judgment in the same condition as it was when it was inflicted, and would be bleeding profusely. The colour (of its discharge) will be the colour of blood, but its smell will be the smell of musk. By the Being in Whose Hand is Muhammad’s life, if it were not hard upon the Muslims, I would not lag behind any expedition undertaken for Jihad, but I do not possess abundant means to provide the Mujahids with riding animals, nor do they (i. e. all of them) have abundant means (to provide themselves with all the means of Jihad) to follow me, nor would it please their hearts to stay behin d me.

4631: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira:

Who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: I would not stay behind (when) an expedition (for Jihad was being mobilised) if it were going to be too hard upon the believers…. This is followed by the same words as have appeared in the previous tradition, but this tradition has the same ending as the previous hadith with a slight difference in the wording:” By the Being in Whose Hand is my life, I love that I should be killed in the way of Allah; then I should be brought back to life and be killed again in His way….”

4632: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: If it were not hard upon my Umma (to follow my example), I would not lag behind any expedition-as in the traditions gone before.

4633: Another version of the tradition narrated through a different chain of transmitters on the authority of Abu Huraira has the same wording as the previous tradition:” Allah takes care of one who goes out in the way of Allah” but ends in the words:” I would not lag behind any expedition which is undertaken to fight in the way of Allah, the Exalted.”

Chapter 29| The merit of martyrdom.

4634: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said:” Nobody who dies and has something good for him with Allah will (ever like to) return to this world even though he were offered the whole world and all that is in its (as an inducement), except the martyr who desires to return and be killed in the world for the (great) merit of martyrdom that he has seen.

4635: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik (through a different chain of transmitters) that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Nobody who enters Paradise will (ever like to) return to this world even if he were offered everything on the surface of the earth (as an inducement) except the martyr who will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him.

4636: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira:

Who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was asked: What deed could be an equivalent of Jihad in the way of Allah, the Almighty and Exalted? He answered: You do not have the strength to do that deed. The narrator said: They repeated the question twice or thrice. Every time he answered: You do not have the strength to do it. When the question was asked for the third time, he said: One who goes out for Jibad is like a person who keeps fasts, stands in prayer (constantly), (obeying) Allah’s (behests contained in) the verses (of the Qur’an), and does not exhibit any lassitude in fasting and prayer until the Mujihid returns from Jihad in the way of Allah, the Exalted.

4637: This tradition has been handed down through a different chain of transmitters.

4638: It has been narrated on the authority of Nu’man b. Bashir who said: As I was (sitting) near the pulpit of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), a man said: I do not care if, after embracing Islam, I do not do any good deed (except) distributing drinking water among the pilgrims. Another said: I do not care if, after embracing Islam, I do not do any good deed beyond maintenance service to the Sacred Mosque. Another said: Jihad in the way of Allah is better than what you have said. ‘Umar reprimanded them and said: Don’t raise your voices near the pulpit of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on Friday.

When prayer was over, I entered (the partment of the Holy Prophet) and asked his verdict about the matter in which they had differed. (It was upon this that) Allah, the Almighty and Exalted, revealed the Qur’anic verse:” Do you make the giving of drinking water to the pilgrims and the maintenance of the Sacred Mosque equal to (the service of those) who believe in Allah and the Last Day and strive hard in the cause of Allah. They are not equal in the sight of God. And Allah guides not the wrongdoing people” (ix. 20). This tradition has been narrated on the authority of Nu’man b. Bashir through another chain of transmitters.

Chapter 30| Merit of leaving for Jihad in the morning and evening. 

4639: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Leaving (for Jihad) in the way of Allah in the morning or in the evening (will merit a reward) better than the world and all that is in it.

4640: It has been narrated on the authority of Sahl b. Sa’d as-Sa’idi that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The journey undertaken by a person in the morning (for Jihad) in the way of Allah (will merit a reward) better than the world and all that is in it.

4641: It has been narrated on the authority of Sahl b. Sa’d as-Sa’idi that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A journey undertaken in the morning or evening (fond Jihad) in the way of Allah (will merit a reward) better than the world and all that is in it.

4642: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: If some persons of my Umma (were not to undertake the hardships of Jihad), and he (Abu Huraira) then narrated the rest of the hadith and then said: A journey undertaken for jihad in the evening or morning merits a reward better than the world and all that is in it.

4643: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Ayyub that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A journey undertaken in the morning or evening (for Jihad) in the way of Allah is better than (anything) on which the sun rises or sets.

4644: This tradition has been narrated on the authority of Abu Ayyub through a different chain of transmitters having the same wording.

Chapter 31| The high position reserved by god for Mujahids in paradise 

4645: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id Khudri:

That the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said (to him): Abu Sa’id, whoever cheerfully accepts Allah as his Lord, Islam as his religion and Mubammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise. He (Abu Sa’id) wondered at it and said: Messenger of Allah, repeat it for me. He (the Messenger of Allah) did that and said: There is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred (higher), and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth. He (Abu Sa’id) said: What is that act? He replied: Jihad in the way of Allah! Jihad in the way of Allah!

Chapter 32| One who is killed in the way of Allah will have all his sins blotted out except debt.

4646: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Qatada:

That the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood up among them (his Companions) to deliver his sermon in which he told them that Jihad in the way of Allah and belief in Allah (with all His Attributes) are the most meritorious of acts. A man stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, do you think that if I am killed in the way of Allah, my sins will be blotted out from me? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Yes, in case you are killed in the way of Allah and you were patient and sincere and you always fought facing the enemy, never turming your back upon him.

Then he added: What have you said (now)? (Wishing to have further assurance from him for his satisfaction), he asked (again): Do you think if I am killed in the way of Allah, all my sins will be obliterated from me? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Yes, it you were patient and sincere and always fought facing the enemy and never turning your back upon him, (all your lapses would be forgiven) except debt. Gabriel has told me this.

4647: The tradition has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters on the authority of Abu Qatada who said: A man came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) while he was on the pulpit and said: Do you think if I am killed in the way of Allah… (except this difference in its beginning, the rest of the tradition is the same as the previous one).

4648: Another version of the tradition differently transmitted begins with the words:” A man came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and he was sitting on the pulpit…. He said: What do you find if I strike with the sword?” (The rest of the tradition is the same as the previous one.)

4649: It has been reported on the authority of ‘Amr b. al-‘As that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: All the sins of a Shahid (martyr) are forgiven except debt.

4650: It has been reported on the authority of Amr b. al-‘As through a different chain of transmitters that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Death in the way of Allah blots out everything except debt.

Chapter 33| The souls of the martyrs are in paradise; they are alive and find their sustenance from their lord. 

4651: It has been narrated on the authority of Masruq:

Who said: We asked ‘Abdullah about the Qur’anic verse:” Think not of those who are slain in Allah’s way as dead. Nay, they are alive, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord..” (iii. 169). He said: We asked the meaning of the verse (from the Holy Prophet) who said: The souls, of the martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty.

They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like and then nestle in these chandeliers. Once their Lord cast a glance at them and said: Do ye want anything? They said: What more shall we desire? We eat the fruit of Paradise from wherever we like. Their Lord asked them the same question thrice. When they saw that they will continue to be asked and not left (without answering the question). they said: O Lord, we wish that Thou mayest return our souls to our bodies so that we may be slain in Thy way once again. When He (Allah) saw that they had no need, they were left (to their joy in heaven).

Chapter 34| Merit of Jihad and of keeping vigilance (over the enemy) 

4652: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id Khudri that a man came to the Holy Prophet (may peace he upon him) and said: Who is the best of men? He replied: A man who fights in the way of Allah spending his wealth and staking his life. The man then asked: Who is next to him (in excellence)? He said: Next to him is a believer who lives in a mountain gorge worshipping hid Lord and sparing men from his mischief.

4653: It has been narrated (through a diferent chain of transmetters) on the same authority (i. e. Abu Sa’id Khadri) who said: A man asked: Messenger of Allah, which of men is the best? He said: A believer who fights staking his life and spending his wealth in the way of Allah. He asked: Who is next to him (in excellence)? He said: Next to him is a man who lives an isolated life in a mountain gorge, worshipping his Lord and sparing men from his mischief.

4654: A version of the tradition narrated on the authority of Ibn Shihab has a little differently worded ending. i. e.” A man in a mountain valley.” but did not mention” next to him a man who….”

4655: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Of the men he lives the best life who holds the reins of his horse (ever ready to march) in the way of Allah, flies on its back whenever he hears a fearful shriek, or a call for help, flies to it seeking death at places where it can be expected. (Next to him) is a man who lives with his sheep at a hill-top or in a valley, says his prayers regularly, gives Zakat and worships his Lord until death comes to him. There is no better person among men except these two.

4656: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Huraira with a slight variation of wording.

4657: Two more versions of the tradition narrated by ‘Abdullah b. Badr and Abu Huraira, respectively, have been handed down through different chains of transmitters with negligible difference in the wording.

Chapter 35| The two men, both of whom will enter paradise though one of them slays the other.

4658: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: God laughs at the two men both of whom will enter Paradise (though) one of them kills the other. They said: Messenger of Allah, how is it? He said: One of them fights in the way of Allah, the Almighty and Exalted. and dies a martyr. Then God turns in mercy to the murderer who embraces Islam, fights in the way of Allah, the Almighty and Exalted, and dies a martyr.

4659: The same tradition has been narrated on the authority of Abu Zinad (with the same chain of transmitters).

4660: It has been reported on the authority of Abu Huraira:

That the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: God laughs at the two men one of whom kills the other; both of them will enter Paradise. They (the Companions) said: How, Messenger of Allah? He said: One is slain (in the way of Allah) and enters Paradise. Then God forgives the other and guides him to Islam; then he fights in the way of Allah and dies a martyr.

Chapter 36| About a man who killed a disbeliever and embraced islam.

4661: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A disbeliever and a believer who killed him will never be gathered together in Hell.

4662: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: No two such persons shall be together in Hell as if one of them is such that his presence hurts the other. It was asked: Messenger of Allah, who are they? He said: A believer who killed a disbeliever and (then) kept to the right path.”

Chapter 37| The excellence of charity in the way of Allah and its manifold reward. 

4663: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari who said A man brought a muzzled she-camel and said: It is (offered) in the way of Allah. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: For this you will have seven hundred she-camels on the Day of Judgment all of which will be muzzled.

4664: A similar tradition has been narrated on the authority of al-A’mash.

Chapter 38| The merit of helping the warrior (fighting in the way of Allah) with something to ride upow and looking after his family in his absence .

4665: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari:

Who said: A man came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and said: My riding beast has been killed, so give me some animal to ride upon. He (the Holy Prophet) said: I have none with me. A man said: Messenger of Allah, I can guide him to one who will provide him with a riding beast. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One who guides to something good has a reward similar to that of its doer.

4666:The above tradition has been handed down through a different chain of transmitters

4667: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik:

That a young man from Aslam tribe said: Messenger of Allah, I wish to fight (in the way of Allah) but I don’t have anything to equip myself with for fighting. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Go to so and so, for he had equipped himself (for fighting) but he fell ill.

So, he (the young man) went to him and said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sends you his greetings and says that you should give me the equipage that you have provided yourself with. The man said (to his wife or maidservant): So and so, give him the equipage I have collected for myself and do not withhold anything from him. Do not withhold anything from him so that you may be blessed therein.

4668: It has been narrated on the authority of Zaid b. Kbalid al-Juhani that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Anybody who equips a warrior (going to fight) in the way of Allah (is like one who actually) fights. And anybody who looks well after his family in his absence (is also like one who actually) fights.

4669: The above tradition has been narrated on the authority of Khalid al- Juhani who said: The Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He who equips a warrior in the way of Allah (is like one who dctually fights) aud he who looks after the family of a warrior in the way of Allah in fact participated in the battle.

4670: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent a force to Banu Lihyan (who are from Banu Hudhail, and said: One man from every two and the reward (will be divided) between the two.

4671: The above tradition has also been narrated through two different chains of transmitters on the authority of Abu Sa’id Khudri and Yahya, respectively.

4672: It has been narrated (through a still different chain of transmitters) on the authority of Abu Sa’id Khudrl that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) despatched a force to Banu Lihyan. (and said: ) One man from every two should join the force. Then he said to those who stayed behind: Those of you who will look well after the family and wealth of those who are going on the expedition will be getting half the reward of the warriors.

Chapter 39| The wives of Mujahids, a sacred trust, and sinfulness of those who betray this trust.

4673: It has been narrated on the authority of Sulaimin b. Buraida who learnt the tradition from his father. The latter said that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The sanctity of the wives of Mujahids is like the sanctity of their mothers for those who sit at home (i. e do not go out for Jihad). Anyone who stays behind looking after the family of a Mujahid and betrays his trust will be made to stand on the Day of judgment before the Mujahid who will take away from his meritorious deeds whatever he likes. So what do you think (will he leave anything)?

4674: This tradition has been narrated by the same authority through different chain of transmitters.

4675: A version of the tradition narrated on the authority of ‘Alqama b. Murthad has a differently worded end: It will be said to the Mujahid: Take from his noble deeds whatever you like. Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) turned to us and asked: What do you think (will he leave anything)? – (i. e. he will take away everything).

Chapter 40| Jihad not compulsory for those who have a genuine excuse.

4676: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Ishaq: That he heard Bara’ talking about the Qur’anic verse:” Those who sit (at home) from among the believers and those who go out for Jihad in the way of Allah are not aqual” (iv. 95). (He said that) the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) ordered Zaid (to write the verse). He brought a shoulder-blade (of a slaughtered camel) and inscribed it (the verse) thereon. The son of Umm Maktum complained of his blindness to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). (At this) descended the revelation:” Those of the believers who sit (at home) without any trouble (illness, incapacity, disability)” (iv. 95). The tradition has been handed down through two other chains of transmitters.

4677: It has been narrated on the authority of Bara’ who said: When the Qur’anic verse:” Those who sit (at home) from among mu’min” (iv. 94) was revealed, the son of Umm Maktum spoke to him (the Holy Prophet). (At this). the words:” other than those who have a trouble (illness)” were revealed.

Chapter 41| In proof of the martyr’s attaining paradis

4678: It has been reported on the authority of Jabir that a man said: Messenger of Allah, where shall I be if I am killed? He replied: In Paradise. The man threw away the dates he had in his hand and fought until he was killed (i. e. he did not wait until he could finish the dates). In the version of the tradition narrated by Suwaid we have the words:” A man said to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). on the day of Uhud……”

4679: It has been reported on the authority of Bara! ‘ who stated: A man from Banu Nabit (one of the Ansar tribes) came to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and said: I testify that there is o god except Allah and that thou art His bondman and Messenger. Then he went forward and fought until he was killed. The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: He has done a little but shall be given a great reward.

4680: It has been reported on the authority of Anas b. Malik who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent Busaisah as a scout to see what the caravan of Abu Sufyan was doing. He came (back and met the Holy Prophet in his house) where there was nobody except myself and the Messenger of Allah. I do not remember whether he (Hadrat Anas) made an exception of some wives of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) or not and told him the news of the caravan.

Having heard the news: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) came out (hurriedly), spoke to the people and said: We are in need (of men) ; whoever has an animal to ride upon ready with him should ride with us. People began to ask him permission for bringing their riding animals which were grazing on the hillocks near Medina. He said: No. (I want) only those who have their riding animals ready. So the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and his Companions proceeded towards Badr and reached there forestalling the polytheists (of Mecca).

When the polytheists (also) reached there, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: None of you should step forward to (do) anything unless I am ahead of him. The polytheists (now) advanced (towards us), and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said. Get up to enter Paradise which is equal in width to the heavens and the earth. ‘Umair b. al- Humam al-Ansari said: Messenger of Allah, is Paradise equal in extent to the heavens and the earth? He said: Yes. ‘Umair said: My goodness!

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) asked him: What prompted you to utter these words (i. e. my goodness! ‘)? He said: Messenger of Allah, nothing but the desire that I be among its residents. He said: Thou art (surely) amona its residents. He took out dates from his bag and began to eat them. Then he said: If I were to live until I have eaten all these dates of mine, it would be a long life. (The narrator said): He threw away all the dates he had with him. Then he fought the enemies until he was killed.

4681: The tradition has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. Qais. He heard it from his father who, while facing the enemy, reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Surely, the gates of Paradise are under the shadows of the swords. A man in a shabby condition got up and said; Abu Musa, did you hear the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say this? He said: Yes. (The narrator said): He returned to his friends and said: I greet you (a farewell greeting). Then he broke the sheath of his sword, threw it away, advanced with his (naked) sword towards the enemy and fought (them) with it until he was slain.

4682: It has been reported on the authority of Anas b. Malik that some people came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and said to him: Send with us some men who may teach us the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Accordingjy, he sent seventy men from the Ansar. They were called the Reciters and among them was my maternal uncle. Haram. They used to recite the Qur’an, discuss and ponder over its meaning at night.

In the day they brought water and poured it (in pitchers) in the mosque, collected wood and sold it, and with the sale proceeds bought food for the people of the Suffa and the needy. The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) sent the Reciters with these people, but these (treacherous people) fell upon them and killed thern before they reached their destination (While dying), they said: O Allah, convey from us the news to our Prophet that we have met Thee (in a way) that we are pleased with Thee and Thou art pleased with us.

The narrator said: A man attacked Haram (maternal uncle of Anas) ) from behind and smote him with a spear which pierced him. (While dying), Haram said: By the Lord of the Ka’ba, I have met with success. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to his Companions: Your brethren have been slain grid they were saying: O Allah, convey from us to our Prophet the news that we have met Thee in a way that we are pleased with Thee and Thou art pleased with us.

4683: It has been Deported on the authority of Anas who said: My uncle and I have been named after him was not present with the Messenger of Allah (mav peace be upon him) on the Day of Badr. He felt distressed about it. He would say: I have missed the first battle fought by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), and if God now gives me an opportunity to see a battlefield with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), God will see what I do therein.

He was afraid to say more than this (lest he be unable to keep his word with God). He was present with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on the Day of Uhud. He met Sa’d b. Mu’adh (who was retreating). Anas said to him: O Abu ‘Amr, where (are you going)? Woe (to thee)! I find the smell of Paradise beside the Uhud mountain.

(Reprimanding Sa’d in these words) he went forward and fought thein (the enemy) until he was killed. (The narrator says). More than eighty wounds inflicted with swords, spears and arrows were found on his body. His sister, my aunt, ar-Rubayyi’, daughter of Nadr, said: I could not recognise my brother’s body (it was so badly mutilated) except from his finger-tips. (It was on this occasion that) the Qur’anic verse:”

Among the Believers are men who have been true to their covenant with God. Of them some have completed their vow (to the extreme), and some still wait: but they have never changed (their determination) in the least” (xxxiii. 23). The narrator said that the verse had been revealed about him (Anas b. Nadr) and his Companions.

Chapter 42| One who fights that the word of allah is exalted fights in the way of allah.

4684: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Musa Ash’ari:

That a desert Arab came to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and said: Messenger of Allah, one man fights fgr the spoils of war; another fights that he may be remembered, and another fights that he may see his (high) position (achieved as a result of his valour in fighting). Which of these is fighting in the cause of God? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who fights so that the word of Allah is exalted is fighting in the way of Allah.

4685: It has been narrated (through another chain of transmitters) on the authority of Abu Musa who said. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was asked which of the men fights in the way of Allah: (one who fights) for displaying his valour; (a man who) fights out of his family pride and (a man who) fights for the sake of show, who amongst these fights in the way of Allah? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who fights that the word of Allah be exalted fights in the way of Allah.

4686: It has been narrated (through yet another chain of transmitters) on the same authority, i. e. Abu Musa, who said: We, came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and said: Messenger of Allah, one of us hho fights to display his valour… (followed by the same words as we have in the previous tradition).

4687: It has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters on the same authority, i. e. Abu Musa Ash’ari, that a man asked the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) about fighting in the way of Allah, the Exalted and Majestic, a man who fights out of rage or out of family pride. He raised his head towards him-and he did so because the man was standing and said: Who fights that the word of Allah be exalted fights in the way of Allah.

Chapter 43| Who fought for ostentation and vanity deserved (punishment in) hell. 

4688: It has been narrated on the authority of Sulaiman b. Yasar who said: People dispersed from around Abu Huraira, and Natil, who was from the Syrians. said to him: O Shaikh, relate (to us) a tradition you have heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said: Yes. I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: The first of men (whose case) will be decided on the Day of Judgment will be a man who died as a martyr. He shall be brought (before the Judgment Seat).

Allah will make him recount His blessings (i. e. the blessings which He had bestowed upon him) and he will recount them (and admit having enjoyed them in his life). (Then) will Allah say: What did you do (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I fought for Thee until I died as a martyr. Allah will say: You have told a lie. You fought that you might be called a” brave warrior”. And you were called so. (Then) orders will be passed against him and he will be dragged with his face downward and cast into Hell. Then will be brought forward a man who acquired knowledge and imparted it (to others) and recited the Qur’an.

He will be brought And Allah will make him recount His blessings and he will recount them (and admit having enjoyed them in his lifetime). Then will Allah ask: What did you do (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I acquired knowledge and disseminated it and recited the Qur’an seeking Thy pleasure. Allah will say: You have told a lie. You acquired knowledge so that you might be called” a scholar,” and you recited the Qur’an so that it might be said:” He is a Qari” and such has been said. Then orders will be passed against him and he shall be dragged with his face downward and cast into the Fire.

Then will be brought a man whom Allah had made abundantly rich and had granted every kind of wealth. He will be brought and Allah will make him recount His blessings and he will recount them and (admit having enjoyed them in his lifetime). Allah will (then) ask: What have you done (to requite these blessings)? He will say: I spent money in every cause in which Thou wished that it should be spent. Allah will say: You are lying. You did (so) that it might be said about (You):” He is a generous fellow” and so it was said. Then will Allah pass orders and he will be dragged with his face downward and thrown into Hell.

4689: This tradition has been handed down through a different chain of transmitters.

Chapter 44| The reward of one who fought and got his share of the booty and of one (who fought) but did not get any booty.

4690: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. ‘Amr that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A troop of soldiers who fight in tile way of Allah and get their share of the booty receive in advance two-thirds of their reward in the Hereafter and only one-third will remain (to their credit). If they do not receive any booty, they will get their full reward.

4691: It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Amr (through a different chain of transmitters) that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A troop of soldiers, large or small, who fight (in the way of Allah), get their share of the booty and return safe and sound, receive in advance two-thirds of their reward (only one-third remaining to their credit to be received in the Hereafter); and a troop of soldiers, large or small, who return empty-handed and are afflicted or wounded, will receive their full reward (in the Hereafter).

Chapter 45| The value of an action depends on the intention behind it.

4692: It has been narrated on the authority of Umar b. al-Khattab that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: (The value of) an action depends on the intention behind it. A man will be rewarded only for what he intended. The emigration of one who emigrates for the sake of Allah and His Messenger (may peace be upon him) is for the sake of Allah and His Messenger (may peace be upon him) ; and the emigration of one who emigrates for gaining a worldly advantage or for marrying a woman is for what he has emigrated.

4693: It has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters on the authority of Sufyan who said that he heard ‘Umar b. al-Khattab relate (this tradition) from the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) while he was delivering a sermon from the pulpit.

Chapter 46| Desirability of seeking martyrdom.

4694: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) said: Who seeks martyrdom with sincerity shall get its reward, though he may not achieve it

4695: It has been reported on the authority of Sahl b. Aba Umama b. Sahl b. Hunaif who learned the tradition from his father who (in turn) learned it from his grandfather-that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who sought martyrdom with sincerity will be ranked by Allah among the martyrs even if he died on his bed. In his version of the tradition Abd Tahir did not mention the words:” with sincerity”.

Chapter 47| Denunciation of one who died but never fought in the way of Allah nor did he ever express a desire or determination for Jihad.

4696: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One who died but did not fight in the way of Allah nor did he express any desire (or determination) for Jihid died the death of a hypocrite. ‘Abdullah b. Mubarak said: We think the hadith pertained to the time of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

Chapter 48| Reward of those who could not join a Jihad expedition on account of illness or some other excuse 

4697: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir who said: We were with the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) on an expedition. He said: There are some people in Medina. They are with you whenever you cover a distance or cross a valley. They have been detained by illness.

4698: In a version of the tradition narrated on the authority of A’mash, we have the words:” They will share with you the reward (for Jihid).”

Chapter 49| The merit of joining a naval expedition for Jihad .

4699: It has been reported on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to visit Umm Haram daughter of Milhan (who was the sister of his foster-mother or his father’s aunt). She was the wife of ‘Ubada b. Samit, One day the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) paid her a visit. She entertained him with food and then sat down to rub his head. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) dozed off and when he woke up (after a while), he was laughing. She asked: What made you laugh.

Messenger of Allah? He said: Some people from my Umma were presented to me who were fighters in the way of Allah and were sailing in this sea. (Gliding smoothly on the water), they appeared to be kings or like kings (sitting) on thrones (the narrator has a doubt about the actual expression used by the Holy Prophet). She said: Messenger of Allah, pray to Allah that He may include me among these warriors. He prayed for her. Then he placed his head (down) and dozed off (again). He woke up laughing, as before.

(She said) I said: Messenger of Allah, what makes you laugh? He replied: A people from my Umma were presented to me. They were fighters in Allah’s way. (He described them in the same words as he had described the first warriors.) She said: Messenger of Allah, pray to God that He may include me among these warriors. He said: You are among the first ones. Umm Haram daughter of Milhan sailed in the aea in the time of Mu’awiya. When she came out of the sea and (was going to mount a riding animal) she fell down and died

4700: It has been narrated on the authority of Umm Haram (and she was the aunt of Anas) who said: The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) came to us one day and had a nap in our house. When he woke up, he was laughing. I said: Messenger of Allah, what made you laugh? He said: I saw a people from my followers sailing on the surface of the sea (looking) like kings (sitting) on their thrones.

I said: Pray to Allah that He may include me among them. He said: You will hip among them. He had a (second) ntip, woke up and was laughing. I asked him (the reason for his laughter). He gave the same reply. I said: Pray to Allah that He may include me among them. He said: You are among the first ones. Anas said: ‘Ubada b. Samit married her. He joined a naval expedition and took her along with him. When she returned, a mule was brought for her. While mounting it she fell down, broke her neck (and died).

4701: It has been reported on the authority of Umm Haram daughter of Milhan (through another chain of transmitters). She said: One day the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) slept (at a place) near me. He woke up smiling. She said: Messenger of Allah. what made thee laugh? He said: A people from my followers were presented to me. They were sailing on the surface of this green sea… (here follows the tradition that has gone before)

4702: It has been reported by ‘Abdullah b. ‘Abd al-Rahman that he heard Anas b. Malik say: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) paid a visit to Milhan’s daughter, maternal aunt of Anas (and the sister of the Holy Prophet’s foster-mother). He placed his head near her (from this point onward, the narrator carried on the previous tradition to its end).

Chapter 50| The merit of keeping watch in the way of Allah, the almighty and exalted.

4703: It has been narrated on the authority of Salman who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: Keeping watch for a day and a night is better (in point of reward) than fasting for a whole month and standing in prayer every night. If a person dies (while, performing this duty), his (meritorious) activity will continue and he will go on receiving his reward for it perpetually and will be saved from the torture of the grave.

4704: This tradition has been handed down on the authority of Salman al-Khair through another chain of transmitters.

Chapter 51| About the martyrs.

4705: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the, Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: While a man walks along a path, finds a thorny twig lying on the way and puts it aside, Allah would appreciate it and forgive him The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: The martyrs are of five kinds: one who dies of plague; one who dies of diarrhoea (or cholera) ; one who is drowned; one who is buried under debris and one who dies fighting in the way of Allah.

4706: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (through another chain of transmitters) that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Whom do you consider to be a martyr among you? They (the Companions) said: Messenger, of Allah, one who is slain in the way of Allah is a martyr. He said: Then (if this is the definition of a martyr) the martyrs of my Umma will be small in number.

They asked: Messenger of Allah, who are they? He said: One who is slain in the way of Allah is a martyr; one who dies in the way of Allah, is a martyr; one who dies of plague is a martyr; one who dies of cholera is a martyr. Ibn Miqsam said: I testify the truth of your father’s statement (with regard to this tradition) that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: One who is drowned is a martyr.

4707: A version of the tradition narrated on the authority of Suhail contains the additional words:” And one who is drowned is a martyr.”

4708: Another version of the tradition narrated on the authority of Suhail thouch a different chain of transmitters contains the additional words:” A drowned person is a martyr.”

4709: It has been narrated on the authority of Hafsa daughter of Sirin who said: Anas b. Malik asked me the cause of death of Yahya b. ‘Abu ‘Amra. I said: (He died) of plague. He said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said that death by plague is martyrdom for a Muslim.

4710: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Asim through the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 52| The merit of archery and inducing others to learn it and denunciation of one who learnt the art and then neglected it.

4711: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Amir who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say-and he was delivering a sermon from the pulpit: Prepare to meet them with as much strength as you can afford. Beware, strength consists in archery. Beware, strength consists in archery. Beware, strength consists in archery.

4712: It has been narrated on the authority of Uqba b. Amir who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: Lands shall be thrown open to you and Allah will suffice you (against your enemies), but none of you should give up playing with his arrows.

4713: This tradition has also been narrated on the same authority through another chain of transmitters.

4714: It has been reported by ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Shamasa:

That Fuqaim al- Lakhmi said to Uqba b. Amir: You frequent between these two targets and you are an old man, so you will be finding it very hard. ‘Uqba said: But for a thing I heard from the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him), I would not strain myself. Harith (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) said: I asked Ibn Shamasa: What was that? He said that he (the Holy Prophet) said: Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us. or he has been guilty of disobedience (to Allah’s Apostle).

Chapter 53| Saying of the holy prophet (may peace be upon him): “A group of people from my umma will always remain on the right path and continue to be triumphant; their opponents shall not be able to do them any harm”.

4715: It has been narrated on the authority of Thauban that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A group of people from mv Umma will always remain triumphant on the right path and continue to be triumphant (against their opponents). He who deserts them shall not be able to do them any harm. They will remain in this position until Allah’s. Command is executed (i. e. Qayamah is established). In Qutaiba’s version of the tradition, we do not have the words:” They will remain in this position.”

4716: It has been narrated on the authority of Mughira who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: A group of people from my Umma will continue to be triumphant over the people until the Command of Allah overtakes them while they are still triumphant. The same tradition has been narrated through another chain of transmitters on the same authority.

4717: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura that the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: This religion will continue to exist, and a group of people from the Muslims will continue to fight for its protection until the Hour is established.

4718: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. ‘Abdullah who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: A group of people from my Umma will continue to fight In defence of truth and remain triumphant until the Day of judgment.

4719: It his been narrated on the authority of Umair b. Umm Hani who said: I heard Mu’awiya say (while delivering a sermon from the pulpit) that he heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: A group of people from my Umma will continue to obey Allah’s Command, and those who desert or oppose them shall not be able to do them any harm. They will be dominating the people until Allah’s Command is executed (i. e. Resurrection is established).

4720: It has been related by, Yazid b. al-Asamm that he heard Mu’awiya b. Abu Sfyan quote a tradition from the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) which he related from the Prophet (mail peace he upon him) -and he did not hear him quote from the Holy Prophet (masy peace be upon him) any tradition other than this in the course of his sermon from the pulpit-that whom Allah wants to do a favour, He grants him an understanding of religion. A group of people from the Muslims will remain on the Right Path and continue until the Day of Judgment to triumph over those who oppose them.

4721: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Shamasa al- Mahri who said: I was in the company of Maslama b. Mukhallad, and ‘Abdullah b. ‘Amr b. ‘As was with him. ‘Abdullah said: The Hour shall some oniy when the worst type of people are left on the earth. They will be worse than the people of pre-Islamic days.

They will get whatever they ask of Allah. While we were yet sitting when ‘Uqba b. ‘Amir came, and Maslama said to him: ‘Uqba, listen to what ‘Abdullah says. ‘Uqba said: He knows better; so far as I am concerned, I heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: A group of people from my Umma will continue to fight in obedience to the Command of Allah, remaining dominant over their enemies.

Those who will oppose them shall not do them any harm. They will remain ill this condition until the Hour overtakes them. (At this) ‘Abdullah said: Yes. Then Allah will raise a wild which will be fragrant like musk and whose touch will be like the touch of silk; (but) it will cause the death of all (faithful) persons, not leaving behind a single person with an iota of faith in his heart. Then only the worst of men will remain to be overwhelmed by the Hour.

4722: It has been narrated by Sa’d b. Abu Waqqas that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: The people of the West will continue to triumphantly follow the truth until the Hour is established.

Chapter 54| Keeping the good of the animals in view during a journey and forbiddance from halting for the night on the track. 

4723: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When you journey through a fertile land, you should (go slow and) give the camels a chance to graze in the land. When you travel In an arid (land) where there is scarcity of vegetation, you should quicken their pace (lest your camels grow feeble and emaciated for lack of fodder). When you halt for the night, avoid (pitching your tent on) the road, for it is the abode of noxious little animals at night.

4724: It has been narrated (through another chain of transmitters) on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When you travel (through a land) where there is plenty of vegetation, you should (go slow and) give the camels a chance to enjoy the benefit of the earth. When you travel (through a land) where there is scarcity of vegetation, you should hasten with them (so that you may be able to cross that land while your animals ore still in a good condition of health). When you make a halt for the night, avoid (doing so on) the road, for the tracks are the pathways of wild beasts or the abode of noxious little animals.

Chapter 55| Travelling, a tortuous experience-desirability of a traveller’s hastening his return to his family after the transaction of his business.

4725: On the authority of Abu Huraira that the Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Travelling is a tortuous experience. It deprives a person of his sleep. his food and drink. When one of you has accomplished his purpose, he should hasten his return to his family.

Chapter 56| Undesirability of returning to one’s family at night (after a long absence from home).

4726: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) would not come (back) to his family by night. He would come to them in the morning or in the evening. Another version of the tradition narrated on the some authority is a little difierently worded. It says: (He) would not enter (upon his household at night).

4727: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. ‘Abdullah who said: We accompanied the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on an expedition. When we came (back) to Medina and were going to enter our houses, he said: Wait and enter (your houses) in the later part of the evening so that a woman with dishevelled hair may have used the comb, and a woman whose husband has been away from home may have removed the hair from her private parts.

4728: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: If one of you comes (back from a journey) at night. he should not enter his house as a night visitor (but should wait) until a woman whose husband has been away from house has removed the hair from her private parts and a woman with dishevelled hair has combed her hair.

4729: This tradition has been handed down through another chain of transmitters.

4730: It has been narrated (through a different chain of tranmitten) on the authority of Jabir who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade that a man should come to his family like (an unexpected) night visitor doubting their fidelity and spying into their lapses.

4731: A version of the tradition narrated on the authority of Jabir (but through a different chain of transmitters) mentions the undesirability of coining to one’s house like a night visitor, but does not contain the words:” Doubting their fidelity or spying into their lapses.”

Sahih Muslim| The Book Of Jihad And Expedition – Kitab Al-Jihad Wa’Al-Siyar

Sahih Muslim - Book 19 - The Book Of Jihad And Expedition - Kitab Al-Jihad Wa’Al-Siyar

Sahih Muslim| The Book Of Jihad And Expedition – Kitab Al-Jihad Wa’Al-Siyar

Sahih Muslim |Book 19
The Book of: The Book Of Jihad And Expedition – Kitab Al-Jihad Wa’Al-Siyar
Contents of Book 18:
  50 Chapters, 180 Hadith

LineTree

Introduction

The word Jihad is derived from the verb jahada which means:” he exerted himself”. Thus literally, Jihad means exertion, striving; but in juridico-religious sense, it signifies the exertion of one’s power to the utmost of one’s capacity in the cause of Allah. This is why the word Jihad has been used as the antonym to the word Qu, ud (sitting) in the Holy Qur’an (iv. 95). Thus Jihad in Islam is not an act of violence directed indiscriminately against the non-Muslims; it is the name given to an all-round struggle which a Muslim should launch against evil in whatever form or shape it appears.

Qital fi sabilillah (fighting in the way of Allah) is only one aspect of Jihad. Even this qital in Islam is not an act of mad brutality. It has its material and moral functions, i. e. self-preservation and the preservation of the moral order in the world. The verdict of all religious and ethical philosophies-ancient and modern-justify war on moral grounds. When one nation is assailted by the ambitions and cupidity of another, the doctrine of non-resistance is anti-social, as it involves non-assertion, not only of one’s own rights, but of those of others who need protection against the forces of tyranny and oppression.

A Muslim is saddled with the responsibilities to protect himself and all those who seek his protection. He cannot afford to abandon the defenceless people, old man, women and children to privation, suffering and moral peril. Fighting in Islam, therefore, represents in Islamic Law what is known among Western jurists as” just war”. The very first revelation in which the permission to wage war against the forces of evil sums up the aims and objects of qital in Islam: ” Permitted’are those who are fought against, because they have been oppressed. and verily God is more Powerful for their aid.

Those who have been driven from their homes unjustly only because they said: ‘Our Lord is Allah, ‘ for had it not been for ‘Allah’s repelling someone by means of others, cloisters and churches and mosques, wherein the name of Allah is oft-mentioned, would assuredly have been pulled down. Verily Allah helps one who helps Him. Lo! Allah is Strong. Almighty” (xxii. 39. 41).

These verses eloquently speak of ‘the fact that it is neither for the acquisition of territory nor for the love of power and distinction that the Muslims have been permitted to raise arms against the enemy. They were allowed to do so because their very existence had been made difficult by the highhandedness of the Meccans.

The Holy Qur’an has elucidated this point in the following verse:

And what reason have you not to fight in the way of Allah and for the oppressed among men and women and children who say: Our Lord! take us forth from the town whereof the people are oppressors and grant us from Thee a friend and grant us from Thee a helper.” [iv. 75]

The war in Islam is waged with a view to securing liberty and freedom for those who are groaning under the oppression of heartless tyrants. It is the bounden duty of the Muslims to alleviate their sufferings and create for them an atmosphere of peace and security. Then in the succeeding verse a distinction is also drawn between two types of war: one which is fought for the sake of Allah and the other which is waged for evil ends:

Those who believe fight in the way of Allah and those who disbelieve fight in the way of devil. So fight against the friends of Satan; verily weak indeed is the strategy of the devil.” [iv. 76]

It has been made clear that those people who fight for self-glorification or for the exploitation of the weak are in fact friends of the devil; wheres those who raise arms to curb tyranny and aggression, to eradicate evil from the human society, fight in the way of Allah. Mere fighting is not, therefore, Jihad in Islam; it is the noble objective alone which makes it a sacred pursuit like devotion and prayer. It is narrated on the authority of Abu Musa Ash’ari that once a man went to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and said:

‘’One man fights for the sake of spoils of war, the second one fights for fame and glory and the third to display his courage and skill; which among them is the fighter for the cause of Allah? Upon this the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) replied: He who fights with the sole objective that the word of Allah should become supreme is a Mujahid in the cause of the Lord.’’

A Mujahid is thus a noble person who offers his life for the achievement of lofty ends. He is actuated by human considerations lifts arms not under the impulse of fury and revenge, but with will, fore-thought, tenacity and fellow-feeling, and his conduct bears the imprint of human intellect, human sympathy and sense of justice.

The Holy Qur’an has explained this point in Sura Anfal in these words:

“O you who believe, when you meet an enemy, be firm, and remember Allah much, that you may be successful. And obey Allah and His Apostle. And fall with no disputes, lest ye falter and your strength fail; but be steadfast! For Allah is with those who patiently persevere. Be not as those who came forth from their dwellings boastfully. And to be seen of men and debar (men) from the way of Allah. And Allah encompasses what they do.” [viii. 45-46]

Here the Muslims have been exhorted to observe five principles of war:

  1. Be steadfast in the face of the enemy.
  2. Have full reliance on the help of Allah and remember Him much.
  3. Have the unity of purpose and solidarity of corporate life always before your eyes.
  4. Be fully aware of the lofty purpose before you in fighting.
  5. Don’t be proud and boastful in your attitude and behaviour.

Islam has purified even war of all its cruelty and horrors and has made it a” reformative process” to deal with evil. The Holy Qur’an beserves:

And fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you and transgress not the limits. Verily Allah loves not the transgressors.” [ii. 190]

The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) has given clear instructions about the behaviour of the Muslim army. He observed:

” Set out for Jibad in the name of Allah and for the sake of Allah. Do not lay hands on the old verging on death, on women, children and babes. Do not steal anything from the booty and collect together all that falls to your lot in the battlefield and do good, for Allah loves the virtuous and the pious.”

So great is the respect for humanly feelings in Islam that even the wanton destruction of enemy’s crops or property is strictly forbidden. The righteous Caliphs followed closely the teachings of Allah and those of His Apostle in letter and spirit the celebrated address which the first Caliph Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) gave to his army while sending her on the expedition to the Syrian borders is permeated with the noble spirit with which the war in Islam is permitted. He said:

“Stop, O people, that I may give you ten rules for your guidance in the battlefield. Do not commit treachery or deviate from the right path. You must not mutilate dead bodies. Neither kill a child, nor a woman. nor an aged man. Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire, especially those which are fruitful. Slay not ary of the enemy’s flock. save for your food. You are likely to pass by people who have devoted their lives to monast ic services; leave them alone.”

It is said that once at the time of conquest, a singing girl was brought to al-Muhajir b. Abu Umayya who had been publicly singing satirical poems about Hadrat Abu Bakr. Muhajir got her hand amputated. When the Caliph heard this news, he was shocked and wrote a letter to Muhajir in the following words:

” I have learnt that you laid hands on a woman who had hurled abuses on me, and, therefore, got her hand amputated. God has not sought vengeance even in the case of polytheism, which is a great crime. He has not permitted mutilation even with regard to manifest infidelity. Try to be considerate and sympathetic in your attitude towards others in future. Never mutilate, because it is a grave offence. God purified Islam and the Muslims from rashness and excessive wrath.

You are well aware of the fact that those enemies fell into the hands of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) who had been recklessly abusing him; who had turned him out of his home; and who fought against him, but he never permitted their mutilation.” Another letter written by hadrat ‘Umar the Second Caliph, which is addressed to sa’d b. Abu Waqqas, speaks eloquently of the noble spirit with which the Muslims have bear exhorted to take up arms:

” Always search your minds and hearts and stress upon your men the need of perfect integrity and sincerity in the cause of Allah. There should be no material end before them in laying down their lives. but they abould deem it a means whereby they can please their Lord and entitle them. selves to His favour:

such a spirit of selflessness should be inculcated in the minds of those who unfortunately lack it. Be firm in the thick of the battle as Allah helps man according to the perseverance that he shows in the cause of His faith and he would be rewarded in accordance with the spirit of sacrifice which he displays for the sake of the Lord. Be careful that those who have been entrusted to your care receive no harm at your hands and are never deprived of any of their legitimate rights.

Such in fact is the humane and noble attitude which Islam exhorts its followers to adopt on the battlefield where passions are generally let loose. It is an attitude the like of which is not to be found in the history of any other nation. Has the world any code of military ethics more noble and compassionate than this?”

The moral tone adopted by the Caliph Abu Bakr in his instructions to the Syrian army was,” says a Christian historian,” so unlike the principles of the Roman government that it must have commanded profound attention from the subject people-such a proclamation announced to Jews and Christians sentiments of justice and principles of toleration which neither Roman emperors nor orthodox bishops had ever adopted as the rule of conduct.”

Western scholars have indulged in a good deal of mud-slinging on the question of the use of the sword in Islam. But if one were to reflect calmly on this point one would be convinced that the sword has not been used recklessly by the Muslims; it has been wielded purely with humane feelings in the wider interest of humanity. Utmost regard was always shown to human life, honour and property even on the battlefield. That is why in all the eighty-two encounters between the Muslims and the non-Muslims during the life of the Holy Prophet (may peace he upon him), only 1018 persons lost their lives on both sides.

Out of this 259 were Muslims, whereas the remaining 759 belonged to the opposite camp. One wonders at the audacity of these writers only when one compares the religious

wars of Charles the Great, in which 4300 pagan Saxons were killed in cold blood, when one recalls the” famous answer by which the Papal Legate, in the Albigensian war, quieted the scruples of a too conscientious general, ‘Kill all, God will know His own’….

When we recall the Spanish Inquisition, the conquest of Mexico and Peru, the massacre of St.  Bartholomew, and the sack of Magdeburg by Tilly.” It is indeed strange that the criticism on the use of sword by Muslims emanates from those whose hands are soiled in the blood of countless innocent human beings, by those who exult in the techniques of homicide, who have depersonalised warfare to such an extent that millions of innocent men and women are put to death and numberless are thrown into concentration camps and flogged with steel rods and ox-hide whips, and all this is done without any qualm of conscience.

As human beings. we hang our heads down in shame when we think of the horrifying atrocities which have been perpetrated by the modern civilised men. It is estimated that. in the First World War, ten million soldiers were killed and an equal number of civilians lost their lives, and twenty million died on account of widespread epidemics and famines throughout the world as an aftermath of this war.

Economic costs are estimated at $ 338,000,000,000 of which $ 186,000,000,000 were direct costs. The losses in the Second World War were staggeringly greater as compared to those in the first one. Twenty-two million persons were killed and thirty-four million were wounded. The estimated cost of the war was $ 1, 348. 000,000,000 of which $ 1, 167,000,000,000 consisted of direct military costs.

It is significant that in the Korean War, the first instance in which an international organization for establishing peace utilised military force to suppress aggression, more than one million persons were killed which added to the civilian deaths in Korea and totalled about five millions.

Chapter 1| Regarding permission to make a raid, without an ultimatum, upon the disbelievers who have already been invited to accept islam

4292: Ibn ‘Aun reported: I wrote to Nafi’ inquiring from him whether it was necessary to extend (to the disbelievers) an invitation to accept (Islam) before m”. ing them in fight. He wrote (in reply) to me that it was necessary in the early days of Islam. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) made a raid upon Banu Mustaliq while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others. On that very day, he captured Juwairiya bint al-Harith. Nafi’ said that this tradition was related to him by Abdullah b. Umar who (himself) was among the raiding troops.

4293: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Aun and the name of Juwairiya bint al-Harith was mentioned beyond any doubt.

Chapter 2| Appointment of the leaders of expeditions by the imam and his advice to them on etiquettes of war and related matters.

4294: It has been reported from Sulaiman b. Buraid through his father that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) appointed anyone as leader of an army or detachment he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and to be good to the Muslims who were with him. He would say: Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy war, do not embezzle the spoils; do not break your pledge; and do not mutilate (the dead) bodies; do not kill the children. When you meet your enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action.

If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and withold yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muhairs and inform them that, if they do so, they shall have all the privileges and obligations of the Muhajirs. If they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will have the status of Bedouin Muilims and will be subjected to the Commands of Allah like other Muslims, but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fai’ except when they actually fight with the Muslims (against the disbelievers).

If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah’s help and fight them. When you lay siege to a fort and the besieged appeal to you for protection in the name of Allah and His Prophet, do not accord to them the guarantee of Allah and His Prophet, but accord to them your own guarantee and the guarantee of your companions for it is a lesser sin that the security given by you or your companions be disregarded than that the security granted in the name of Allah and His Prophet be violated When you besiege a fort and the besieged want you to let them out in accordance with Allah’s Command, do not let them come out in accordance with His Command, but do so at your (own) command, for you do not know whether or not you will be able to carry out Allah’s behest with regard to them.

4295: Sulaiman b. Buraida repotted on the authority of his father that when Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent an Amir with a detachment he called him and advised him. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4296: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Shu’ba.

Chapter 3| Command to show leniency and to avoid creating aversion (towards religion)

4297: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Masa that when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) deputed any of his Companions on a mission, he would say: Give tidings (to the people) ; do not create (in their minds) aversion (towards religion) ; show them leniency and do not be hard upon them.

4298: It has also been narrated by Sa’d b. Abu Burda through his father through his grandfather that the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent him and Mu’adh (on a mission) to the Yemen, and said (by way of advising them): Show leniency (to the people) ; don’t be hard upon them; give them glad tidings (of Divine favours in this world and the Hereafter) ; and do not create aversion. Work in collaboration and don’t be divided.

4299: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Buraida but for the last two words.

4300: The Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) has been reported by Anas b. Malik to have said: Show leniency; do not be hard; give solace and do not create aversion.

Chapter 4| Prohibition (denunciation) of breach of faith.

4301: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When Allah will gather together, on the Day of Judgment, all the earlier and later generations of mankind, a flag will be raised (to mark off) every person guilty of breach of faith, and it will be announced that this is the perfidy of so and so, son of so and so (to attract the attention of people to his guilt).

4302: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar through some other Chains of transmitters.

4303: This hadith has been narrated by another chain of transmitters on the authority of the same narrator, with the wording: Allah will set up a flag for every person guilty of breach of faith on the Day of Judgment, and it will be announced: Look, this is the perfidy of so and so.

4304: Ibn Umar reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) saying: There will be a flag for every perfidious person on the Day of Judgment.

4305: ‘Abdullah reported Allah’s Prophet (may peace be upon him) as saying: There will be a flag for every perfidious person on the Day of Judgment, and it would be said: Here is the perfidy of so and so.

4306: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba with a slight variation of wording.

4307: It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: There will be for every perfidious person on the Day of Judgment a flag by which he will be recognised. It will be announced: Here is the breach of faith of so and so.

4308: Anas reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: There would be a flag for every perfidious person on the Day of Judgment by which he will be recognised.

4309: It is narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: On the Day of Judgment there will be a flag fixed behind the buttocks of every person guilty of the breach of faith.

4310: It is narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: On the Day of Judgment there will be a flag for every person guilty of the breach of faith. It will be raised in proportion to the extent of his guilt; and there is no guilt of treachery more serious than the one committed by the ruler of men.

Chapter 5| Justification for the use of stratagem in war.

4311: It is narrated on the authority of Jabir that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: War is a stratagem.

4312: This hadith has also been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira.

Chapter 6| One should not desire an encounter with the enemy, but it is essential to show patience during the encounter.

4313: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Do not desire an encounter with the enemy; but when you encounter them, be firm.

4314: It is narrated by Abu Nadr that he learnt from a letter sent by a man from the Aslam tribe, who was a Companion of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and whose name was ‘Abdullah b. Abu Aufa, to ‘Umar b. ‘Ubaidullah when the latter marched upon Haruriyya (Khawarij) informing him that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in one of those days when lie was confronting the enemy waited until the sun had declined.

Then he stood up (to address the people) and said: O ye men, do not wish for an encounter with the enemy. Pray to Allah to grant you security; (but) when you (have to) encounter them exercise patience, and you should know that Paradise is under the shadows of the swords. Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood up (again) and said: O Allah. Revealer of the Book, Disperser of the clouds, Defeater of the hordes, put our enemy to rout and help us against them.

Chapter 7| Desirability of praying for victory at the time of confrontation with the enemy.

4315: It is narrated on the authority of Ibn Abu Aufa that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) cursed the tribes (who had marched upon Medina with a combined force in 5 H) and said: O Allah, Revealer of the Book, swift in (taking) account, put the tribes to rout. O Lord, defeat them and shake them.

4316: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ibn Abu Aufa with a slight variation of words.

4317: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Uyaina through another chain of transmitters (who added the words)” the Disperser of clouds” in his narration.

4318: It is narrated on the authority of Anas that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said on the day of the Battle of Ubud: O Allah, if Thou wilt (defeat Muslims), there will be none on the earth to worship Thee.

Chapter 8| Prohibition of killing women and children in war.

4319: It is narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah that a woman was found killed in one of the battles fought by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He disapproved of the killing of women and children.

4320: It is narrated by Ibn ‘Umar that a woman was found killed in one of these battles; so the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade the killing of women and children.

Chapter 9| Permissibility of killing women and children in the night raids, provided it is not deliberate.

4321: It is reported on the authority of Sa’b b. Jaththama that the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him), when asked about the women and children of the polytheists being killed during the night raid, said: They are from them.

4322: It is narrated by Sa’b b. Jaththama that he said (to the Holy Prophet): Messenger of Allah, we kill the children of the polytheists during the night raids. He said: They are from them.

4323: Sa’b b. Jaththama has narrated that the Prophet (may peace be upon him) asked: What about the children of polytheists killed by the cavalry during the night raid? He said: They are from them.

Chapter 10| Justification for cutting down the trees and burning them.

4324: It is narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) ordered the date-palms of Banu Nadir to be burnt and cut. These palms were at Buwaira. Qutaibah and Ibn Rumh in their versions of the tradition have added: So Allah, the Glorious and Exalted, revealed the verse:” Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks, it was with the permission of Allah so that He may disgrace the evil-doers” (lix. 5).

4325: It is narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) caused the date-palms of Banu Nadir to be cut down and burnt. It is in this connection that Hassan (the poet) said: It was easy for the nobles of Quraish to barn Buwaira whose sparks were flying in all directions. in the same connection was revealed the Qur’anic verse:” Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks.”

4326: ‘Abdullah b. Umar reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) burnt the date-palms of Banu Nadir.

Chapter 11| The spoils of war especially made lawful for this umma.

4327: It has been narrated by Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One of the Prophets made a holy war. He said to his followers: One who has married a woman and wants to consummate to his marriage but has not yet done so; another who has built a house but has not yet erected its roof; and another who has bought goats and pregnantshe-camels and is waiting for their offspring-will not accommpany me. So he marched on and approached a village at or about the time of the Asr prayers.

He said to the sun: Thou art subserviant (to Allah) and so am I. O Allah, stop it for me a little. It was stopped for him until Allah granted him victory. The people gathered the spoils of war (at one place). A fire approached the spoils to devour them, but it did not devour them. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Some of you have been guilty of misappropriation. So one man from each tribe should swear fealty to me. The did so (putting their hands into his).

The hand of one man stuck to his hand and the Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Your tribe is guilty of misappropriation. Let all the members of your tribe swear fealty to me one by one. They did so, when the hands of two or three persons got stuck with his hand. He said: You have misappropriated. So they took out gold equal in volume to the head of a cow. They-placed it among the spoils on the earth. Then the fire approached the spoils and devoured them. The spoils of war were not made lawful for any people before us, This is because Allah saw our weakness and humility and made them lawful for us.

Chapter 12| Spoils of war.

4328: A hadith has been narrated by Mus’ab b. Sa’d who heard it from his father as saying: My father took a sword from Khums and brought it to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and said: Grant it to me. He refused. At this Allah revealed (the Qur’anic verse):” They ask thee concerning the spoils of war. Say: The spoils of war are for Allah and the Apostle” (viii. 1).

4329: A hadith has been narrated by Mus’ab b. Sa’d who heard it from his father as saying:” Four verses of the Qur’an have been revealed about me. I found a sword (among the spoils of war). It was brought to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). He (my father) said: Messenger of Allah, bestow it upon me. The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Place it there.

Then he (my father) stood up and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to him: Place it from where you got it. (At this) he (my father) said again: Messenger of Allah, bestow it upon me Shall I be treated like one who has no share in (the booty)? The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him said: Place it from where you got it. At this was revealed the verse:” They ask thee about the spoils of war…. Say: The spoils of war are for Allah and the Messenger”

4330: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar that the Prophet (may peace be upon him) sent an expedition to Najd and I was among the troops. They got a large number of camels as a booty. Eleven or twelve camels fell to the lot of every fighter and each of them also got one extra camel.

4331: Ibn ‘Umar reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent an expedition to Najd and Ibn Umar was also among the troops, and their share (of the spoils) came to twelve camels and they were given one camel over and above that. and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) did not make any change in it.

4332: It has been narrated by Ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent an expedition to Najd, and I (also) went with the troops. We got camels and goats as spoils of war, and our share amounted to twelve camels per head, and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) gave an extra camel to each of us.

4333: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Ubaidullah with the same chain of transmitters.

4334: Ibn Aun said: I wrote to Nafi’ asking him about Nafl (spoils of war) and be wrote to me that Ibn ‘Umar was among that expedition. (The rest of the hadith is the same.)

4335: A hadith has been narrated by Salim who learnt it from his father and said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) gave us an extra (camel) besides our share of Khums; (and in this extra share) I got a Sharif (and a Sharif is a big old camel).

4336: Ibn Shihab reported: It reached me through Ibn Umar that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave a share of spoils to the troop. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4337: It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to give (from the spoils of war) to small troops seat on expeditions something more than the due share of each fighter in a large force. And Khums (one-fifth of the total spoils) was to be reserved (for Allah and His Apostle) in all cases.

4338: Abu Muammad al-Ansari, who was the close companion of Abu Qatada. narrated the hadith (which follows).

4339: Abu Muhammad, the freed slave of Abu Qatada reported on the authority of Abu Qatda and narrated the hadith.

Chapter 13| Regarding the right of the fighter to the belongings of the one killed by him in the fight.

4340: Abu Qatada reported: We accompanied the Messenger of Allah (my peace be upon him) on an expedition in the year of the Battle of Hunain. When we encountered the enemy, (some of the Muslims turned back (in fear). I saw that a man from the polytheists overpowered one of the Muslims. I turned round and attacked him from behind giving a blow between his neck and shoulder. He turned towards me and grappled with me in such a way that I began to see death staring me in the face.

Then death overtook him and left me alone. I joined ‘Umar b. al-Khattab who was saying: What has happened to the people (that they are retreating)? I said: It is the Decree of Allah. Then the people returned. (The battle ended in a victory for the Muslims) and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sat down (to distribute the spoils of war). He said: One who has killed an enemy and can bring evidence to prove it will get his belongings. So I stood up and said: Who will give evidence for me? Then I sat down.

Then he (the Holy Prophet) said like this. I stood up (again) and said: Who will bear witness for me? He (the Holy Prophet) made the same observation the third time, and I stood up (once again). Now the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: What has happened to you, O Abu Qatada? Then I related the (whole) story, to him. At this, one of the people said: He has told the truth. Messenger of Allah 1 The belongings of the enemy killed by him are with me. Persuade him to forgo his right (in my favour). (Objecting to this proposal) Abu Bakr said: BY Allah, this will not happen.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) will not like to deprive one of the lions from among the lions of Allah who fight in the cause of Allah and His Messenger and give thee his share of the booty. So the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) said: He (Abu Bakr) has told the truth, and so give the belongings to him (Abu Qatada).

So he gave them to me. I sold the armour (which was a part of my share of the booty) and bought with the sale proceeds a garden in the street of Banu Salama. This was the first property I acquired after embracing Islam. In a version of the hadith narrated by Laith, the words uttered by Abu Bakr are:” No, never! He will not give it to a fox from the Quraish leaving aside a lion from the lions of Allah among….” And the hadith is closed with the words:” The first property I acquired.”

4341: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Auf who said: While I was standing in the battle array on the Day of Badr, I looked towards my right and my left, and found myself between two boys from the Ansar quite young in age. I wished I were between stronger persons. One of them made a sign to me and. said: Uncle, do you recognise Abu Jahl? 1 said: Yes. What do you want to do with him, O my nephew? He said: I have been told that he abuses the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

By Allah, in Whose Hand is my life, if I see him (I will grapple with him) and will not leave him until one of us who is destined to die earlier is killed. The narrator said: I wondered at this. Then the other made a sign to me and said similar words. Soon after I saw Abu Jahl. He was moving about among men. I said to the two boys: Don’t you see? He is the man you were inquiring about. (As soon as they heard this), they dashed towards him, struck him with their swords until he was killed.

Then they returned to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and informed him (to this effect). He asked: Which of you has killed him? Each one of them said: I have killed him. He said: Have you wiped your swords? They said: No. He examined their swords and said: Both of you have killed him. He then decided that the belongings of Abu Jahl he handed over to Mu’adh b. Amr b. al-Jamuh. And the two boys were Mu’adh b. Amr b. Jawth and Mu’adh b. Afra.

4342: Auf b. Malik has narrated that a man from the Himyar tribe killed an enemy and wanted to take the booty. Khalid b. Walid, who was the commander over them, forbade, him. ‘Auf b Malik (the narrator) came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and informed him (to this effect). The latter asked Khalid: What prevented you from giving the booty to him? Khalid said: I thought it was too much. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Hand it over to him.

Now when Khalid by Auf, the latter pulled him by his cloak and said (by way of chafing him): Hasn’t the same thing happened what I reported to you from the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him)? When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) heard it. he was angry (and said): Khalid, don’t give him, Khalid, don’t give him.

Are you going to desert the commanders appointed by roe? Your similitude and theirs is like a person who took camels and sheep for grazing. He grazed them and when it was time for them to have a drink, he brought them to a pool. So they drank from it, drinking away its clear water and leaving the turbid water below So the clear water (i. e. the best reward) is for you and the turbid water (i e. blame) is for them.

4343: It has been narrated on the authority of Auf b. Malik al-Ashja’i who said: I joined the expedition that marched under Zaid b. Haritha to Muta, and I received reinformcement from the Yemen. (After this introduction), the narrator narrated the tradition that had gone before except that in his version Auf was reported to have said (to Khalid): Khalid, didn’t you know that the Messenger of Allah (way peace be upon him) had decided In favour of giving the booty (sized from an enemy) to one who killed him? He (Khalid) said: Yes. but I thought it was too much.

4344: It has been reported by Salama b. al-Akwa’: We fought the Battle of Hawazin along with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). (One day) when we were having our breakfast with the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him), a man came riding a red camel. He made it kneel down, extracted a strip of leather from its girth and tethered the camel with it. Then he began to take food with the people and look (curiously around). We were in a poor condition as some of us were on foot (being without any riding animals). All of a sudden, he left us hurriedy, came to his camel, untethered it, made it kneel down, mounted it and urged the beast which ran off with him. A man on a brown rhe-camel chased him (taking him for a spy). Salama (the narrator) said: I followed on foot.

I ran on until I was near the thigh of the she-camel. I advanced further until I was near the haunches of the camel. I advanced still further until I caught hold of the nosestring of the camel. I made it kneel down. As soon as it placed its knee on the ground, I drew my sword and struck at the head, of the rider who fell down. I brought the camel driving it along with the man’s baggage and weapons. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) came forward to meet me and the people were with him. He asked: Who has killed the man? The people said: Ibn Akwa’. He said: Everything of the man is for him (Ibn Akwa’).

Chapter 14| Additional award to the fighters and repatriation of the enemy prisoners as a ransom for the muslims.

4345: It has been narrated on the authority of Salama (b. al-Akwa’) who said: We fought against the Fazara and Abu Bakr was the commander over us. He had been appointed by the Messenger oi Allah (may peace be upon him). When we were onlv at an hour’s distance from the water of the enemy, Abu Bakr ordered us to attack. We made a halt during the last part of the night tor rest and then we attacked from all sides and reached their watering-place where a battle was fought.

Some of the enemies were killed and some were taken prisoners. I saw a group of persons that consisted of women and children. I was afraid lest they should reach the mountain before me, so I shot an arrow between them and the mountain. When they saw the arrow, they stopped. So I brought them, driving them along. Among them was a woman from Banu Fazara. She was wearing a leather coat. With her was her daughter who was one of the prettiest girls in Arabia. I drove them along until I brought them to Abu Bakr who bestowed that girl upon me as a prize.

So we arrived in Medina. I had not yet disrobed her when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) met me in the street and said: Give me that girl, O Salama. I said: Messenger of Allah, she has fascinated me. I had not yet disrobed her. When on the next day. the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) ag;tin met me in the street, he said: O Salama, give me that girl, may God bless your father. I said: She is for you. Messenger of Allah! By Allah. I have not yet disrobed her. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent her to the people of Mecca, and surrendered her as ransom for a number of Muslims who had been kept as prisoners at Mecca.

Chapter 15| Fai’ (property taken from the enemy without a formal war).

4346: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: If you come to a township (which has surrendered without a formal war) and stay therein, you have a share (that will be in the form of an award) in (the properties obtained from) it. If a township disobeys Allah and His Messenger (and actually fights against the Muslims) one-fifth of the booty seized therefrom is for Allah and His Apostle and the rest is for you.

4347: It has been narrated on the authority of Umar, who said: The properties abandoned by Banu Nadir were the ones which Allah bestowed upon His Apostle for which no expedition was undertaken either with cavalry or camelry. These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof, and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad.

4348: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri.

4349: It is reported by Zuhri that this tradition was narrated to him by Malik b. Aus who said: Umar b. al-Khattab sent for me and I came to him when the day had advanced. I found him in his house sitting on his bare bed-stead, reclining on a leather pillow. He said (to me): Malik, some people of your tribe have hastened to me (with a request for help). I have ordered a little money for them. Take it and distribute it among them. I said: I wish you had ordered somebody else to do this job. He said: Malik, take it (and do what you have been told).

At this moment (his man-servant) Yarfa’ came in and said: Commander of the Faithful, what do you say about Uthman, Abd al-Rabman b. ‘Auf, Zubair and Sa’d (who have come to seek an audience with you)? He said: Yes, and permitted them. so they entered. Then he (Yarfa’) came again and said: What do you say about ‘Ali and Abbas (who are present at the door)? He said: Yes, and permitted them to enter. Abbas said: Commander of the Faithful, decide (the dispute) between me and this sinful, treacherous, dishonest liar. The people (who were present) also said: Yes. Commander of the Faithful, do decide (the dispute) and have mercy on them.

Malik b. Aus said: I could well imagine that they had sent them in advance for this purpose (by ‘Ali and Abbas). ‘Umar said: Wait and be patient. I adjure you by Allah by Whose order the heavens and the earth are sustained, don’t you know that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said:” We (prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity”? They said: Yes. Then he turned to Abbas and ‘Ali and said: I adjure you both by Allah by Whose order the heavens and earth are sustained, don’t you know that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said:” We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity”?

They (too) said: Yes. (Then) Umar said: Allah, the Glorious and Exalted, had done to His Messenger (may peace be upon him) a special favour that He has not done to anyone else except him. He quoted the Qur’anic verse:” What Allah has bestowed upon His Apostle from (the properties) of the people of township is for Allah and His Messenger”. The narrator said: I do not know whether he also recited the previous verse or not. Umar continued: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) distrbuted among you the properties abandoned by Banu Nadir.

By Allah, he never preferred himself over you and never appropriated anything to your exclusion. (After a fair distribution in this way) this property was left over. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) would meet from its income his annual expenditure, and what remained would be deposited in the Bait-ul-Mal. (Continuing further) he said: I adjure you by Allah by Whose order the heavens and the earth are sustained. Do you know this? They said: Yes. Then he adjured Abbas and ‘All as he had adjured the other persons and asked: Do you both know this? They said: Yes. He said: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) passed away, Abu Bakr said:” I am the successor of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).”

Both of you came to demand your shares from the property (left behind by the Messenger of Allah). (Referring to Hadrat ‘Abbas), he said: You demanded your share from the property of your nephew, and he (referring to ‘Ali) demanded a share on behalf of his wife from the property of her father. Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had said:” We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity.” So both of you thought him to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest. And Allah knows that he was true, virtuous, well-guided and a follower of truth.

When Abu Bakr passed away and (I have become) the successor of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him), you thought me to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest. And Allah knows that I am true, virtuous, well-guided and a follower of truth. I became the guardian of this property. Then you as well as he came to me. Both of you have come and your purpose is identical. You said: Entrust the property to us.

I said: If you wish that I should entrust it to you, it will be on the condition that both of you will undertake to abide by a pledge made with Allah that you will use it in the same way as the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used it. So both of you got it. He said: Wasn’t it like this? They said: Yes. He said: Then you have (again) come to me with the request that I should adjudge between you. No, by Allah. I will not give any other judgment except this until the arrival of the Doomsday. If you are unable to hold the property on this condition, return it to me.

4350: The same hadith has been narrated by a different chain of transmitters with a slight variation in wording: ‘Umar b. al-Khattab sent for me and said: Some families from your tribe have come to me (then follows the foregoing hadith) by Malik with the difference that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) would spend on his family for a year. And sometimes Ma’mar said: He would retain sustenance for his family for a year, and what was left of that he spent in the cause of Allah, the Majestic and Exalted.

Chapter 16| The saying of the prophet (may peace be upon him): “We (prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity”

4351: It is narrated on the authority of ‘A’isha who said: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) passed away, his wives made up their minds to send ‘Uthman b. ‘Affan (as their spokesman) to Abu Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). (At this), A’isha said to them: Hasn’t the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said:” We (Prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity”?

4352: It is narrated on the authority of Urwa b. Zubair who narrated from A’isha that she informed him that Fatima, daughter of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), sent someone to Abu Bakr to demand from him her share of the legacy left by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) from what Allah had bestowed upon him at Medina and Fadak and what was left from one-filth of the income (annually received) from Khaibar.

Abu Bakr said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said:” We (prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity.” The household of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) will live on the income from these properties, but, by Allah, I will not change the charity of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) from the condition in which it was in his own time. I will do the same with it as the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upun him) himself used to do. So Abu Bakr refused to hand over anything from it to Fatima who got angry with Abu Bakr for this reason.

She forsook him and did not talk to him until the end of her life. She lived for six months after the death of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). When she died, her husband. ‘Ali b. Abu Talib, buried her at night. He did not inform Abu Bakr about her death and offered the funeral prayer over her himself. During the lifetime of Fatima, ‘All received (special) regard from the people. After she had died, he felt estrangement in the faces of the people towards him. So he sought to make peace with Abu Bakr and offer his allegiance to him. He had not yet owed allegiance to him as Caliph during these months. He sent a person to Abu Bakr requesting him to visit him unaccompanied by anyone (disapproving the presence of Umar).

‘Umar said to Abu Bakr: BY Allah, you will not visit them alone. Abu Bakr said: What will they do to me? By Allah, I will visit them. And he did pay them a visit alone. ‘All recited Tashahhud (as it is done in the beginning of a religious sermon) ; then said: We recognise your moral excellence and what Allah has bestowed upon you. We do not envy the favour (i. e. the Catiphate) which Allah nas conferred upon you; but you have done it (assumed the position of Caliph) alone (without consulting us), and we thought we had a right (to be consulted) on account of our kinship with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He continued to talk to Abu Bakr (in this vein) until the latter’s eyes welled up with tears.

Then Abd Bakr spoke and said: By Allah, in Whose Hand is my life, the kinship of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) is dearer to me than the kinship of my own people. As regards the dispute that has arisen between you and me about these properties, I have not deviated from the right course and I have not given up doing about them what the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to do. So ‘Ali said to Abu Bakr: This aftetnoon is (fixed) for (swearing) allegiance (to you). So when Abu Bakr had finished his Zuhr prayer, he ascended the pulpit and recited Tashahhud, and described the status of ‘Ali, his delay in swearing allegiance and the excuse which lie had offered to him (for this delay). (After this) he asked for God’s forgiveness.

Then ‘Ali b. Abu Talib recited the Tashahhud. extolled the merits of Abu Bakr and (said that) his action was nott prompted by any jealousy of Abu Bakr on his part or his refusal to accept the high position which Allah had conferred upon him, (adding: ) But we were of the opinion that we should have a share in the government, but the matter had been decided without taking us into confidence, and this displeased us. (Hence the delay in offering allegiance. The Muslims were pleased with this (explanation) and they said: You have done the right thing. The Muslims were (again) favourably inclined to ‘Ali since he adopted the proper course of action.

4353: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘A’isha: That Fatima and ‘Abbas approached Abu Bakr, soliciting transfer of the legacy of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) to them. At that time, they were demanding his (Holy Prophet’s) lands at Fadak and his share from Khaibar. Abu Bakr said to them: I have heard from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

Then he quoted the hadith having nearly the same meaning as the one which has been narrated by Uqail on the authority of al-Zuhri (and which his gone before) except that in his version he said: Then ‘Ali stood up, extolled the merits of Abu Bakr mentioned his superiority, and his earlier acceptance of Islam. Then he walked to Abu Bakr and swore allegiance to him. (At this) people turned towards ‘Ali and said: you have done the right thing. And they became favourably inclined to ‘Ali after he had adopted the proper course of action.

4354: It has been narrated by ‘Urwa b Zubair on the authority of ‘A’isha, wife of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him), that Fatima, daughter of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), requested Abu Bakr, after the death of the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him), that he should set apart her share from what the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had left from the properties that God had bestowed upon him. Abu Bakr said to her: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be npon him) said:” We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is Sadaqa (charity).”

The narrator said: She (Fatima) lived six months after the death of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and she used to demand from Abu Bakr her share from the legacy of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) from Khaibar, Fadak and his charitable endowments at Medina. Abu Bakr refused to give her this, and said: I am not going to give up doing anything which the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to do. I am afraid that it I go against his instructions in any matter I shall deviate from the right course.

So far as the charitable endowments at Medina were concerned, ‘Umar handed them over to ‘All and Abbas, but ‘Ali got the better of him (and kept the property under his exclusive possession). And as far as Khaibar and Fadak were concerned ‘Umar kept them with him, and said: These are the endowments of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) (to the Umma). Their income was spent on the discharge of the responsibilities that devolved upon him on the emergencies he had to meet. And their management was to be in the hands of one who managed the affairs (of the Islamic State). The narrator said: They have been managed as such up to this day.

4355: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: My heirs cannot share even a dinar (from my legacy) ; what I leave behind after paving mtintenance allowance to my wives and remuneration to my manager is (to go in) charity.

4356: A similar hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Zinad through a different chain of transmitters.

4357: It his been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said:” We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is a charitable endowment.”

Chapter 17| Distribution of the spoils among the fighters.

4358: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) allowed two shares from the spoils to the horseman and one share to the footman.

4359: The same tradition has been narrated on the authority of Ubaidullah by a different chain of transmitters who do not mention the words:” from the booty”.

Chapter 18| The help with angels in Badr and the permissibility of the spoils of war.

4360: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Umar b. al-Khattab who said: When it was the day on which the Battle of Badr was fought, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) cast a glance at the infidels, and they were one thousand while his own Companions were three hundred and nineteen. The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) turned (his face) towards the Qibla Then he stretched his hands and began his supplication to his Lord:” O Allah, accomplish for me what Thou hast promised to me.

O Allah, bring about what Thou hast promised to me. O Allah, if this small band of Muslims is destroyed. Thou will not be worshipped on this earth.” He continued his supplication to his Lord, stretching his hands, facing the Qibla, until his mantle slipped down from his shoulders. So Abu Bakr came to him, picked up his mantle and put it on his shoulders. Then he embraced him from behind and said:. Prophet of Allah, this prayer of yours to your Lord will suffice you, and He will fulfil for you what He has promised you.

So Allah, the Glorious and Exalted, revealed (the Qur’anic verse):” When ye appealed to your Lord for help, He responded to your call (saying): I will help you with one thousand angels coming in succession.” So Allah helped him with angels. Abu Zumail said that the badith was narrated to him by Ibn ‘Abbas who said: While on that day a Muslim was chasing a disbeliever who was going ahead of him, he heard over him’ the swishing of the whip and the voice of the rider saying: Go ahead, Haizi’m! He glanced at the polytheist who had (now) fallen down on his back.

When he looked at him (carefully he found that) there was a scar on his nose and his face was torn as if it had been lashed with a whip, and had turned green with its poison. An Ansari came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and related this (event) to him. He said: You have told the truth. This was the help from the third heaven. The Muslims that day (i. e. the day of the Battle of Badr) killed seventy persons and captured seventy. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them): What is your opinion about these captives? Abu Bakr said: They are our kith and kin.

I think you should release them after getting from them a ransom. This will be a source of strength to us against the infidels. It is quite possible that Allah may guide them to Islam. Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: What is your opinion. Ibn Khattab? He said: Messenger of Allah. I do not hold the same opinion as Abu Bakr. I am of the opinion that you should hand them over to us so that we may cut off their heads. Hand over ‘Aqil to ‘Ali that he may cut off his head, and hand over such and such relative to me that I may but off his head. They are leaders of the disbelievers and veterans among them.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) approved the opinion of Abu Bakr and did not approve what I said The next day when I came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), I found that both he and Abu Bakr were sitting shedding tears. I said: Messenger of Allah, why are you and your Companion shedding tears? Tell me the reason. For I will weep ate, if not, I will at least pretend to weep in sympathy with you.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: I weep for what has happened to your companions for taking ransom (from the prisoners). I was shown the torture to which they were subjected. It was brought to me as close as this tree. (He pointed to a tree close to him.) Then God revealed the verse:” It is not befitting for a prophet that he should take prisoners until the force of the disbelievers has been crushed…” to the end of the verse:” so eat ye the spoils of war, (it is) lawful and pure. So Allah made booty lawful for them.”

Chapter 19| Binding the prisoners and putting them in confinment and justification for setting them free without any ransom.

4361: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent some horsemen to Najd. They captured a man. He was from the tribe of Banu Hanifa and was called Thumama b. Uthal. He was the chief of the people of Yamama. People bound him with one of the pillars of the mosque. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) came out to (see) him. He said: O Thumama, what do you think? He replied: Muhammad, I have good opinion of you. If you kill me, you will kill a person who has spilt blood.

If you do me a favour, you will do a favour to a grateful person. If you want wealth, ask and you will get what you will demand. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be pon him) lefthim (in this condition) for two days, (and came to him again) and said: What do you think, O Thumama? He replied: What I have already told you. If you do a favour, you will do a favour to a grateful person. If you kill me, you will kill a person who has spilt blood. If you want wealth, ask and you will get what you will demand.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) left him until the next day when he (came to him again) and said: What do you think, O Thumama? He replied: What I have already told you. If you do me a favour, you will do a favour to a grateful person. If you kill me, you will kill a person who has spilt blood. If you want wealth ask and you will get what you will demand. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Set Thumama free. He went to a palm-grove near the mosque and took a bath.

Then he entered the mosque and said: I bear testimony (to the truth) that there is no god but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His bondman and His messenger. O Muhammad, by Allah, there was no face on the earth more hateful to me than your face, but (now) your face has become to me the dearest of all faces. By Allah, there was no religion more hateful to me than your religion, but (now) your religion has become the dearest of all religions to me. By Allah, there was no city more hateful to me than your city, but (now) your city has become the dearest of all cities to me.

Your horsemen captured me when I intended going for Umra. Now what is your opinion (in the matter)? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) announced good tidings to him and told him to go on ‘Umra. When he reached Mecca, somebody said to him: Have you changed your religion? He said: No! I have rather embraced Islam with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). By Allah, you will not get a single grain of wheat from Yamama until it is permitted by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

4362: The same tradition has been narrated by a different chain of transmitters with a slight difference in the wording.

Chapter 20| Evacuation of the jews from the hijaz.

4363: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira who said: We were (sitting) in the mosque when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) came to us and said: (Let us) go to the Jews. We went out with him until we came to them. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood up and called out to them (saying): O ye assembly of Jews, accept Islam (and) you will be safe. They said: Abu’l-Qasim, you have communicated (God’s Message to us). The Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him) said: I want this (i. e. you should admit that God’s Message has been communicated to you), accept Islam and you would be safe.

They said: Abu’l-Qisim, you have communicated (Allah’s Message). The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: I want this… – He said to them (the same words) the third time (and on getting the same reply) he added: You should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle, and I wish that I should expel you from this land Those of you who have any property with them should sell it, otherwise they should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle (and they may have to go away leaving everything behind).

4364: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar that the Jews of Banu Nadir and Banu Quraizi fought against the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) who expelled Banu Nadir, and allowed Quraiza to stay on, and granted favour to them until they too fought against him Then he killed their men, and distributed their women, children and properties among the Muslims, except that some of them had joined the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) who granted them security. They embraced Islam. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) turned out all the Jews of Medlina. Banu Qainuqa’ (the tribe of ‘Abdullah b. Salim) and the Jews of Banu Haritha and every other Jew who was in Medina.

4365: A similar hadith has been transmitted by a different chain of narrators, but the hadith narrated by Ibn Juraij is more detailed and complete.

4366: It has been narrated by ‘Umar b. al-Khattib that he heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslim.

4367: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zubair with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 21| Justification for killing those guilty of breach of trust and making the people of the fort surrender on the arbitration of a just person.

4368: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Sa’id al-Khudri who said: The people of Quraiza surrendered accepting the decision of Sa’d b. Mu’adh about them. Accordingly, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent for Sa’d who came to him riding a donkey. When he approached the mosque, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to the Ansar: Stand up to receive your chieftain.

Then he said (to Sa’d): These people have surrendered accepting your decision. He (Sa’d) said: You will kill their fighters and capture their women and children. (Hearing this), the Propbot (may peace he tpon him) said: You have adjudged by the command of God. The narrator is reported to have said: Perhaps he said: You have adjuged by the decision of a king. Ibn Muthanna (in his version of the tradition) has not mentioned the alternative words.

4369: Through the same chain of transmitters Shu’ba has narrated the same tradition in which he says that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said (to Sa’d): You have adjudged according to the command of God. And once he said: you have adjudged by the decision of a king.

4370: It has been narrated on the authority of A’isha who said: Sa’d was wounded on the day of the Battle of the Ditch. A man from the Quraish called Ibn al-Ariqah shot at him an arrow which pierced the artery in the middle of his forearm. The Messenger of Allah (may peacce be upon him) pitched a tent for him in the mosque and would inquire after him being in close proximity. When he returned from the Ditch and laid down his arms and took a bath, the angel Gabriel appeared to him and he was removing dust from his hair (as if he had just returned from the battle).

The latter said: You have laid down arms. By God, we haven’t (yet) laid them down. So march against them. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) asked: Where? He poirftad to Banu Quraiza. So the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) fought against them. They surrendered at the command of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), but he referred the decision about them to Sa’d who said: I decide about them that those of them who can fight be killed, their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed (among the Muslims).

4371: It has been narrated on the authority of Hisham (who learnt it from his father) that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said (to Sa’d): You have adjudged their case with the judgment of God. the Exalted and Glorified.

4372: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘A’isha that Sa’d’s wound became dry and was going to heal when he prayed: O God, surely Thou knowest that nothing is dearer to me than that I should fight for Thy cause against the people who disbeliever Your Messenger (may peace be upon him) and turned him out (from his native place). If anything yet remains to be decided from the war against the Quraish, spare my life so that I may fight against them in Thy cause.

O Lord, I think Thou hast ended the war between us and them. If Thou hast done so, open my wound (so that it may discharge) and cause my death thereby. So the wound begin to bleed from the front part of his neck. The people were not scared except when the blood flowed towards them, and in the mosque along with Sa’d’s tent was the tent of Banu Ghifar. They said: O people of the tent, what is it that is coming to us from you? Lo! it was Sa’d’s wound that was bleeding and he died thereof.

4373: This tradition has been narrated by Hishim through the same chain of transmitters with a little difference in the wording. He said: (His wound) began to bleed that very night and it continued to bleed until he died. He has made the addition that it was then that (a non-believing) poet said: Hark, O Sa’d, Sa’d of Banu Mu’adh, What have the Quraiaa and Nadir done? By thy life! Sa’d b. Mu’adh>br> Was steadfast on the morn they departed. You have left your cooking-pot empty, While the cooking-pot of the people is hot and boiling. Abu Hubab the nobleman has said, O Qainuqa’, do not depart. They were weighty in their country just aa rocks are weighty in Maitan.

Chapter 22| Showing promptitude in jihad and giving precedence to the more urgent of the two actions while making a choice between them.

4374: It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah who said: On the day he returned from the Battle of Ahzab, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) made for us an announcement that nobody would say his Zuhr prayer but in the quarters of Banu Quraiza (Some) people, being afraid that the time for prayer would expire, said their prayers before reaching the street of Banu Quraiza. The others said: We will not say our prayer except where the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) has ordered us to say it even if the time expires. (When he learned of the difference in the view of the two groups of the people, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be tipon him) did not blame anyone from the two groups.

Chapter 23| Return of their gifts to the Ansar by the Muhajirs when the latter grew rich as a rebult of the conquests.

4375: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik who said: When the Muhajirs migrated from Mecca to Medina; they came (in a state that) they had not anything (i. e. money) in theirhands, while the Ansar possessed lands and date palms. They divided their properties with the Muhajirs. The Ansar divided and gave them on the condition that they would give half the fruit from the orchards every year, and the Muhajirs would recompense them by working with them and putting in labour.

The mother of Anas b. Malik was called Umm Sulaim and she was also the mother of ‘Abdullah b. Talha who was a brother of Anas from his mother’s side. The mother of Anas had given the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) her date-palms. He bestowed them upon Umm Aiman, the slave-girl who had been freed by him and was the mother of Usama b. Zaid. When the essenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had finished the war with the people of Khaibar and returned to Medina, the Muhajirs returned to the Ansar all the gifts which they had given them out of the fruits. (Anas b. Malik said: )

The Messenger of. Allah (may peace be upon him) returned to my mother her date-palms and gave to Umm Aiman instead of them date-palms from his orchard. Ibn Shihab says that Umm Aiman was the mother of Usama b. Zaid who was the slave-girl of ‘Abdullah b. ‘Abd-ul-Muttalib and hailed from Abyssinia. When Amina gave birth to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) after the death of his father, Umm Aiman used to nurse him until he grew up. He (later on) freed her and married her to Zaid b. Haritha. She died five months after the death of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

4376: It has been narrated by Anas that (after his migration to Medina) a person placed at the Prophet’s (may peace be upon him) disposal some date-palms growing on his land until the lands of Quraiza and Nadir were conquered. Then he began to return to him whatever he had received. (In this connection) my people told me to approach the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and ask from him what his people had given him or a portion thereof, but the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had bestowed those trees upon Umm Aiman.

So I came to the Prophet (may peace be upon him) and he gave hem (back) to me. Umm Aiman (also) came (at this time). She put the cloth round my neck and said: No, by Allah, we will not give to, you what he has granted to me. The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Umm Aiman, let him have them and for you are such and such trees instead. But she said: By Allah, there is no god besides Him. No, never! The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) continued saying: (You will get) such and such. until he had granted her ten times or nearly ten times more (than the original gift).

Chapter 24| Justification for taking food in the land of the enemy.

4377: It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mughaffal who said I found a bag containing fat on the day of the Battle of Khaibar. I caught hold of it and said: I will not give anything today from it to anybody. Then I turned round and saw that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was smiling (at my words).

4378: This tradition has been transmitted by a different chain of narrators with a different wording, the last in the chain being the same narrator, (i. e. ‘Abdullah b. Mughaffal), who said: A bag containing food and fat was thrown to us. I lept forward to catch it. Then I turned round and saw (to my surprise) the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and I felt ashamed of my act in his presence.

4379: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Shu’ba with a slight variation of words.

Chapter 25| The holy prophet’s (may peace be upon him) letter to Hiraql (ceasar) inviting him to islam.

4380: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas who learnt the tradition personally from Abu Safyan. The latter said: I went out (on a mercantile venture) during the period (of truce) between me and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). While I was in Syria, the letter of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was handed over to Hiraql (Ceasar), the Emperor of Rome (who was on a visit to Jerusalem at that time). The letter was brought by Dihya Kalbi who delivered it to the governor of Busra The governor passed it on to Hiraql, (On receiving the letter), he said: Is there anyone from the people of this man who thinks that he is a prophet.

People said: Yes. So, I was called along with a few others from the Quraish. We were admitted to Hiraql and he seated usbefore him. He asked: Which of you has closer kinship with the man who thinks that he is a prophet? Abu Sufyan said: I. So they seated me in front of him and stated my companions behind me. Then, he called his interpreter and said to him: Tell them that I am going to ask this fellow (i. e. Abu Sufyan) about the man who thinks that he is a prophet. It he tells me a lie, then refute him.

Abu Sufyan told (the narrator): By God, if there was not the fear that falsehood would be imputed to me I would have lied. (Then) Hiraqi said to his interpreter: Inquire from him about his ancestry, I said: He is of good ancestry among us. He asked: Has there been a king among his ancestors? I said: No. He asked: Did you accuse him of falsehood before he proclaimed his prophethood? I said: No. He asked: Who are his follower people of high status or low status? I said: (They are) of low status.

He asked: Are they increasing in number or decreasing? I said. No. they are rather increasing. He asked: Does anyone give up his religion, being dissatisfied with it, after having embraced it? I said: No. He asked: Have you been at war with him? I said: Yes. He asked: How did you fare in that war? I said: The war between us and him has been wavering like a bucket, up at one turn and down at the other (i. e. the victory has been shared between us and him by turns). Sometimes he suffered loss at our hands and sometimes we suffered loss at his (hand).

He asked: Has he (ever) violated his covenant? I said: No. but we have recently concluded a peace treaty with him for a petiod and we do not know what he is going to do about it. (Abu Sufyin said on oath that he could not interpolate in this dialogue anything from himself more than these words ) He asked: Did anyone make the proclamation (Of prophethood) before him? I said: No. He (now) said to his interpreter: Tell him, I asked him about his ancestry and he had replied that he had the best ancestry.

This is the case with Prophets; they are the descendants of the noblest among their people (Addressing Abu Sufyan), he continued: I asked you if there had been a king among his ancestors. You said that there had been none. If there had been a king among his ancestors, I would have said that he was a man demanding his ancestral kingdom. I asked you about his followers whether they were people of high or low status, and you said that they were of rather low status. Such are the followers of the Prophets.

I asked you whether you used to accuse him of falsehood before he proclaimed his prophethood, and you said that you did not. So I have understood that when he did not allow himself to tell a lie about the poeple, he would never go to the length of forging a falsehood about Allah. I asked you whether anyone renounced his religion being dissatisfied with it after he had embraced it, and you replied in the negative. Faith is like this when it enters the depth of the heart (it perpetuates them).

I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You said they were increasing. Faith is like this until it reaches its consummation. I asked you whether you had been at war with him, and you replied that you had been and that the victory between you and him had been shared by turns, sometimes he suffering loss at your hand and sometimes you suffering lost at his. This is how the Prophets are tried before the final victory its theirs. I asked you whether he (ever) violated his covenant, and you said that he did not. This is how the Prophets behave. They never violate (their covenants).

I asked you whether anyone before him had proclaimed the same thing, and you replied in the negative. I said: If anyone had made the same proclamation before, I would have thought that he was a man following what had been proclaimed before. (Then) he asked: What does he enjoin upon you? I said: He exhorts us to offer Salat, to pay Zakat, to show due regard to kinship and to practise chastity. He said: It what you have told about him is true, he is certainly a Prophet.

I knew that he was to appear but I did not think that he would be from among you. If I knew that I would be able to reach him. I would love to meet him; and it I had been with him. I would have washed his feet (out of reverence). His dominion would certainly extend to this place which is under my feet. Then he called for the letter of the Messenger of Allah (may pface be upon him) and read it. The letter ran as follows:” In the name of Allah, Most Gracious and Most Merciful. From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, to Hiraql, the Emperor of the Romans. Peace be upon him who follows the guidance.

After this, I extend to you the invitation to accept Islam. Embrace Islam and you will be safe. Accept Islam, God will give you double the reward. And if you turn away, upon you will be the sin of your subjects.” O People of the Book, come to the word that is common between us that we should worship none other than Allah, should not ascribe any partner to Him and some of us should not take their fellows as Lords other than Allah. If they turn away, you should say that we testify to our being Muslims [iii. 64].”

When he hid finished the reading of the letter, noise and confused clamour was raise around him, and he ordered us to leave. Accordingly, we left. (Addressing my companions) while we were coming out (of the place). I said: Ibn Abu Kabsha (referring sarcastically to the Holy Prophet) has come to wield a great power. Lo! (even) the king of the Romans is afraid of him. I continued to believe that the authority of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) would triumph until God imbued me with (the spirit of) Islam.

4381: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Shihab with the same chain of transmitters but with the addition:” When Allah inflicted defeat on the armies of Persia, Caesar moved from Hims to Aelia (Bait al-Maqdis) for thanking Allah as He granted him victory.” In this hadith these words occur:” From Muhammad, servant of Allah and His Messenger,” and said:” The sin of your followers,” and also said the words:” to the call of Islam”.

Chapter 26| Letters of the holy prophet (may peace be upon him) to the kings of disbelievers inviting them to allah, the exalted and glorious.

4382: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas that the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him) wrote to Chosroes (King of Persia), Caesar (Emperor of Rome), Negus (King of Abyssinia) and every (other) despot inviting them to Allah, the Exalted. And this Negus was not the one for whom the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had said the funeral prayers.

4383: The tradition has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik (the same narrator) through a different chain of transmitters, but this version does not mention:” And he was not the Negus for whom the Prophet (may peace be upon him) had said the funeral prayers.”

4384: It has been narrated on the authority of the same narrator through another chain of transmitters with the same difference in the wording.

Chapter 27| The battle of Hunain.

4385: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abbas who said: I was in the company of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on the Day of Hunain. I and Abd Sufyan b. Harith b. ‘Abd al-Muttalib stuck to the Messenaer of Allah (may peace be upon him) and we did not separate from him. And the Messenger of Allah (may place be upon him) was riding on his white mule which had been presented to him by Farwa b. Nufitha al-Judhami.

When the Muslims had an encounter with the disbelievers, the Muslims fled, falling back, but the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) began to spur his mule towards the disbelievers. I was holding the bridle of the mule of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) checking it from going very fast, and Abu Sufyan was holding the stirrup of the (mule of the) Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), who said: Abbas, call out to the people of al-Samura.

Abbas (who was a man with a loud voice) called out at the top of the voice: Where are the people of Samura? (Abbas said: ) And by God, when they heard my voice, they came back (to us) as cows come back to their calves, and said: We are present, we are present! ‘Abbas said: They began to fight the infidels. Then there was a call to The Ansar. Those (who called out to them) shouted: O ye party of the Ansar! O party of the Ansar! Banu al-Harith b. al-Khazraj were the last to be called.

Those (who called out to them) shouted: O Banu Al-Harith b. al-Khazraj! O BanU Harith b. al-Khazraj! And the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) who was riding on his mule looked at their fight with his neck stretched forward and he said: This is the time when the fight is raging hot. Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) took (some) pebbles and threw them in the face of the infidels. Then he said: By the Lord of Muhammad, the infidels are defeated. ‘Abbas said: I went round and saw that the battle was in the same condition in which I had seen it. By Allah, it remained in the same condition until he threw the pebbles. I continued to watch until I found that their force had been spent out and they began to retreat.

4386: A version of the tradition has been transmitted through another chain of narrators. In this version the words uttered by the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) (after he had thrown the pebbles in the face of the enemy) are reported as:” By the Lord of the Ka’ba, they have been defeated.” And there is at the end the addition of the words:” Until Allah defeated them” (and I imagine) as if I saw the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him) chasing them on his mule.

4387: ‘Abbas reported: I was with Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) on the Day of Hunain. The rest of the hadith is the same but with this variation that the hadith transmitted by Yonus and Ma’mar is more detailed and complete.

4388: It has been narratedon the authority of Abu Ishaq who said: A man asked Bara’ (b. ‘Azib): Did you run away on the Day of Hunain. O, Abu Umira? He said: No, by Allah, The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not turn his back; (what actually happened was that) some young men from among his companions, who were hasty and who were either without any arms or did not have abundant arms, advanced and met a party of archers (who were so good shots) that their arrows never missed the mark.

This party (of archers) belonged to Banu Hawazin and Banu Nadir. They shot at the advancing young men and their arrows were not likely to miss their targets. So these young men turned to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) while he was riding on his white mule and Abu Sufyan b. al-Harith b. ‘Abd al-Muttalib was leading him. (At this) he got down from his mule, invoked God’s help, and called out: I am the Prophet. This is no untruth. I am the son of ‘Abd al-Muttalib. Then he deplnved his men into battle array.

4389: It has been narrated (through a different chain of transmitters) by Abu Ishiq that a person said to Bara’ (b. ‘Azib): Abu Umara, did you flee on the Day of Hunain? He replied: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not retreat. (What actually happened was that some hasty young men who were either inadequately armed or were unarmed met a group of men from Banu Hawazin and Banu Nadir who happened to be (excellent) archers. The latter shot at them a volley of arrows that did not miss.

The people turned to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). Abu Sufyan b. Harith was leading his mule. So he got down, prayed and invoked God’s help. He said: I am the Prophet. This is no untruth. I am the son of Abd al-Muttalib. O God, descend Thy help. Bara’ continued: When the battle grew fierce. we, by God. would seek protection by his side, and the bravest among us was he who confronted the onslaught and it was the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him).

4390: It has been narrated through a still different chain of transmitters by the same narrator (i. e. Abu Ishaq) who said: I heard from Bara’ who was asked by a man from the Qais tribe: Did you run away from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on the Day of Hunain? Bara’ said: But the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not run away. On that day Banu Hawzzin took part in the battle as archers (on the side of the disbelievers). When we attacked them, they retreated and we fell upon the booty; (they rallied) and advanced towards us with arrows. (At that time) I saw the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) riding on his white mule and Abu Sufyan b. al-Harith was holding its bridle. He (the Messenger of Allah was saying: I am the Prophet. This is no untruth. I am a descendant of ‘Abd al-Muttalib.

4391: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Bara’ with another chain of transmitters, but this hadith is short as compared with other ahadith which are more detailed.

4392: This tradition has been narrated on the authority of Salama who said: We fought by the side of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) at Hunain. When we encountered the enemy, I advanced and ascended a hillock. A man from the enemy side turned towards me and I shot him with an arrow. He (ducked and) hid himself from me. I could not understand what he did, but (all of a sudden) I saw that a group of people appeared from the other hillock.

They and the Companions of the Prophet (may peace be upon him) met in combat, but the Companions of the Prophet turned back and I too turned back defeated. I had two mantles, one of which I was wrapping round the waist (covering the lower part of my body) and the other I was putting around my shoulders. My waistwrapper got loose and I held the two mantles together. (In this downcast condition) I passed by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) who was riding on his white mule. He said: The son of Akwa’ finds himself to be utterly perplexed.

When the Companions gathered round him from all sides. the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) got down from his mule. picked up a handful of dust from the ground, threw it into their (enemy) faces and said: May these faces be deformed 1 There was no one among the enemy whose eyes were not filled with the dust from this handful. So they turned back fleeing. and Allah the Exalted and Glorious defeated them, and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) distributed their booty among the Muslims.

Chapter 28| The battle of Ta’if.

4393: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Amr who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) besieged the people of Ta’if, but did get victory over them. He said: God willing, we shall return. His Companions said: Shall we depart without having conquered it? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: (All right) make a raid in the morning. They did so. and were wounded (with the arrows showered upon them). So the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: We shall depart tomorrow. (The narrator says): (Now) this (announcement) pleased them, and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) laughed at (their waywardness).

Chapter 29| The battle of Badr.

4394: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas that when (the news of) the advance of Abu Sufyan (at the head of a force) reached him. the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) held consultations with his Companions. The narrator said: Abu Bakr spoke (expressing his own views), but he (the Holy Prophet) did not pay heed to him. Then spoke ‘Umar (expressing his views), but he (the Holy Prophet) did not pay heed to him (too). Then Sa’d b. ‘Ubada stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, you want us (to speak).

By God in Whose control is my life, if you order us to plunge our horses into the sea, we would do so. If you order us to goad our horses to the most distant place like Bark al-Ghimad, we would do so. The narrator said: Now the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) called upon the people (for the encounter). So they set out and encamped at Badr. (Soon) the watercarriers of the Quraish arrived. Among them was a black slave belonging to Banu al-Hajjaj.

The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) caught him and interrogated him about Abu Sufyan and his companions. He said: I know nothing about Abu Sufyan, but Abu Jahl, Utba, Shaiba and Umayya b. Khalaf are there. When he said this, they beat him. Then he said: All right, I will tell you about Abu Sufyan. They would stop beating him and then ask him (again) about Abu Sufyan. He would again say’, I know nothing about Abu Sufyan, but Abu Jahl. ‘Utba, Shaiba and Umayya b. Khalaf are there.

When he said this, they beat him likewise. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was standing in prayer. When he saw this he finished his prayer and said: By Allah in Whose control is my life, you beat him when he is telling you the truth, and you let him go when he tells you a lie. The narrator said: Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: This is the place where so and so would be killed. He placed his hand on the earth (saying) here and here; (and) none of them fell away from the place which the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had indicated by placing his hand on the earth.

Chapter 30| The conquest of Mecca.

4395: It has been narrated by ‘Abdullah b. Rabah from Abu Huraira, who said: Many deputations came to Mu’awiya. This was in the month of Ramadan. We would prepare food for one another. Abu Huraira was one of those who frequently invited us to his house. I said: Should I not prepare food and invite them to my place? So I ordered meals to be prepared Then I met Abu Huraira in the evening and said: (You will have) your meals with me tonight. He said: You have forestalled me. I said: Yes, and invited them.

(When they had finished with the meals) Abu Huraira said: Should I not tell yon a tradition from your traditions, O ye assembly of the Ansar? He then gave an account of the Conquest of Mecca and said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) advanced until he reached Mecca. He deputed Zubair on his right flank and Khalid on the left, and he despatched Abu Ubaida with the force that had no armour. They advanced to the interior of the valley.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was in the midst of a large contingent of fighters. He saw me and said: Abu Huraira. I said: I am here at your call, Messenger of Allah I He said: Let no one come to me except the Ansar, so call to me the Ansar (only). Abu Huraira continued: So they gathered round him. The Quraish also gathered their ruffians and their (lowly) followers, and said: We send these forward. If they get anything, we shall be with them (to share it), and if misfortune befalls them, we shall pay (as compensation) whatever we are asked for.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said (to the Ansar): You see the ruffians and the (lowly) followers of the Quraish. And he indicated by (striking) one of his hands over the other that they should be killed and said: Meet me at as-Safa. Then we went on (and) if any one of us wanted that a certain person should be killed, he was killed, and none could offer any resistance. Abu Huraira continued: Then came Abu Sufyan and said: Messenger of Allah, the blood of the Quraish has become very cheap. There will be no Quraish from this day on.

Then he (the Holy Prophet) said: Who enters the house of Abu Sufyan, he will be safe. Some of the Ansar whispered among themselves: (After all), love for his city and tenderness towards his relations have overpowered him. Abu Huraira said: (At this moment) revelation came to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and when he was going to receive the Revelation, we understood it, and when he was (actually) receiving it, none of us would dare raise his eyes to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) until the revelation came to an end.

When the revelation came to an end, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: O ye Assembly of the Ansar! They said: Here we are at your disposal, Messenger of Allah. He said: You were saying that love for his city and tenderness towards his people have overpowered this man. They said: So it was. He said: No, never. I am a bondman of God and His Messenger. I migrated towards God and towards you. I will live with you and will die with you. So, they (the Ansar) turned towards him in tears and they were saying: By Allah, we said what we said because of our tenacious attachment to Allah and His Messenger.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Surely, Allah and His Messenger testify to your assertions and accept your apology. The narrator continued: People turned to the house of Abu Sufyan and people locked their doors. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) proceeded until he approached the (Black) Stone. He kissed it and circumambulated the Ka’ba. He reached near an idol by the side of the Ka’ba which was worshipped by the people. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had a bow in his hand, and he was holding it from a corner.

When he came near the idol, he began to pierce its eyes with the bow and (while doing so) was saying: Truth has been established and falsehood has perished. When he had finished the circumambulation, he came to Safa’, ascended it to a height from where he could see the Ka’ba, raised his hands (in prayer) and began to praise Allah and prayed what he wanted to pray. The tradition has been narrated by a different chain of transmitters with the following additions: (i) Then be (the Messenger of Allah) said with his hands one upon the other: Kill them (who stand in your way)…. (ii) They (the Ansar) replied: We said so, Messenger of Allah! He said: What is my name? I am but Allah’s bondman and His Messenger.

4396: It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Rabah who said: We came to Mu’awiya b. Abu Sufyan as a deputation and Abu Huraira was among us. Each of us would prepare food for his companions turn by turn for a day. (Accordingly) when it was my turn I said: Abu Huraira, it is my turn today. So they came to my place. The food was not yet ready, so I said to Abu Huraira: I wish you could narrate to us a tradition from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) until the food was ready. (Complying with my request) Abu Huraira said: We were with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on the day of the Conquest of Mecca.

He appointed Khalid b. Walid as commander of the right flank, Zubair as commander of the left flank, and Abu ‘Ubaida as commander of the foot-soldiers (who were to advance) to the interior of the valley. He (then) said: Abu Huraira, call the Ansar to me. So I called out to them and they came hurriedly. He said: O ye Assembly of the Ansaar, do you see the ruffians of the Quraish? They said: Yes. He said: See, when you meet them tomorrow, wipe them out. He hinted at this with his hand, placing his right hand on his left and said: You will meet us at as-Safa’.

(Abu Huraira continued): Whoever was seen by them that day was put to death. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) ascended the mount of as-Safa’. The Ansar also came there and surrounded the mount. Then came Abu Sufyan and said: Messenger ot Allah, the Quraish have perished. No member of the Quraish tribe will survive this day.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who enters the house of Abu Safyin will be safe, who lays down arms will be safe, who locks his door will be safe. (some of) the Ansar said: (After all) the man has been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city. At this, Divine inspiration descended upon the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

He said: You were saying that the man has been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city. Do you know what my name is? I am Muhammad, the bondman of God and His Messenger. (He repeated this thrice.) I left my native place for the take of Allah and joined you. So I will live with you and die with you. Now the Ansar said: By God, we said (that) only out of our greed for Allah and His Messenger. He said: Allah and His Apostle testify to you and accept your apology.

Chapter 31| Removal of the idols from the vicinity of the Ka’ba.

4397: It has been narrated by Ibn Abdullah who said: The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) entered Mecca. There were three hundred and sixty idols around the Ka’ba. He began to thrust them with the stick that was in his hand saying:” Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. Lo! falsehood was destined to vanish” (xvii. 8). Truth has arrived, and falsehood can neither create anything from the beginning nor can It restore to life

4398: This tradition has been narrated by Ibn Abu Najah through a different chain of transmitters up to the word: Zahaqa, (This version) does not contain the second verse and substitutes Sanam for Nusub (both the words mean” idol” or” image” that is worshipped).

Chapter 32| No quraishite will be killed bound hand and foot after the conquest of Mecca.

4399: It has been narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Muti’ who heard from his father and said: I heard the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) say on the day of the Conquest of Mecca: No Quraishite will be killed hound hand and foot from this day until the Day of judgment.

4400: The same tradition has been narrated on the authority of Zakriyya through the same chain of transmitters with the following addition:” No rebellious Quraishite with al-Asi as his name embraced Islam that day except Muti. His name-was al-Asi, but the Messenger of Allah (way peace be upon him) changed his name to Muti.

Chapter 33| The treaty of Hudaibiya.

4401: It has been narrated on the authority of al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib who said: ‘Ali b. Abu Talib penned the treaty between the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and the polytheists on the Day of Hudaibiya. He wrote: This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, has settled. They (the polytheists) said: Do not write words” the Messenger of Allah”. If we knew that you were the Messenger of Allah, we would not fight against you.

The Prophet (may peace be upon him) said to ‘Ali: Strike out these words. He (Ali) said: I am not going to strike them out. So the Prophet (may peace be upon him) struck them out with his own hand. The narrator said that the conditions upon which the two sides had agreed included that the Muslims would enter Mecca (next year) and would stay there for three days, and that they would not enter bearing arms except in their sheaths or bolsters.

4402: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Ishaq, who heard Bars’ b. Azib say: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) made peace with the people of Hudaibiya, ‘Ali drew up the agreement between them, and so he wrote: Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah. (This is followed by the same wording as we have in the previous tradition except the omission of the words: This is what he has settled.)

4403: It has been narrated on the authority of Bara’ who said: When the Prophet (may peace be upon him) was checked from going to the Ka’ba, the people of Mecca made peace with him’on the condition that he would (be allowed to) enter Mecca (next year) and stay there for three days, that he would not enter (the city) except with swords in their sheaths and arms encased in their covers, that he would not take eway with him anyone from its dwellers, nor would he prevent anyone from those with him to stay on in Mecca (if he so desired).

He said to ‘Ali: Write down the terms settled between us. (So ‘Ali wrote): In the name of Allah, most Gracious and most Merciful. This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, has settled (with the Meccans), The polytheists said to him: If we knew that thou art the Messenger of of Allah, we would follow you. But write: Muhammad b. ‘Abdullah. So he told ‘Ali to strike out these words. ‘Ali said: No, by Allah, I will not strike them out.

The Messenger of Allah (may Peace be upon him) said: Show me their place (on the parchment). So he (‘Ali) showed him their place and he (the Holy Prophet) struck them out; and ‘Ali wrote: Ibn ‘Abdullah. (According to the terms of the treaty, next year) the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) stayed there for three days When it was the third day, they said to ‘Ali: This is the last day according to the terms of your companion. So tell him to leave. ‘Ali informed the Prophet (may peace be upon him) accordingly. He said: Yes, and left (the city). Ibn Janab in his version of the tradition used:” we would swear allegiance to you” instead of” we would follow you”.

4404: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas that the Quraish made peace with the Prophet (may peace be upon him). Among them was Suhail b. Amr. The Prophet (may peace be upon him) said to ‘Ali: Write” In the name of Allah, most Gracious and most Merciful.” Suhail said: As for” Bismillah,” we do not know what is meant by” Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Rahim” (In the name of Allah most Gracious and most Merciful). But write what we understand, i. e. Bi ismika allahumma (in thy name. O Allah). Then, the Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Write:” From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah.” They said: If we knew that thou welt the Messenger of Allah, we would follow you.

Therefore, write your name and the name of your father. So the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Write” From Muhammad b. ‘Abdullah.” They laid the condition on the Prophet (may peace be upon him) that anyone who joined them from the Muslims, the Meccans would not return him, and anyone who joined you (the Muslims) from them, you would send him back to them. The Companions said: Messenger of Allah, should we write this? He said: Yes. One who goes away from us to join them-may Allah keep him away! and one who comes to join us from them (and is sent back) Allah will provide him relief and a way of escape.

4405: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Wa’il who said: Sahal b. Hunaif stood up on the Day of Siffin and said: O ye people, blame yourselves (for want of discretion) ; we were with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on the Day of Hudaibiya. If we had thought it fit to fight, we could fight. This was in the truce between the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and the polytheists.

Umar b. Khattab came, approached the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and said: Messenger of Allah, aren’t we fighting for truth and they for falsehood? He replied: By all means. He asked: Are not those killed from our side in Paradise and those killed. from their side in the Fire? He replied: Yes. He said: Then why should we put a blot upon our religion and return, while Allah has not decided the issue between them and ourselves? He said: Son of Khattab, I am the Messenger of Allah. Allah will never ruin me. (The narrator said): Umar went away, but he could not contain himself with rage.

So he approached Abu Bakr and said: ‘Abu Bakr, aren’t we fighting for truth and they for falsehood? He replied: Yes. He asked: Aren’t those killed from our side in Paradise and those killed from their side in the Fire? He replied: Why not? He (then) said: Why should we then disgrace our religion and return while God has not yet decided the issue between them and ourselves?

Abu Bakr said: Son of Khattab, verily, he is the Messenger of Allah, and Allah will never ruin him. (The narrator continued): At this (a Sura of) the Qur’an (giving glad tidings of the victory) was revealed to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He sent for Umar and made him read it. He asked: Is (this truce) a victory? He (the Messenger of Allah) replied: Yes. At this Umar was pleased, and returned.

4406: It has been narrated on the authority of Shaqiq who said: I heard Sahl b. Hunaif say at Siffin: O ye people, find fault with your (own) discretion. By Allah, on the Day of Abu Jandal (i. e. the day of Hudaibiya), I thought to myself that, if I could, I would reverse the order of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) (the terms of the truce being unpalatable). By Allah, we have never hung our swords on our shoulders in any situation whatsoever except when they made easy for us to realize the goal envisaged by us, but this battle of yours (seems to be an exception). Ibn Numair (in his version) did not mention the words:” In any situatina whatsoever”

4407: The same tradition has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters on the authority of A’mash. This version contains the words: Ila amrin yofzi’una instead of Ila amrin na’rifuhu.

4408: It has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters on the authority of Abu Wa’il who said: I heard Sahl b. Hunaif say at Siffin: Blame (the hollowness) of your views about your religion. I thought to myself on the day of Abu Jandal that if I could turn down the order of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), I would. The situation was so difficult that if we mended it at one place, it was rent at another.

4409: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik who said: When they (Companions of the Holy Prophet) were overwhelmed with grief and distress on his return from Hudaibiya where he had slaughtered his sacrificial beasts (not being allowed to proceed to Mecca), the Qur’anic verse: Inna fatahna… laka fathan mobinan to fauzan ‘aziman, was revealed to him. (At this) he said: On me has descended a verse that is dearer to me than the whole world.

4410: This tradition has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters.

Chapter 34| Keeping a covenant.

4411: It has been reported on the authority of Hudbaifa b. al-Yaman who said: Nothing prevented me from being present at! he Battle of Badr except this incident. I came out with my father Husail (to participate in the Battle), but we were caught by the disbelievers of Quraish. They said: (Do) you intend to go to Muhammad? We said: We do not intend to go to him, but we wish to go (back) to Medina.

So they took from us a covenant in the name of God that we would turn back to Medina and would not fight on the side of Muhammad (may peace be upon him). So, we came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and related the incident to him. He said: Both, of you proceed (to Medina) ; we will fulfil the covenant made with them and seek God’s help against them.

Chapter 35| The battle of Ahzab or the battle of the Ditch.

4412: It has been narrated by Ibrahim al-Taimi on the authority of his father who said: We were sitting in the company of Hudhaifa. A man said: If I were in the time of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), I would have fought by his side and would have striven hard for his causes. Hudhaifa said: You might have done that, (but you should not make a flourish of your enthusiasm). I was with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on the night of the Battle of Abzib and we were gripped by a violent wind and severe cold. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be him) said: Hark, the man who (goes reconnoitring and) brings me the news of the enemy shall be ranked with me on the Day of Judgment by Allah (the Glorious and Exalted). We all kept quiet and none of us responed to him.

(Again) he said: Hark, a man who (goes reconnoitring and) brings me the news of the enemy shall be ranked with me on the Day of Judgment by Allah (the Glorious and Exalted). We kept quiet and none of us responded to him. He again said: Hark, a man who (goes reconnoitring and) brings me the news of the enemy shall be ranked with me on the Day of Judgtuent by Allah (the Glorious and Exalted) Then he said: Get up Hudhaifa, bring me the news of the enemy. When he called me by name I had no alternative but to get up.

He said: Go and bring me information about the enemy, and do nothing that may provoke them against me. When I left him, I felt warm as if I were walking in a heated bath untill I reached them. I saw Abu Sufyan warming his back against fire I put an arrow in the middle of the bow. intending to shoot at him, when I recalled the words of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)” Do not provoke them against me.” Had I shot at him, I would have hit him.

But I returned and (felt warm as if) I were walking in a heated bath (hammam). Presenting myself before him, I gave him information about the enemy. When I had done so, I began to feel cold, so the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) wrapped me in a blanket that he had in excess to his own requirement and with which he used to cover himself while saying his prayers. So I continued to sleep until it was morning. When it was morning he said: Get up, O heavy sleeper.

Chapter 36| The battle of Uhud.

4413: It has been reported on the authority of Anas b. Malik that (when the enemy got the upper hand) on the day of the Battle of Uhud, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was left with only seven men from the ansar and two men from the Quraish. When the enemy advanced towards him and overwhelmed him, he said: Whoso turns them away from us will attain Paradise or will be my Companion in Paradise.

A man from the Ansar came forward and fought (the enemy) until he was killed. The enemy advanced and overwhelmed him again and he repeated the words: Whoso turns them away, from us will attain Paradise or will be my Companion in Paradise. A man from the Arsar came forward and fought until he was killed. This state continued until the seven Ansar were killed (one after the other). Now, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to his two Companions: We have not done justice to our Companions.

4414: It has been narrated on the authority of Abd-ul-‘Aziz b. Abu Hazim, who learnt from his father (Abu Hazim). The latter heard it from Sahl b. Sa’d who was asked about the injury which the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) got on the day of the Battle of Uhud. He said: The face of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was injured, his front teeth were damaged and his helmet was crushed. Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), was washing the blood (from his head), and ‘Ali b. Abu Talib was pouring water on it from a shield. When Fatima saw that the bleeding had increased on account of (pouring) water (on the wound), she took a piece of mat and burnt it until it was reduced to ashes. She put the ashes on the wound and the bleeding stopped.

4415: It has been reported on the authority of Abu Hazim who heard from Sahl b. Sa’d. The latter was asked about the injury of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He said: By God, I know the person who washed the wound of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), who poured water on it and with what the wound was treated. Then Sahl narrated the same tradition as has been narrated by ‘Abd al-‘Azlz except that he added the words:” And his face was injured” and replaced the word” Hushimat” by” Kusirat” (i. e. it was broken).

4416: The same tradition has been narrated on the authority of Sahl b. Sa’d through a different chain of transmitters with a slight difference in the wording.

4417: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had his front teeth damaged on the day of the Battle of Uhud, and got a wound on his head. He was wiping the blood (from his face) and was saying: How will these people attain salvation who have wounded their Prophet and broken his tooth while he called them towards God? At this time, God, the Exalted and Glorious, revealed the Verse:” Thou hast no authority” (iii. 127).

4418: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah who said: It appeared to me as if I saw the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) (and heard him) relate the story of a Prophet who had been beaten by his people, was wiping the blood from his face and was saying. My Lord, forgive my people, for they do not know.

4419: A version of the tradition with a slightly different wording has been narrated by another chain of transmitters.

Chapter 37| Wrath of Allah upon a person who is killed by the prophet himself (may peace be upon him)

4420: It has been narrated by Hammam b. Munabbih who said: This is what has been related to us by Abu Huraira from the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). (With this introduction) he narrated a number of traditions. One of these was that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Great is the wrath of Allah upon a people who have done this to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), and he was at that time pointing to his front teeth. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) also said: Great is the wrath of Allah upon a person who has been killed by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in the way of Allah, the Exalted and Glorious.

Chapter 38| The persecution of the holy prophet (may peace be upon him) at the hands of the infidels and hypocrites.

4421: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Mas’ud who said: While the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was saying his prayer near the Ka’ba and Abu Jahl with his companions was sitting (near by), Abu Jahl said, referring to the she-camel that had been slaughtered the previous day: Who will rise to fetch the foetus of the she-camel of so and so, and place it between the shoulders of Muhammad when he goes down in prostration (a posture in prayer).

The one most accursed among the people got up, brought the foetus and, when the Prophet (may peace be upon him) went down in prostration, placed it between his shoulders. Then they laughed at him and some of them leaned upon the others with laughter. And I stood looking. If I had the power, I would have thrown it away from the back of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). The Prophet (may peace be upon him) had bent down his head in prostration and did not raise it, until a man went (to his house) and informed (his daughter) Fatima, who was a young girl (at that time) (about this ugly incident).

She came and removed (the filthy thing) from him. Then she turned towards them rebuking them (the mischief-mongers). When the Prophet (may peace be upon him) had finished his prayer, he invoked God’s imprecations upon them in a loud voice. When he prayed, he prayed thrice, and when he asked for God’s blessings, he asked thrice. Then he said thrice: O Allah, it is for Thee to deal with the Quraish. When they heard his voice, laughter vanished from them and they feared his malediction.

Then he said: O God, it is for Thee to deal with Abu Jahl b. Hisham, ‘Utba b. Rabi’a, Shaiba b. Rabi’a. Walid b. Uqba, Umayya b. Khalaf, Uqba b. Abu Mu’ait (and he mentioned the name of the seventh person. which I did not remember). By One Who sent Muhammad with truth, I saw (all) those he had named lying slain on the Day of Badr. Their dead bodies were dragged to be thrown into a pit near the battlefield. Abu Ishiq had said that the name of Walid b. ‘Uqba has been wrongly mentioned in this tradition.

4422: It has been narrated by Abdullah (b. Mas’ud) who said: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was lying postrate in prayer and around him were some people from the Quraish, ‘Uqba b. Abu Mu’ait brought the foetus of a she-camel and threw it on the back of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

He did not raise his head until Fatima arrived, removed it from his back and cured him who had done that (ugly act). He said: O Allah, it is for Thee to deal with the chiefs of the Quraish. Abu Jahl b. Hisham, ‘Utba b. Rabi’a. Uqba b. Abu Mu’ait, Shaiba b. Rabi’a, Umayya b. Khalaf or Ubayy b. Khalaf (Shu’ba, one of the narrator of this tradition is in doubt about the exact person). I saw that all were slain in the Battle of Badr and their dead bodies were thrown into a well, except that of Umayya or Ubayy which was cut into pieces and was thrown into the well.

4423: Abu Ishiq has narrated a similar tradition through a different chain of transmitters and has added: He (the Messenger of Allah) loved to repeat the supplication thrice. He was saying: O Allah, it is for Thee to deal with the Quraish (repeating these words thrice). And among the Quraish, he mentioned (the names of) al-Walid b. ‘Utba and Umayya b. Khalaf. (The narrator says there is no doubt about the names of these persons but he has forgotten the name of the seventh man).

4424: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah that, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) turned his face towards the Ka’ba and invoked God’s imprecations upon six men of the Quraish, amorig whom were Abu Jahl. Umayya b. Khalaf, Utba b. Rabi’a, Shaiba b. Rabi’a and ‘Uqba b. Abu Mu’ait I swear by God that I saw them lying slain in the battlefield of Badr. It being a hot day, their complexion had changed (showing signs of decay).

4425: It has been narrated on the authority of ‘A’isha, the wife of the Prophet (may peace be upon him), who said to the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him): Messenger of Allah, has there come upon you a day more terrible than the day of Ubud. He said: I have experienced from thy people and the hardest treatment I met from them was what I received from them on the day of ‘Aqaba. I betook myself to Ibn Abd Yalil b. Abd Kulal with the purpose of inviting him to Islam, but he did not respond to me as I desired.

So I departed with signs of (deep) distress on my face. I did not recover until I reached Qarn al-Tha’alib. Where I raised my head, lo! near me was a cloud which had cast its shadow on me. I looked and lo! there was in it the angel Jibril who called out to me and said.: God. the Honoured and Glorious, has heard what thy people have said to thee, and how they have reacted to thy call. And He has sent to thee the angel in charge of the mountains so that thou mayest order him what thou wishest (him to do) with, regard to them.

The angel in charge of the mountains (then) called out to me, greeted me and said: Muhammad, God has listened to what thy people have said to thee. I am the angel in charge of the mountains. and thy Lord has sent me to thee so that thou mayest order me what thou wishest. If thou wishest that I should bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Mecca to crush them in between, (I would do that). But the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) said to him: I rather hope that God will produce from their descendants such persons as will worship Allah, the One, and will not ascribe partners to Him.

4426: It has been narrated on the authority of Jundub b. Sufyan who said: A finger of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was wounded in one of the encounters He said: Thou art just a little finger which has bled, and what thou hast experienced is in the cause of Allah.

4427: It has been narrated on the authority of Aswad b. Qais who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was in a cave (or raid) when his finger was hurt.

4428: It has been narrated on the authority of Aswad b. Qais who heard Jundub saying that Gabriel delayed his visit to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) The polytheists began to say that Muhammad has been forsaken. At this Allah, the Glorious and Exalted, revealed:” Wa’dd hd wa’l-laili iza saja, ma wadda’ka Rabbuka wa’ ma qala” [By the glorious morning light, and by the night when it is still: thy Lord has not forsaken thee, nor is He displeased].

4429: It has been narrated on the authority of Aswad b. Qais who said: I heard Jundub b. Sufyan say: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) fell ill and did not wake up for two or three nights (for prayers) A woman came to him and said: Muhammad, I hope that your satan has left you. I haven’t seen him approach you for two or three nights. The narrator says: At this, Allah, the Glorious and Exalted, revealed:” By the Glorious……”

4430: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Aswad b. Qais with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 39| About the holy prophet’s (may peace be upon him) calling for Allah’s help and his patience over the persecution of the hypocrites.

4431: It has been narrated on the authority of Usama b. Zaid that the Prophet (may peace be upon him) rode a donkey. It had on it a saddle under which was a mattress made at Fadak (a place near Medina). Behind him he seated Usama. He was going to the street of Banu Harith al-Khazraj to inquire after the health of Sa’d b. Ubada This happened before the Battle of Badr. (He proceeded) until he passed by a mixed company of people in which were Muslims, polytheists, idol worshippers and the Jews and among them were ‘Abdullah b. Ubayy and ‘Abdullah b. Rawaha.

When the dust raised by the hoofs of the animal spread over the company, ‘Abdullah b. Ubayy covered his nose with his mantle and said: Do not scatter the dust over us (Not minding this remark), the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) greeted them, stopped, got down from his animal, invited them to Allah, and recited to them the Qur’an. ‘Abdullah b. Ubayy said: O man, if what you say is the truth, the best thing for you would be not to bother us with it in our assemblies. Get back to your place. Whoso comes to you from us, tell him (all) this. Abdullah b. Rawaha said: Come to us in our gatherings, for we love (to hear) it.

The narrator says: (At this), the Muslims, the polytheists and the Jews began to rebuke one another until they were determined to come to blows. The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) continued to pacify them. (When they were pacified), he rode his animal and came to Sa’d b.’Ubida. He said: Sa’d, haven’t you heard what Abu Hubab (meaning ‘Abdullah b. Ubayy) has said? He has said so and so. Sa’d said: Messenger of Allah, forgive and pardon.

God has granted you a sublime position, (but so far as he is concerned) the people of this settlement had-decided to make him their king by making him wear a crown and a turban (in token thereof), but God has circumvented this by the truth He has granted you. This has made him jealous and his jealousy (must have) prompted the behaviour that you have witnessed. So, the Holy Prophet (may peace upon him) forgave him.

4432: A similar tradition has been narrated through a different chain of transmitters by Ibn Shihab with the addition of the words:” Before Abdullah (b. Ubayy) became a Muslim.”

4433: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that it was said to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him): Would that you approached Abdullah b. Ubayy (to persuade him to accept Islam). The Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) (accordingly) went to him, riding a donkey, and (a party of) Muslims also went (with him). On the way they had to walk over a piece of land affected with salinity. When the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) approached him, he said: Do not come near me.

By Allah, the obnoxious smell of your donkey has offended me. (As a rejoinder to this remark), a man from the Ansar said: By God, the smell of the donkey of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) is better than your smell. (At this), a man from the tribe of ‘Abdullah got furious. Then people from both sides got furious and exchanged blows with sticks, hands and shoes. (The narrator says) that (after this scuffle) we learnt that (the Qur’anic verse):” It two parties of the Believers have a quarrel, make ye peace between them” (xlix. 9) was revealed about these fighting parties.

Chapter 40| The murder of Abu Jahl.

4434: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said (after the encounter at Badr): Who will ascertain for us what has happened to Abu Jahl? Ibn Mas’ud went (to gather this information). He found that the two sons of ‘Afra’ had struck him and he lay cold at the point of death. He caught him by his beard and said: Art thou Abu Jahl? He said: is there anybody superior to the person you have killed, or (he said) his people have killed him. Ibn Mas’ud says that, according to Abu Mijlaz, Abu Jahl said: Alas! a person other than a farmer would have killed me.

4435: A similar tradition has been transmitted by a different chain of narrators, on the same authority with a slight difference In the wording.

Chapter 41| The murder of Ka’b b. Ashraf, (the evil genius) of the jews.

4436: It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who will kill Ka’b b. Ashraf? He has maligned Allah, the Exalted, and His Messenger. Muhammad b. Maslama said: Messenger of Allah, do you wish that I should kill him? He said: Yes. He said: Permit me to talk (to him in the way I deem fit). He said: Talk (as you like).

So, Muhammad b. Maslama came to Ka’b and talked to him, referred to the old friendship between them and said: This man (i. e. the Holy Prophet) has made up his mind to collect charity (from us) and this has put us to a great hardship. When be heard this, Ka’b said: By God, you will be put to more trouble by him. Muhammad b. Maslama said: No doubt, now we have become his followers and we do not like to forsake him until we see what turn his affairs will take. I want that you should give me a loan. He said: What will you mortgage? He said: What do you want? He said: Pledge me your women.

He said: You are the most handsome of the Arabs; should we pledge our women to you? He said: Pledge me your children. He said: The son of one of us may abuse us saying that he was pledged for two wasqs of dates, but we can pledge you (cur) weapons. He said: All right. Then Muhammad b. Maslama promised that he would come to him with Harith, Abu ‘Abs b. Jabr and Abbad b. Bishr. So they came and called upon him at night.

He came down to them. Sufyan says that all the narrators except ‘Amr have stated that his wife said: I hear a voice which sounds like the voice of murder. He said: It is only Muhammad b. Maslama and his foster-brother, Abu Na’ila. When a gentleman is called at night even it to be pierced with a spear, he should respond to the call. Muhammad said to his companions: As he comes down, I will extend my hands towards his head and when I hold him fast, you should do your job.

So when he came down and he was holding his cloak under his arm, they said to him: We sense from you a very fine smell. He said: Yes, I have with me a mistress who is the most scented of the women of Arabia. He said: Allow me to smell (the scent on your head). He said: Yes, you may smell. So he caught it and smelt. Then he said: Allow me to do so (once again). He then held his head fast and said to his companions: Do your job. And they killed him.

Chapter 42| The battle of Khaibar.

4437: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) raided Khaibar. One morning we offered prayers in the darkness of early dawn (near Khaibar). Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) mounted (his horse). Abu Talha mounted his and I mounted behind Abu Talha on the same horse. The Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him) rode through the streets of Khaibar and (I rode so close to him) that my knee touched the thigh of the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him).

The wrapper got aside from his thigh, and I could see its whiteness. When he entered the town, he said: God is Great. Khaibar shall face destruction. When we descend in the city-square of a people, it is a bad day for them who have been warned (and have not taken heed). He said these words thrice. The people of the town had just come out from (their houses) to go about their jobs. They said (in surprise): Muhammad has come. We captured Khaibar by force.

4438: It has been narrated (through another chain of transmitters) on the authority of the same narrator (i. e. Anas) who said: I was riding behind Abu Talha on the day of the Battle of Khaibar (and we were riding so close to the Holy Prophet that) my foot would touch his We encountered the people at sunrise when they had come out with their axes, spades and strings driving their cattle along. They shouted (in surprise): Muhammad has come along with his force! The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Khaibar shall face destruction. Behold! when we descend in the city-square of a people, it is a bad day for those who have been warned (but have not taken heed). Allah, the Glorious and Majestic, inflicted defeat upon them.

4439: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Anas b. Malik with a slight variation of words.

4440: It has been narrated on the authority of Salama b. al-Akwa’ who said: We marched upon Khaibar with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). We journeyed during the night. One of the people said to (my brother) ‘Amir b. al-Akwa’: Won’t you recite to us some of your verses? Amir was a poet. So he began to chant his verses to urge the camels, reciting: O God, if Thou hadst not guided us We would have neither been guided rightly nor practised charity, Nor offered prayers. We wish to lay down our lives for Thee; so forgive Thou our lapses, And keep us steadfast when we encounter (our enemies).

Bestow upon us peace and tranquillity. Behold, when with a cry they called upon us to help. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who is this driver (of the camels)? They said: It is ‘Amir. He said: God will show mercy to him. A man said: Martyrdom is reserved for him. Messenger of Allah, would that you had allowed us to benefit ourselves from his life. (The narrator says): We reached Khaibar and besieged them, and (we continued the siege) until extreme hunger afflicted us. Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Behold, God has conquered it for you.

When it was evening of the day on which the city was conquered. the Muslims lit many fires. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: What are these fires? And what are they cooking? They said: They are cooking meat. He asked. Which meat? They said: That of domestic asses. He said: Let them throw it away and break the pots (in which it is being cooked).

A man said: Or should they throw it away and wash the pots? He said: They may do that. When the people drew themselves up in battle array ‘Amir caught hold of his sword that was rather short He drove a Jew before him to strike him with it. (As he struck him), his sword recoiled and struck his own knee, and ‘Amir died of the wound. When the people returned (after the conquest of Kliaibar) and he (Salama) had caught hold of my hand, and said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) saw that I was silent (and dejected) ; he said: What’s the matter with thee?

I said to him: My father and my mother be thy ransom, people presume that ‘Amir’s sacrifice has been in vain. He asked: Who has said that? I said: So and so and Usaid b. Hudair al-Ansari. He said: Who has said that has lied. For him (for ‘Amir) there is a double reward. (He indicated this by putting two of his fingers together.) He was a devotee of God and a warrior fighting for His cause. There will be hardly any Arab who can fight as bravely as he did. Qutaiba has differed in a few words.

4441: It has been reported on the authority of Salama b. Akwa’ who said: On the day of the Battle of Khaibar my brother fought a fierce fight by the side of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). His sword rebounded and killed him. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon hill) talked about his death and doubted (whether it was martyrdom). (They said): (He is) a man killed by his own weapon, and expressed doubt about his affair.

Salama said: When the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) returned from Khaibar, I said: Messenger of Allah, permit me that I may recite to you some rajaz verses. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) permitted him. ‘Umar b. Khattab said: I know what you will recite. I recited: By God, if God had guided us not, We would hive neither been guided aright nor practised charity, Nor offered prayers. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: What you have said is true, ‘I (continued): And descend on us peace and tranquility And keep us steadfast if we encounter (with our enemies) And the polytheists have rebelled against us.

When I finished my rajaz, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who composed these verses? I said: They were composed by my brother. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: May God show mercy to him! I said: By God, some people are reluctant to invoke God’s mercy on him (because) they say he is a man who died by his own sword. (Hearing this) the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He died as God’s devotee and warrior.

Ibn Shihab has said: I asked one of the sons of Salama (b. Akwa’) about (the death of ‘Amir). He related to me a similar tradition except that he said: When I said some people were reluctant invoke God’s blessings on him, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be, upon him said: They lied. (‘Amir) died as God’s devotee and warrior (in the cause of Allah). For him there is a double reward, and he pointed out this by putting his two fingers together.

Chapter 43| The battle of Ahzab or Khandaq (the tribes or the ditch)

4442: It has been reported on the authority of Barra’ who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was carrying the earth with us on the Day of Ahzab and the whiteness of his belly had been covered with earth. (While engaged in this toil) he was reciting: By God, if Thou hadst not guided us We would have neither been guided aright nor practised charity, Nor offered prayers. Descend on us peace and tranquillity. Behold I these people (the Meccans) refused to follow us. According to another version, he recited: The chieftains (of the tribes) refused to follow us When they contemplated mischief, we rejected it. And with this (verse) he would raise his voice.

4443: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Ishaq who said: I heard from Bara’ a similar tradition except that he said:” These people (the Meccans) rebelled against us.”

4444: It has been reported on the authority of Sahl b. Sa’d who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) came to us while we were digging the ditch and were carrying the earth on our shoulders. (Seeing our condition), he said: O God, there is no life but the life of the Hereafter. So forgive Thou the Muhajirs and the Ansar.

4445: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: O God, there is no life, but the life of the Hereafter, So forgive Thou the Ansar and the Muhajirs.

4446: According to another version of the tradition, reported on the authority of Anas b. Malik, the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) is reported to have said: O God, there is no life but the life of the Hereafter, So grant honour to the Ansar and the Muhajirs.

4447: According to still another version of the tradition narrated by the same authority, and handed down through a different chain of transmitters, it has been reported that they (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) were reciting rajaz verses and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was (reciting) with them. And they were chanting: O God, there is no good but the good of the Hereafter. So help Thou the Ansar and the Muhajirs. Shaiban substituted” So forgive Thou” for” So help Thou”.

4448: It has been narrated (through a still difterent chain of transmitters) by Anas that the Companions of Muhammad (may peace be upon him) were chanting on the day of the Battle of the Ditch: We are those who have sworn allegiance to Muhammad (And made a covenant with him) to follow Islam as long as we live. Hammad is not sure whether Anas said:” Ala’l-Islam” or,” Ala’l-Jihad”. And the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) was chanting: O God, the real good is the good of the Hereafter, So forgive Thou the Ansar and the Muhajirs.

Chapter 44| Dhu Qarad and other battles.

4449: It has been narrated on the authority of Yazid b. Abu ‘Ubaid who said that he heard Salama b. al-Akwa’ say: I went out before the Adhan for the morning prayer had been delivered. The milch shecamels of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) were grazing at Dhu Qarad. ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Auf’s slave met me and said: The milch she-camels of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had been taken away. I said: Who has taken them away? He said: (the people belonging to the tribe of) Ghatafan.

I cried thrice: Help! I made the whole city between the two lavas hear my cry. Then I ran straight in their pursuit until I overtook them at Dhu Qarad where they were just going to water their animals. I, being an archer, began to shoot them with my arrows and was saying: I am the son of al-Akwa’. And today is the day when the cowards will meet their doom. I continued to chant until I rescued the milch she-camels from them, and snatched from them thirty mantles.

Now, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and some other people came along. I said: Prophet of Allah, I have prevented them from water while they were thirsty. So you should send a force (to punish them). He (the Holy Prophet) said: Ibn al-Akwa’, you have taken (what, you have taken). Now let them go. Then we returned and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) made me mount behind him on his she-camel until we entered Medina.

4450: It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Salama. He heard the tradition from his father who said: We arrived at Hudaibiya with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and we were fourteen hundred in number. There were fifty goats for them which could not be watered (by the small quantity of water in the local well). So, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sat on the brink of the well. Either he prayed or spat into the well The water welled up. We drank and watered (the beasts as well).

Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) called us to take the vow of allegiance, as he was sitting at the base of a tree. I was the first man to take the vow. Then other people took the vow. When half the number of people had done so, he said to me: You take the vow, Salama. I said: I was one of those who took the vow in the first instance. He said: (You may do) again. Then the Messenger. of Allah (may peace be upon him) saw that I was without weapons. He gave me a big or a small shield.

Then he continued to administer vows to the people until it was the last batch of them. He said (to me): Won’t you swear allegiance, Salama? I said: Messenger of Allah, I took the oath with the first batch of the people and then again when you were in the middle of the people. He said: (Doesn’t matter), you may (do so) again. So I took the oath of allegiance thrice. Then he said to me: Salama, where is the shield which I gave to thee? I said: Messenger of Allah, my uncle ‘Amir met me and he was without any weapons. So I gave the shield to him.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) laughed and said: You are like a person of the days gone by who said: O God. I seek a friend who is dearer to me than myself. (When all Companions had sworn allegiance to the Holy Prophet), the polytheists sent messages of peace, until people could move from our camp to that of the Meccans and vice versa. Finally, the peace treaty was concluded. I was a dependant of Talha b. Ubaidullah. I watered his horse, rubbed its back.

I served Talha (doing odd jobs for him) and partook from his food. I had left my family and my property as an emigrant in the cause of Allah and His Messenger (may peace be uron him). When we and the people of Mecca had concluded a peace treaty and the people of one side began to mix with those of the other, I came to a tree, swept away its thorns and lay down (for rest) at its base; (while I lay there), four of the polytheists from the Meccans came to me and began to talk ill of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). I got enraged with them and moved to another tree.

They hung their weapons (to the branches of the tree) and lay down (for rest). (While they lay there), somebody from the lower part of the valley cried out: Run up, O Muhajirs! Ibn Zunaim has been murdered. I drew my sword and attacked these four while they were asleep. I seized their arms and collected them up in my hand, and said: By the Being Who has conferred honour upon Muhammad, none of you shall raise his head, else I will smite his face. (Then) I came driving them along to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him). (At the same time). my uncle Amir came (to him) with a man from” Abalat called Mikraz. Amir was dragging him on a horse with a thick covering on its back along with seventy polytheists.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) cast a glance at them and said: Let them go (so that) they may prove guilty of breach of trust more than once (before we take action against them). So the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) forgave them. On this occasion. God revealed the Qur’anic verse:” It is He Who restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the valley of Mecca after He had granted you a victory over them” (xlviii. 24). Then we moved returning to Medina, and halted at a place where there was a mountain between us and Banu Lihyan who were polytheists.

The Messenaer of Allah (may peace be upon him) asked God’s forgiveness for one who ascended the mountain at night to act as a scout for the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and his Compinions. I ascended (that mountain) twice or thrice that night. (At last) we reached Medina. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent his camels with his slave, Rabah, and I was with him. I (also) went to the pasture with the horse of Talha along with the camels. When the day dawned, Abd al-Rahman al-Fazari made a raid and drove away all the camels of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), and killed the man who looked after them.

I said: Rabah, ride this horse, take it to Talha b. ‘Ubaidullah and Inform the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) that the polytheists have made away with his camels. Then I stood upon a hillock and turning my face to Medina, shouted thrice: Come to our help I Then I set out in pursuit of the raiders, shooting at them with arrows and chanting a (self-eulogatory) verse in the Iambic metre: I am the son of al-Akwa’ And today is the day of defeat for the mean. I would overtake a man from them, shoot at him an arrow which, piercing through the saddle, would reach his shoulder. and I would say: Take it, chanting at the same time the verse And I am the son of al-Akwa’ And tody is the day of defeat for the mean.

By God, I continued shooting at them and hamstringing their animals. Whenever a horseman turned upon me, I would come to a tree and (hid myself) sitting at its base. Then I would shoot at him and hamstring his horse. (At last) they entered a narrow mountain gorge. I ascended that mountain and held them at bay throwing stones at them. I continued to chase them in this way until I got all the camels of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) released and no camel was left with them. They left me; then I followed them shooting at them (continually) until they dropped more than thirty mantles and thirty lances. lightening their burden.

On everything they dropped, I put a mark with the help of (a piece of) stone so that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and his Companions might recognise them (that it was booty left by the enemy). (They went on) until They came to a narrow valley when so and so, son of Badr al-Fazari joined them. They (now) sat down to take their breakfast and I sat on the top of a tapering rock. Al-Fazari said: Who is that fellow I am seeing? They said: This fellow has harassed us. By God, he has not left us since dusk and has been (continually) shooting at us until he has snatched everything from our hands.

He said: Four of you should make a dash at him (and kill him). (Accordingly), four of them ascended the mountain coming towards me. When it became possible for me to talk to them, I said: Do you recognise me? They said: No. Who are thou? I said: I am Salama, son of al-Akwa’. By the Being Who has honoured the countenance of Muhammad (may peace be upon him) I can kill any of you I like but none of you will be able to kill me. One of them said: I think (he is right).

So they returned. I did not move from my place until I saw the horsemen of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), who came riding through the trees. Lo! the foremost among them was Akhram al-Asadi. Behind him was Abu Qatada al-Ansari and behind him was al-Miqdad b. al-Aswad al-Kindi. I caught hold of the rein of Akhram’s horse (Seeing this). they (the raiders) fled. I said (to Akhram): Akhram, guard yourself against them until Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and his Companions join you. He said: ) Salama, if you believe In Allah and the Day of Judgment and (if) you kaow that Paradise is a reality and Hell is a reality, you should not stand between me and martyrdom.

So I let him go. Akhram and Abd al-Rahman (Fazari) met in combat. Akhram hamstrung Abd al-Rahman’s horse and the latter struck him with his lance and killed him. Abd al-Rabman turned about riding Akhram’s horse. Abu Qatada, a horse-man of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), met ‘Abd al-Rahman (in combat), smote him with his lance and killed him. By the Being Who honoured the countenance of Muhammad (may peace oe upon him), I followed them running on my feet (so fast) that I couldn’t see behind me the Companions of Muhammad (may peace be upon him), nor any dust raised by their horses.

(I followed them) until before sunset they reached a valley which had a spring of water, which was called Dhu Qarad, so that they could have a drink, for they were thirsty. They saw me running towards them. I turned them out of the valley before they could drink a drop of its water. They left the valley and ran down a slope. I ran (behind them), overtook a man from them, shot him with an arrow through the shoulder blade and said: Take this. I am the son of al-Akwa’; and today is the day of annihilation for the people who are mean.

The fellow (who was wounded) said: May his mother weep over him! Are you the Akwa’ who has been chasing us since morning? I said: Yes, O enemy of thyself, the same Akwa’. They left two horses dead tired on the hillock and I came dragging them along to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). I met ‘Amir who had with him a container having milk diluted with water and a container having water. I performed ablution with the water and drank the milk. Then I came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) while he was at (the spring of) water from which I had driven them away.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had captured those camels and everything else I had captured and all the lances and mantles I had snatched from the polytheists and Bilal had slaughtered a she-camel from the camels I had seized from the people, and was roasting its liver and hump for the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). I said: Messenger of Allah, let me select from our people one hundred men and I will follow the marauders and I will finish them all so that nobody is left to convey the news (of their destruction to their people).

(At these words of mine), the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) laughed so much that his molar teeth could be seen in the light of the fire, and he said: Salama, do you think you can do this? I said: Yes, by the Being Who has honoured you. He said: Now they have reached the land of Ghatafan where they are being feted. (At this time) a man from the Ghatafan came along and said: So and so slaughtered a camel for them. When they were exposing its skin, they saw dust (being raised far off). They said: They (Akwa’ and his companions) have come.

So. they went away fleeing. When it was morning, the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Our best horseman today is Abu Qatada and our best footman today is Salama. Then he gave me two shares of the bootythe share meant for the horseman and the share meant for the footman, and combined both of them for me. Intending to return to Medina, he made me mount behind him on his she-camel named al-Adba’. While we were travelling, a man from the Ansar who could not be beaten in a race said: Is there anyone who could compete (with me) in race to Medina? Is there any competitor? He continued repeating this.

When I heard his talk, I said: Don’t you show consideration to a dignified person and don’t you have awe for a noble man? He said: No, unless he be the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). I said: Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be thy ransom, let me get down so that I may beat this man (in the race). He said: It you wish, (you may). I said (to the man): I am coming to thee, I then turned my feet.

Sprang up and tan and gasped (for a while) when one or two elevated places were left and again followed his heel and again gasped (for a while) when one or two elevated places were left and again dashed until I joined him and gave a blow between his shoulders. I said: You have been overtaken, by God. He said: I think so. Thus, I reached Medina ahead of him. By God, we had stayed there only three nights when we set out to Khaibar with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). (On the way) my uncle, Amir, began to recite the following rajaz verses for the people:

By God, if Thou hadst not guided us aright, We would have neither practised charity nor offered prayers. (O God! ) We cannot do without Thy favours; Keep us steadfast when we encounter the enemy, And descend tranquillity upon us. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Who is this? ‘Amir said: it is ‘Amir. He said: May thy God forgive thee! The narrator said: Whenever the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) asked forgiveness for a particular person, he was sure to embrace martyrdom.

Umar b. Khattab who was riding on his camel called out: Prophet of Allah, I wish you had allowed us to benefit from Amir. Salama continued: When we reached Khaibar, its king named Marhab advanced brandishing his sword and chanting: Khaibar knows that I am Marhab (who behaves like) A fully armed, and well-tried warrior. When the war comes spreading its flames. My uncle, Amir, came out to combat with him, saying: Khaibar certainly knows that I am ‘Amir, A fully armed veteran who plunges into battles.

They exchanged blows. Marbab’s sword struck the shield of ‘Amir who bent forward to attack his opponent from below, but his sword recoiled upon him and cut the main artery: in his forearm which caused his death. Salama said: I came out and beard some people among the Companions of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) as saying: Amir’s deed has gone waste; he has killed himself. So I came to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) weeping and I said: Messenger of Allah. Amir’s deed has gone waste.

The Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Who passed this remark? I said: Some of your Companions. He said: He who has passed that remark has told a lie, for ‘Amir there is a double reward. Then he sent me to ‘Ali who had tore eyes, and said: I will give the banner to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger or whom Allah and His Messenger love. So I went to ‘Ali, brought him beading him along and he had sore eyes, and I took him to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), who applied his saliva to his eyes and he got well. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) gave him the banner (and ‘Ali went to meet Marhab in a single combat).

The latter advanced chanting: Khaibar knows certainly that I am Marhab, A fully armed and well-tried valorous warrior (hero) When war comes spreading its flames. ‘Ali chanted in reply: I am the one whose mother named him Haidar, (And am) like a lion of the forest with a terrorstriking countenance. I give my opponents the measure of sandara in exchange for sa’ (i. e. return thir attack with one that is much more fierce). The narrator said: ‘Ali struck at the head of Mirhab and killed him, so the victory (capture of Khaibar) was due to him. This long tradition has also been handed down Through a different chain of transmitters.

4451: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of ‘Ikrama b. Ammar.

Chapter 45| Regarding the word of god, the exalted:” it is he who restrained their hands from you” to the end of the verse.

4452: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that eighty Persons from the inhabitants of Mecca swooped down upon the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) from the mountain of Tan’im. They were armed and wanted to attack the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) and his Companions unawares. He (the Holy Prophet) captured them but spared their lives. So, God, the Exalted and Glorious, revealed the verses:” It is He Who restrained your hands from them and their hands from you in the valley of Mecca after He had given you a victory over them.”

Chapter 46| Fighting of women side by side with men.

4453: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas that, on the Day of Hunain. Umm Sulaim took out a dagger she had in her possession. Abiu Talha saw her and said: Messenger of Allah, this is Umm Sulaim. She is holding a dagger. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) asked (her): What for are you holding this dagger? She said: I took it up so that I may tear open the belly of a polytheist who comes near me.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) began to smile (at these words). She said: Messenger of Allah, kill all those people-other than us-whom thou hast declared to be free (on the day of the Conquest of Mecca). (They embraced Islam because) they were defeated at your hands (and as such their Islam is not dependable). The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Umm Sulaim. God is sufficient (against the mischief of the polytheists) and He will be kind to us (so you need not carry this dagger).

4454: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik who said that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) allowed Umm Sulaim and some other women of the Ansar to accompany him when he went to war; they would give water (to the soldiers) and would treat the wounded.

4455: It has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik who said: On the Day of Ubud some of the people, being defeated, left the Holy Prophet (may peace he upon him), but Abu Talha stood before him covering him with a shield. Abu Talha was a powerful archer who broke two or three bows that day. When a man would pass by carrying a quiver containing arrows, he would say: Spare them for Abu Talha. Whenever the Holy Prophet (way peace be upon him) raised his head to look at the people, Abd Talba would say: Prophet of Allah, may my father and my mother be thy ransom, do not raise your head lest you be struck by an arrow shot by the enemy.

My neck is before your neck. The narrator said: I saw A’isha bint Abu Bakr and Umm Sulaim. Both of them had tucked up their garments, so I could me the anklets on their feet. They were carrying water-skins on their backs and would pour water into the mouths of the people. They would then go back (to the well), would fill them again and would return to pour water into the mouths of the soldiers. (On this day). Abu Talha’s sword dropped down from his hands twice or thrice because of drowsiness.

Chapter 47| Women participants in jihad to be given a prize but not a regular share in the booty, and prohibition to kill children of the enemy.

4456: It has been narrated on the authority of Yazid b. Hurmuz that Najda wrote to Ibn Abbas inquiring of him five things. Ibn Abbas said: If I had not the fear of committing (sin) for concealing the knowledge I would not have written to him. Najda wrote to him saying (after praising the Almighty and invoking blessings on the Prophet): Tell me whether the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) took women to participate with him in Jihad; (if he did), whether he allotted them a regular share from the booty; whether he killed the children of (the enemy in the war how long an orphan would be entitled to consideration as such and for whom the Kbums (fifth part of the booty) was booty.

Ibn Abbas wrote to him: You have written asking me whether the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) took women with him to participate in Jihad. He did take them to the battle and sometimes he fought along with them. They would treat the wounded and were given a reward from the booty, but he did not assign any regular share for them. And the of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not kill the children of the enemy, so thou shouldst not kill the children. Also you have written to me asking me when the orphanhood of an orphan comes to an end.

By my life, if a man has become bearded but is still incapable of getting his due from others as well u meeting his obligation towards them, (he is yet an orphan to be treated you such), but when he can look after his interests like grown-up people, he is no longer an orphan. And you have written to me inquiring about Khums as to whom it is meant for. (In this connection) we (the kinsmen of the Messenger of Allah) used to say: It is for us, but those people (i. e. Banu Umayya) have denied it to us.

4457: This tradition has been narrated by the game authority (Yazid b. Hurmus) through a different chain of transmitters with the following difference in the elucidation of one of the points raised by Najda in his letter to Ibn Abas: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used not to kill the children, so thou shouldst not kill them unless you could know what Khadir had known about the child he killed, or you could distinguish between a child who would grow up to he a believer (and a child who would grow up to be a non-believer), so that you killed the (prospective) non-believer and left the (prospective) believer aside.

4458: It has been narrated on the authority of Yazid b. Hurmuz who said: Najda b. ‘Amir al-Haruri wrote to Ibn Abbas asking him about the slave and the woman as to whether they would get a share from the booty (it they participated in Jihad) ; about the killing of (enemy) children (in war) ; about the orphan as to when his orphanhood comes to an end; about kinsmen (of the Holy Prophet) as to who they are. He said to Yazid: Write to him.

(If he were not likely to fall into folly, I would not have written to him.) Write: You have written asking about the woman and the slave whether they would get a share of the booty if they participated in Jihad. (You should know that) there is nothing of the sort for them except that they will be given a prize. And you have written asking me about the killing of the enemy children in war. (You should understand that) the Messenger of Allah (may peare be upon him) did not kill them. and thou shouldst not kill them unless thou knew what the companion of Moses (i. e. Khadir) knew about the boy he had killed.

And you have written asking me about the orphan as to when the period of his orphanhood comes to an end, so that the sobriquet of” orphan” is dropped from him. (In this regard, you should know that) the sobriquet” orphan” will not be dropped from him until he attains maturity of body and mind. And you have written asking me about the close relatives (of the Holy Prophet) as to who they are. We think that it is we, but our people have denied us this (position and its concomitant privileges).

4459: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Yazid b. Hurmuz through another chain of transmitters.

4460: It has been narrated on the anthority of Yazid b. Hurmuz who said: Najda wrote to Ibn Abbas. I was sitting in the company of Ibn ‘Abbas when he read his letter and wrote its reply. Ibn Abbas said: Were it not for preventing him from falling into wickedness. I would not have replied to his letter, may he never be joyful. He wrote in reply to him referring to the share of the close relatives (of the Holy Prophet) (from the booty) whom God has mentioned.

(I have to tell you that) we thought we were the close relatives of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), but our people have refused to recognise us as such. You have asked about the orphan as to when his orphanhood comes to an end. (I have to say that) when he reaches the age of marriage, attains maturity of mind, and his property is returned to him, then he is no longer an orphan. You have inquired whether the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upo him) used to kill anyone from the children of the polytheists in the war.

(You should know that) the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used not to kill any one of their children, and you (too) should not kill any one of them, except when you knew about them what Khadir had known about the boy whom he killed. And you have inquired whether there is a fixed share of the booty for women and slaves when they participate in a battle. (I have to tell you that) there is no fixed share for them except that they will be given some reward from the spoils of war.

4461: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Yazid b. Hurmuz. but not complete (as we find in the above mentioned ahadith).

Chapter 48| The number of wars waged by the holy prophet (may peace be upon him)

4462: It has been narrated on the authority of Umm ‘Atiyya, the Ansarite, who said: I took part with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in seven battles. I would stay behind in the camp of men, cook their food, treat the wounded and nurse the aick.

4463: A similar tradition has been narrated on the authority of Hisham b. Hassan through a different chain of transmitters.

4464: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Ishaq that ‘Abdullah b. Yazid went (out of the city) with people for offering” Istisqa” ‘ prayer (for rainfall). He offered two rak’ahs. Then he prayed for rain. That day I met Zaid b. Arqam. There was only one man between me and him (at that time). I asked him: How many military expeditions did the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) undertake? He said: Nineteen expeditions. I asked him: On how many expeditions did you accompany him? He said: On seventeen expeditions. I asked: Which was the first expedition he led? He answered: Dhat-ul-, Usair or ‘Ushair.

4465: It has been narrated on the authority of Zaid b. Arqam that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) fought nineteen battles and after the Migration performed only one Pilgrimage called Hajjat-ul-Wada’.

4466: It has been reported on the authority of Abu Zubair who heard Jabir b. Abdullah say: I fought in the company of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) nineteen battles. Jabir said: I did not participate in the Battle of Badr and the Battle of Uhud. My father prevented me (from participating in these battles as my age was tender). After ‘Abdullah (my father) was killed on the Day of Ubud, I never lagged behind the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and joined every battle (he fought).

4467: It has been narrated on the authority of Buraida (who heard the tradition from his father) that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) conducted nineteen military campaigns and he (actually) fought in eight of them.

4468: It has been narrated by Buraida who heard it from his father that he joined the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in sixteen military campaigns.

4469: It has been narrated on the authority of Salama who said: I joined seven military expeditions led by the Messenger of Allah himself (may peace be upon him), and nine expeditions which he sent out once under Abu Bakr and once under Usama b. Zaid.

4470: The (foregoing) tradition has also been narrated on the authority of Hatim through the same chain of transmitters with the difference that according to this version both these types of expeditions were seven in number.

Chapter 49| The expedition called Dhat-ur-Riqa’.

4471: It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Musa (Ash’ari) who said: We set out on an expedition with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). We were six in number and had (with us) only one camel which we rode turn by turn Our feet were injured. My feet were so badly injured that my nails dropped off. We covered our feet with rags. so this expedition was called Dhat-ur-Riqa’ (i. e. the expedition of rags) because we bandaged our feet with rags (on that day). Abu Burda said: Abu Musa narrated this tradition, and then disliked repeating it as he did not want to give any publicity to what he did in a noble cause Abu Usama said: Narrators other than Abu Buraida have added to the version of the words:” God will reward it.”

Chapter 50| Disapproval of seeking help from a disbeliever on a military campaign.

4472: It has been narrated on the authority of A’isha, wife of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him), who said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) set out for Badr. When he reached Harrat-ul-Wabara (a place four miles from Medina) a man met him who was known for his valour and courage. The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) were pleased to see him. He said: I have come so that I may follow you and get a share from the booty. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to him: Do you believe in Allah and His Apostle? He said: No.

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Go back, I will not seek help from a Mushrik (polytheist). He went on until we reached Shajara, where the man met him again. He asked him the same question again and the man gave him the same answer. He said: Go back. Im will not seek help from a Mushrik. The man returned and overtook him at Baida’? He asked him as he had asked previously: Do you believe in Allah and His Apostle? The man said: Yes. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to him: Then come along with us.

Sahih Muslim| The Book Pertaining to Judicial Decisions – Kitab Al-Aqdiyya

Sahih Muslim - Book 18 - The Book Pertaining To Judicial Decisions

Sahih Muslim| The Book Pertaining to Judicial Decisions – Kitab Al-Aqdiyya

Sahih Muslim |Book 18
The Book of: Pertaining to Judicial Decisions – Kitab Al-Aqdiyya’
Contents of Book 18:
  15 Chapters, 48 Hadith

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Chapter 1| It is the defendant who shoulb swear (to prove his innocence).

4244: Ibn Abbas reported:
Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: If the people were given according to their claims, they would claim the lives of persons and their properties, but the oath must be taken by the defendant.

4245: Ibn ‘Abbas reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) pronounced judgment on the basis of oath by the defendant.

4246: Ibn ‘Abbas reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) pronounced judgment on the basis of an oath and a witness (by the plaintiff).

Chapter 2| Judgment is to be pronounced on evidence, and one who is eloquent in his plea (may win the case)

4247: Umm Salama reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: You bring to me, for (judgment) your disputes, some of you perhaps being more eloquent in their plea than others, so I give judgment on their behalf according to what I hear from them. (Bear in mind, in my judgment) if I slice off anything for him from the right of his brother, he should not accept that, for I sliced off for him a portion from the Hell.

4248: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Hisham with the same chain of transmitters.

4249: Umm Salama, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) heard the clamour of contenders at the door of his apartment. He went to them, and said: I am a human being and the claimants bring to me (the dispute) and perhaps some of them are more eloquent than the others. I judge him to be on the right, and thus decide  in his favcur. So he whom I, by my judgment, (give the undue share) out of the right of a Muslim,. I give him a portion of Fire; he may burden himself with it or abandon it.

4250: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ma’mar with a slight variation of words.

4251: A’isha reported:
Hind. the daughter of ‘Utba, wife of Abu Sufyan, came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Abu Sufyan is a miserly person. He does not give adequate maintenance for me and my children, but (I am constrained) to take from his wealth (some part of it) without his knowledge. Is there any sin for me? Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Take from his property what is customary which may suffice you and your children.

4252: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Hisham with the same chair of transmitters.

4253: A’isha reported:
That Hind came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said: Messenger of Allah, by Allah, there was no other household upon the surface of the earth than your household about which I cherished Allah bringing disgrace upon it, (and now) there is no other household upon the surface of the earth than your household about which I cherish Allah granting it honour. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: It is so, by Him in Whose Hand is my life She said: Allah’s Messenger, Abu Sufyan is a niggardly person. Is there any harm for me if I spend upon his children out of his wealth without his permission? Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: There is no harm for you if you spend upon them what is reasonable.

4254: A’isha reported:
That Hind, daughter of Utba h. Rabi’, came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Allah’s Messenger, by Allah, there was no household upon the surface of the earth than your household about which I cherished that it should be disgraced. But today there is no household on the surface of the earth than your household about which I cherish that it be honoured Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said. It will increase, by Him in Whose Hand is my life. She then said: Messenger of Allah, Abu Sufyan is a niggardly person; is there any harm for me if I spend out of that which belongs to him on our children? He said to her: No, but only that what is reasonable.

Chapter 3| It is forbidden to ask many questions and wasting of wealth

4255: Abu Huraira reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Verily Allah likes three things for you and He disapproves three things for you. He is pleased with you that you worship Him and associate nor anything with Him, that you hold fast the rope of Allah, and be not scattered; and He disapproves for you irrelevant talk, persistent questioning ane the wasting of wealth.

4256: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Suhail with the same chain of transmitters, but with a slight variation of words.

4257: Mughira b. Shu’ba reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Verity Allah, the Glorious and Majestic, has forbidden for you: disobedience to mothers, and burying alive daughters, withholding the right of others in spite of having the power to return that to them and demanding that (which is not one’s legitimate right). And He disapproved three things for you; irrelevant talk, persistent questioning and wasting of wealth.

4258: A hadith like this has been trransmitted on the authority of Mansur with a slight vairiation of words.

4259: Sha’bi reported:
That the scribe of al-Mughira b. Shu’ba said: Mu’awiya wrote to Mughira: Write for me something which you heard from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) ; and he wrote: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying. Verily Allah disapproves three thingq for you: irrelevant talk, wasting of wealth and persistent questioning.

4260: Warrad reported:
That al-Mughira wrote to Mu’awiya: Peace be upon you, and then coming to the poirt (I should say) that I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Verily Allah has Prohibited three things and has forbidden three things. He has declared absolutely haram the disobedience of father, burying of daughters alive, and withholding that which you have power to return, and has forbidden three things: irrelevant talk, persistent questioning, and wasting of wealth.

Chapter 4| The reward of the judge when he tries to arrive at a decision, whether that decision is correct or incorrect.

4261: ‘Amr b. al-‘As reported:
That he heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When a judge gives a decision, having tried his best to decide correctly and is right, there are two rewards for him; and if he gave a judgment after having tried his best (to arrive at a correct decision) but erred, there is one reward for him.

4262: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira with another chain of transmitters.

4263: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Usama b. al-Had al-Laithi.

Chapter 5| It is not desirable to give judgment in a fit of Rage.

4264: Abd al-Rabmin b. Abu Bakra reported:
My father dictated (and I wrote for him) to Ubaidullah b. Abu Bakra while he was the judge of Sijistan: Do not judge between two persons when you are angry, for I have heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: None of you should judge between two persons when he is angry.

4265: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abu Bakra through another chain of transmitters.

Chapter 6| Rejecting of the wrong things and the innovations (in religion)

4266: ‘A’isha reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.

4267: Sa’d b. Ibrahim reported:
I asked Qasim b. Muhammad about a person who had three dwelling houses and he willed away the third part of every one of these houses; he (Qasim b. Muhammad) said: All of them could be combined in one house; and then said: ‘A’isha informed me that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who did any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.

Chapter 7| An excellent witness

Zaid b. Khalid al-Juhani reported:
Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: Should I not tell you of the best witnesses? He is the one who produces his evidence before he is asked for it.

Chapter 8| The difference of those who endeavour to arrive at the correct decision.

4269: Abu Huraira reported:
Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: While two women had been going along with their two sons, a wolf came and made away with the child of one of them. One of them said to her companion: It is with your child that it (the wolf) has run away The other one said: It has run away with your child. They brought the matter to (Hadrat) Dawud (David) for decision and he made a decision in favour of the elder one. They then went to Sulaiman b. Dawud (may there be peace upon both of them) and told them (the story). He said: Bring me a knife so that I may cut him (the child) (into two parts) for you. The younger one said: No, it can’t be, may Allah have mercy upon you, he (the child) belongs to her (the elder). So he gave a decision in favour of the younger one. abu Huraira said: If ever I heard of the word as-sikin at all, it was that day. We called it by no other name but al-Mudya.

4270: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu az-Zinad with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 9| It is meritorious for a judge to bring about conciliation between two contending persons or parties.

4271: Hammim b. Munabbih said: Abu Huraira reported:
(so many) ahadith of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and one of them is this: A person bought from another person a piece of land, and the person who had, bought that land found in it an earthen ware which contained gold. The person who had bought the land said (to the seller of the land): Take your gold from me, for I bought only the land from you and not the gold. The man who had sold the land said: I sold the land to you and whatever was in it. They referred the matter to a person. One who was made as a judge said to them: Have you any issue? One of them said: I have a boy, and the other said: I have a young daughter He (the judge) said: Marry this young boy with the girl, and spend something on yourselves and also give (some) charity out of it.

Chapter 10| Stray thing found by anyone

4272: Zaid b. Khalid al-Juhani reported:
A man came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and asked him about picking up of stray articles. He said: Recognise (well) its bag and the strap (by which it is tied) then make announcement of that for a year. If its owner comes (within this time return that to him), otherwise it is yours. He (again) said: (What about) the lost goat? Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: It is yours or for your brother, or for the wolf. He said: (What about) the lost camel? Thereupon he said: You have nothing to do with it; it has a leather bag along with it, and its shoes also. It comes to the watering-place, eats (the leaves of the) trees until its master finds him.

4273: Zaid b. Khalid al-Juhani reported:
That a person asked Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) about picking up of stray articles, whereupon he said: Make announcement about it for a year, and recognise well the strap and the bag (containing that) ; then spend that; and if its owner comes, make him the payment of that. He (the inquirer) said: Messenger of Allah, what about the lost goat? he said: Take it, for that is yours or for your brother, or for the wolf. He (again) said: (What about) the lost camel? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was enraged until his cheeks became red (or his face became red) and then said: You have nothing to do about that; it has feet and a leather bag (to quench its thirst) until its owner finds it.

4274: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Rabi’a b. Abu Abd al-Rahman with the same chain of transmitters but with this addition:” There came a person to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) while I was with him, and he asked him about picking up of a stray article, and he said: When none comes to demand it, then spend that.”

4275: Zaid b. Khalid al-Juhani reported:
There came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) a person, the rest of the hadith is the same but with the variation (of these words): His face became red, his forehead too, and he felt annoyed; and made an addition after the words: He should make announcement of that for a year, and if its owner does not turn up, then it is a trust with you.

4276: Zaid b. Khalid al-Juhani, the Companion ot Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), said that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about the picking up of stray gold or silver, whereupon he said: Recognise well the strap and the bag (containing) that and then make an announcement regarding that for one year, but if none recognises it, then spend that and it would be a trust with you; and if someone comes one day to make demand of that, then pay that to him. He (the inquirer) asked about the lost camel, whereupon he said: You have nothing to do with that. Leave that alone, for it has feet and also a leather bag, it drinks water, and eats (the leaves) of the trees. He asked him about sheep, whereupon he said: Take it, it is for you, or for your brother, or for the wolf.

4277: Zaid b. Khalid al-Juhani reported:
A person asked Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) about a lost camel; Rabi’a made this addition: He (the Holy Prophet) was so much annoyed that his cheeks became red.” The rest of the hadith is the same. He (the narrator) made this addition:” If its (that of the article) owner comes and he recognises the bag (which contained it) and its number, and the strap. then give that to them, but if not, then it is for you.”

4278: Zaid b. Khalid al-Juhani reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about picking up of stray things, whereupon he said: Make announcement of that for one year, but if it is not recognised (by the owner), then recognise its big and strap, then eat it; and if its owner comes, then give that to him. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Al-Dahhak b. Uthman with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of words.

4279: Salama b. Kuhail reported:
I heard Sowaid b. Ghafala say: I went out, and also Zaid b. Suhan and Salman b. Rabi’a for Jibad, and I found a whip and took it up. They said to me: Leave it. I said: No. but I will make announcement of it and if its owner comes (then I will return that), otherwise I will use it, and I refused them. When we returned from Jihad. by a good fortune for me, I performed Pilgrimage. I came to Medina and met Ubayy b. Ka’b, and related to him the affair of the whip and their opinion (the opinion of Zaid b. Suhan and Salman b. Rabi’a) about it (i. e. I should throw it). Thereupon he said: I found a money bag during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) which contained one hundred dinars.

I came to him along with it, and he said: Make an announcement of it for one year; so I announced it, but did not find anyone who could (claim it after) recognizing it. I again came to him and he said: Make announcement for one year. So I made announcement of it, but I found none who could recognise it. I came to him he said: Make announcement of it for one year. I made announcement of that but did not find one who could recognise it, whereupon he said: Preserve (in your mind) its number, its bag and its strap, and if its owner comes (then return that to him), otherwise make use of it. So I made use of that. I (Shu’ba) met him (Salama b. Kuhail) after this in Mecca, and he said: I do not know whether he said three years or one year.

4280: Shu’ba reported:
Salama b. Kuhail informed me or he informed people and I was among them. He said: I heard Sawaid b. Ghafala who reported: I went out along with Zaid b. Suhan and Salman b. Rabi’a, and found a whip, the rest of the hadith is the same up to the words:” I made use of that.” Shu’ba said: I heard him say after ten years, that he made an announcement of it for one year.

4281: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Salama b. Kuhail through different chains of transmitters. In their ahadith, it is three years, except in the hadith of Hammid b. Salama it is two years or three years. In the hadith transmitted on the authority of Sufyan and Zaid b. Abu Unaisa and Hammid b. Salama (the words are):” If someone comes and informs you about the number (of articles) of the bag and the straps, then give that to him.” Sufyan has made this addition in the narration of Waki’:” Otherwise it is like your property.” And in the narration of Ibn Numair the words are:” Otherwise make use of that.”

Chapter 11| Stray things of the pilgrims

4282: ‘Abd al-Rahman b. ‘Uthman al-Taimi reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbade taking into custody the stray thing of the pilgrims.

4283: Zaid b. Khalid al-Juhani reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as sayin.: He who found a stray article is himself led astray if he does not advertise it.

Chapter 12| It is forbidden to milk an animal without the permission of its owner

4284: Ibn ‘Umar reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: None (of you) should milk the animal of another, but with his permission. Does any one of you like that his chamber be raided, and his vaults be broken, and his foodstuff be removed? Verily the treasures for them (those who keep animals) are the udders of the animals which feed them. So none of you should milkthe animal of another but with his permission.

4285: This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters with a slight variation of words.

Chapter 13| Entertainment of the guest

4286: Abd Shuraib al-Adawi reported:
My eare listened and my eye saw when Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) spoke and said: He who believes In Allah and the eireafter should show respect to the guest even with utmost kindness and courtesy. They said: Messenger of Allah, what is this utmost kindness and courtesy? He replied: It is for a day and a night. Hospitality extends for three days, and what is beyond that is a Sadaqa for him; and he who believes in Allah and the Hereafter should say something good or keep quiet.

4287: Abu Shuriah al-Khuza’i reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: (The period of the entertainment of a guest is three days, and utmost kindness and courtesy is for a day and a night. =” It is not permissible for a Muslim to stay with, his brother until he makes him sinful. They said: Messenger of Allah, how he would make him sinful? He (the Holy Prophet) said: He stays with him (so long) that nothing is left with him to entertain him.

4288: Sa’id al-Maqburi reported:
I heard Abu Shuraih al-Khuzill saying: My ears heard and my eyes saw and my mind retained it, when Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) spok this, and he then narrated the hadith and made mention of this:” It is not permissible for any one of you to stay with his brother until he makes him sinful.”

4289| ‘Uqba b. Amir reported:
We said to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him): You send us out and we come to the people who do not give us hospitality, so what is your opinion? Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: If you come to the people who order for you what is befitting a guest, accept it; but if they do not. take from them what befits them to give to a guest.

Chapter 14| It is meritorious to spend the surplus wealth for one’s brother

4290: Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported:

While we were with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) on a journey, a person came upon his mount and began to stare on the right and on the left, (it was at this moment) that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who has an extra mount should give that to one who has no mount for him, and he who has surplus of provisions should give them to him who has no provisions, and he made mention of so many kinds of wealth until we were of the opinion that none of us has any right over the surplus.

Chapter 15| In case the provisions run short, these should be pooled.

4291: Iyas b. Salama reported on the authority of his father:
We set out on an expedition with, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). We facts hardship (in getting provisions) until we decided to slaughter some of our riding animals. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), commanded us to pool our provisions of food. So we spread a sheet of leather and the provisions of the people were collected on it. I stretched myself to measure how much that was (the length and, breadth of the sheet on which the provisions were laid). I measured it and (found) that it was (in length and breadth) of (so much size) on which a goat could sit.

We were fourteen hudnred persons. We (all) ate until we were fully satisfied and then filled our bags with provisions. Then Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Is there any water for performing ablution. Then there came a man with a small bucket containing some water. He threw it in a basin. We all fourteen hundred persons performed ablution using the water in plenty. Then there came after that eight persons and they said: Is there any water to perform ablution? Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The ablution has already been performed.

Sahih Muslim: The Book Pertaining To Punishments Prescribed By Islam

Sahih Muslim - Book 17 - The Book Pertaining To Punishments Prescribed By Islam

Sahih Muslim| The Book Pertaining To Punishments Prescribed By Islam – Kitab Al-Hudud.

Book |17
Contents of Book 17:  11 Chapters, 70 Hadith

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Introduction

The penal laws of Islam are called Hudud in the Hadith and Fiqh. This word is the plural of Hadd, which means prevention, hindrance, restraint, prohibition, and hence a restrictive ordinance or statute of God, respecting things lawful and unlawful. Punishments are divided into two classes, one of which is called Hadd and the other Ta’zir. The Hadd is a measure of punishment defined by the Qur’an and the Sunnah. In Ta’zir, the court, is allowed to use its discretion in regard to the form and measure in which such punishment is to be inflicted.

Punishments by way of Hadd are of the following forms: death by stoning, amputation of a limb or limbs, flogging by one hundred or eighty strokes. They are prescribed respectively for the following offences: adultery committed by married persons, theft, highway robbery, drunkenness and slander imputing unchastity to women.

The punishments described above are the maximum punishments for the above mentioned crimes. These can be reduced keeping in view the circumstances in which the crimes were committed, the nature of the evidence, and the motive of the criminal with which he committed the crime.

Chapter 1| Punishment for theft and the minimum limit according to which it is imposed upon an offender.

4175: ‘A’isha reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) cut off the hand of a thief for a quarter of a dinar rid upwards.

4176: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Zuhri.

4177: ‘A’isha reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The hand of a thief should not be cut off but for a quarter of a dinar and upwards.

4178: ‘A’isha reported:
I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The hand (of a thief) should not be cut off but for a quarter of a dinar and what is above that.

4179: ‘A’isha reported:
That she heard Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: The hand of the thief may not be cut off but for a quarter of a dinar and upwards.

4180: A hadith like this has been narrated on the authority of Yazid b. ‘Abdullah b. al-Had with the same chain of transmitters.

4181: ‘A’isha reported:
That during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) the hand of the thief was not cut off for less than the price of a shield, iron coat or armour and both of them are valuable.

4182: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Hisham through another chain of transmitters, and in the hadith narrated by ‘Abd al-Rahim and Abu Usama (the words are):” That (the shield) was valuable those days.”

4183: Ibn ‘Umar reported:
T
hat Allah’s Messenger (may peace upon him) cut off the hand of a thief (in case of the theft) of a shield the price of which was three dirhams.

4184: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar through some other chains of transmitters but with a slight variation of words.

4185: Abu Huraira reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Let there be the curse of Allah upon the thief who steals an egg and his hand is cut off, and steals a rope and his hand is cut off.

4186: This hadith is narrated on the authority of A’mash with the same chain of transmitters with a slight variation of words.

Chapter 2| Prohibition of in rercession regarding prescribed punishment for theft and other (crimes) in case of important persons.

4187: ‘A’isha reported:
That the Quraish had been anxious about the Makhzumi woman who had committed theft, and said: Who will speak to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about her? They said: Who dare it, but Usama, the loved one of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him)? So Usama spoke to him. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Do you intercede regarding one of the punishments prescribed by Allah?

He then stood up and addressed (people) saying: O people, those who have gone before you were destroyed, because if any one of high rank committed theft amongst them, they spared him; and it anyone of low rank committed theft, they inflicted the prescribed punishment upon him. By Allah, if Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, were to steal, I would have her hand cut off. In the hadith transmitted on the authority of Ibn Rumh (the words are):” Verily those before you perished.”

4188: ‘A’isha, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), reported:
That the Quraish were concerned about the woman who had committed theft during the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), in the expedition of Victory (of Mecca). They said: Who would speak to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about her? They (again) said: Who can dare do this but Usama b Zaid, the loved one of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him)? She was brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and Usama b. Zaid spoke about her to him (interceded on her behalf).

The colour of the face of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) changed, and he said: Do you intercede in one of the prescribed punishments of Allah? He (Usama) said: ‘Messenger of Allah, seek forgiveness for me. When it was dusk. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) stood up and gave an address. He (first) glorified Allah as He deserves, and then said: Now to our topic. This (injustice) destroyed those before you that when any one of (high) rank committed theft among them, they spared him, and when any weak one among them committed theft, they inflicted the prescribed punishment upon him.

By Him in Whose Hand is my life, even if Fatima daughter of Muhammad were to commit theft, I would have cut off her hand. He (the Holy Prophet) then commanded about that woman who had committed theft, and her hand was cut off. ‘A’isha (further) said: Hers was a good respentance, and she later on married and used to come to me after that, and I conveyed her needs (and problems) to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him).

4189: ‘A’isha reported:
That a woman from the tribe of Makhzum used to borrow things (from people) and then denied (having taken them). Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) commanded her hand to be cut off. Her relatives came to Usama b. Zaid and spoke to him (requesting him to intercede on her behalf). He spoke to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about her. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4190: Jaibir reported:
That a woman from the tribe of Makhzum committed theft. She was brought to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and she sought refuge (intercession) from Umm Salama, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him). Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: By Allah, even if she were Fatima, I would have her hand cut off. And thus her hand was cut off.

Chapter 3| Prescribed punishment for an adulterer and an adulteress.

4191: ‘Ubada b. as-Samit reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Receive (teaching) from me, receive (teaching) from me. Allah has ordained a way for those (women). When an unmarried male commits adultery with an unmarried female (they should receive) one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. And in case of married male committing adultery with a married female, they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death.

4192: ‘Ubada b. as-Samit reported:
T
hat whenever Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) received revelation, he felt its rigour and the complexion of his face changed. One day revelation descended upon him, he felt the same rigour. When it was over and he felt relief, he said: Take from me. Verily Allah has ordained a way for them (the women who commit fornication),: (When) a married man (commits adultery) with a married woman, and an unmarried male with an unmarried woman, then in case of married (persons) there is (a punishment) of one hundred lashes and then stoning (to death). And in case of unmarried persons, (the punishment) is one hundred lashes and exile for one year.

4193: This hadith has been reported:
On the authority of Qatada with the same chain of transmitters except with this variation that the unmarried is to be lashed and exiled, and the married one is to be lashed and stoned. There is neither any mention of one year nor that of one hundred.

Chapter 4| Stoning of a married adulterer.

4194: ‘Abdullah b. ‘Abbas reported:
That ‘Umar b. Khattab sat on the pulpit of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Verily Allah sent Muhammad (may peace be upon him) with truth and He sent down the Book upon him, and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. We recited it, retained it in our memory and understood it.

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) awarded the punishment of stoning to death (to the married adulterer and adulteress) and, after him, we also awarded the punishment of stoning, I am afraid that with the lapse of time, the people (may forget it) and may say: We do not find the punishment of stoning in the Book of Allah, and thus go astray by abandoning this duty prescribed by Allah. Stoning is a duty laid down in Allah’s Book for married men and women who commit adultery when proof is established, or it there is pregnancy, or a confession.

4195: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 5| He who confesses his guilt of adultery.

4196: Abu Huraira reported:
T
hat a person from amongst the Muslims came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) while he was in the mosque. He called him saying: Allah’s Messenger. I have committed adultery. He (the Holy Prophet) turned away from him, He (again) came round facing him and said to him: Allah’s Messenger, I have committed adultery. He (the Holy Prophet) turned away until he did that four times, and as he testified four times against his own self, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) called him and said: Are you mad? He said: No.

He (again) said: Are you married? He said: Yes. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Take him and stone him. Ibn Shihab (one of the narrators) said: One who had heard Jabir b. ‘Abdullah saying this informed me thus: I was one of those who stoned him. We stoned him at the place of prayer (either that of ‘Id or a funeral). When the stones hurt him, he ran away. We caught him in the Harra and stoned him (to death). This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters.

4197: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through other chains of transmitters.

4198: Jabir b. Samura reported: As he was being brought to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) I saw Ma’iz b. Malik-a short-statured person with strong sinews, having no cloak around him. He bore witness against his own self four times that he had committed adultery, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Perhaps (you kissed her or embraced her).

He said: No. by God, one deviating (from the path of virtue) has committed adultery. He then got him stoned (to death), and then delivered the address: Behold, as we set out for Jihad in the cause of Allah, one of you lagged behind and shrieked like the bleating of a male goat, and gave a small quantity of milk. By Allah, in case I get hold of him, I shall certainly punish him.

4199: Jabir b. Samura reported:
That there was brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) a short-statured person with thick uncombed hair, muscular body, having a mantle around him and he had committed adultery. He turned him away twice and then made pronouncement about him and he was stoned.

Then Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: We set out for Jihad in the cause of Allah and one of you lagged behind and shrieked like the bleating of a male goat and one of then (goats’ gave a small quantity of milk. In case Allah gives me power over one of them, I will punish him (in such a way that it may have a deterrent effect upon others). In another narration transmitted on the authority of Sa’id b Jubair (the words are), that He (the Holy Prophet) turned him away four times.”

4200: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura through another chain of transmitters with the difference that along with the mentioning (of the fact) that he (the Holy Prophet) turned him away twice, or thrice.

4201: Ibn Abbas reported:
That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said to Ma’iz b. Malik: Is it true what has reached me about you? He said: What has reached you about me? He said: It has reached me that you have committed (adultery) with the slave-girl of so and so? He said: Yes. He (the narrator) said: He testified four times. He (the Holy Prophet) then made pronouncement about him and he was stoned (to death).

4202: Abu Sa’id reported:
That a person belonging to the clan of Aslam, who was called Ma, iz b. Malik, came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: I have committed immorality (adultery), so inflict punishment upon me. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) turned him away again and again. He then asked his people (about the state of his mind). They said: We do not know of any ailment of his except that he has committed something about which he thinks that he would not be able to relieve himself of its burden but with the Hadd being imposed upon him.

He (Ma’iz) came back to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and he commanded us to stone him. We took him to the Baqi’ al-Gharqad (the graveyard of Medina). We neither tied him nor dug any ditch for him. We attacked him with bones, with clods and pebbles. He ran away and we ran after him until he came upon the ston ground (al-Harra) and stopped there and we stoned him with heavy stones of the Harra until he became motionless (lie died).

He (the Holy Prophet) then addressed (us) in the evening saying Whenever we set forth on an expedition in the cause of Allah, some one of those connected with us shrieked (under the pressure of sexual lust) as the bleating of a male goat. It is essential that if a person having committed such a deed is brought to me, I should punish him. He neither begged forgiveness for him nor cursed him.

4203: Dawud narrated the hadith with the same chain of transmitters (and the words are): Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) stood tip (to address the audience) in the evening and praised Allah, glorified Him and then said: What about the people, that as we set out on an expedition, one of you remained behind us and he shrieked like the bleating of a male goat? But he did not mention (these words): People connected with us.”

4204: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Dawud with the same chain of transmitters but with this variation that in the hadith narrated by Sufyan (the words are):” He made a confession of having committed adultery, thrice.”

4205: Sulaiman b. Buraida reported:
On the authority of his father that Ma, iz b. Malik came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said to him: Messenger of Allah, purify me, whereupon he said: Woe be upon you, go back, ask forgiveness of Allah and turn to Him in repentance. He (the narrator) said that he went back not far, then came and said: Allah’s Messenger, purify me. Whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Woe be upon you, go back and ask forgiveness of Allah and turn to Him in repentance. He (the narrator) said that he went back not far, when he came and said: Allah’s Messenger, purify me.

Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said as he had said before. When it was the fourth time, Allah’s Messenger (may, peace be upon him) said: From what am I to purify you? He said: From adultery, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) asked if he had been mad. He was informed that he was not mad. He said: Has he drunk wine? A person stood up and smelt his breath but noticed no smell of wine. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Have you committed adultery? He said: Yes. He made pronouncement about him and he was stoned to death.

The people had been (divided) into two groups about him (Ma’iz). One of them said: He has been undone for his sins had encompassed him, whereas another said: There is no repentance more excellent than the repentance of Ma’iz, for he came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and placing his hand in his (in the Holy Prophet’s) hand said: Kill me with stones. (This controversy about Ma’iz) remained for two or three days. Then came Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) to them (his Companions) as they were sitting. He greeted them with salutation and then sat down and said: Ask forgiveness for Ma’iz b. Malik.

They said: May Allah forgive Ma’iz b. Malik. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He (Ma’iz) has made such a repentance that if that were to be divided among a people, it would have been enough for all of them. He (the narrator) said: Then a woman of Ghamid, a branch of Azd, came to him and said: Messenger of of Allah, purify me, whereupon he said: Woe be upon you; go back and beg forgiveness from Allah and turn to Him in repentance. She said: I find that you intend to send me back as you sent back Ma’iz. b. Malik. He (the Holy, Prophet) said: What has happened to you? She said that she had become pregnant as a result of fornication.

He (the Holy Prophet) said: Is it you (who has done that)? She said: Yes. He (the Holy Prophet) said to her: (You will not be punished) until you deliver what is there in your womb. One of the Ansar became responsible for her until she was delivered (of the child). He (that Ansari) came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said the woman of Ghamid has given birth to a child. He (the Holy Prophet) said: In that case we shall not stone her and so leave her infant with none to suckle him. One of the Ansar got up and said: Allah’s Apostle, let the responsibility of his suckling be upon me. She was then stoned to death.

4206: ‘Abdullah b. Buraida reported:
On the authority of his father that Ma’iz b. Malik al-Aslami came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Allah’s Messenger, I have wronged myself; I have committed adultery and I earnestly desire that you should purify me. He turned him away. On the following day, he (Ma’iz) again came to him and said: Allah’s Messenger, I have committed adultery. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) turned him away for the second time, and sent him to his people saying: Do you know if there is anything wrong with his mind.

They denied of any such thing in him and said: We do not know him but as a wise good man among us, so far as we can judge. He (Ma’iz) came for the third time, and he (the Holy Prophet) sent him as he had done before. He asked about him and they informed him that there was nothing wrong with him or with his mind. When it was the fourth time, a ditch was dug for him and he (the Holy Prophet) pronounced judgment about him and he wis stoned.

He (the narrator) said: There came to him (the Holy Prophet) a woman from Ghamid and said: Allah’s Messenger, I have committed adultery, so purify me. He (the Holy Prophet) turned her away. On the following day she said: Allah’s Messenger, Why do you turn me away? Perhaps, you turn me away as you turned away Ma’iz. By Allah, I have become pregnant. He said: Well, if you insist upon it, then go away until you give birth to (the child).

When she was delivered she came with the child (wrapped) in a rag and said: Here is the child whom I have given birth to. He said: Go away and suckle him until you wean him. When she had weaned him, she came to him (the Holy Prophet) with the child who was holding a piece of bread in his hand. She said: Allah’s Apostle, here is he as I have weaned him and he eats food. He (the Holy Prophet) entrusted the child to one of the Muslims and then pronounced punishment. And she was put in a ditch up to her chest and he commanded people and they stoned her.

Khalid b Walid came forward with a stone which he flung at her head and there spurted blood on the face of Khalid and so he abused her. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) heard his (Khalid’s) curse that he had huried upon her. Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Khalid, be gentle. By Him in Whose Hand is my life, she has made such a repentance that even if a wrongful tax-collector were to repent, he would have been forgiven. Then giving command regarding her, he prayed over her and she was buried.

4207: Imran b. Husain reported:
That a woman from Juhaina came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and she had become pregnant because of adultery. She said: Allah’s Apostle, I have done something for which (prescribed punishment) must be imposed upon me, so impose that. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) called her master and said: Treat her well, and when she delivers bring her to me. He did accordingly.

Then Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) pronounced judgment about her and her clothes were tied around her and then he commanded and she was stoned to death. He then prayed over her (dead body). Thereupon Umar said to him: Allah’s Apostle, you offer prayer for her, whereas she had committed adultery! Thereupon he said: She has made such a repentance that if it were to be divided among seventy men of Medina, it would be enough. Have you found any repentance better than this that she sacr ficed her life for Allah, the Majestic?

4208: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Yahya b. Abu Kathir.

4209: Abu Huraira and Zaid b Khalid al-Juhani reported:
That one of the desert tribes came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Messenger of Allah, I beg of you in the name of Allah that you pronounce judgment about me according to the Book of Allah. The second claimant who was wiser than him said: Well, decide amongst us according to the Book of Allah, but permit me (to say something).

Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon ham) said: Say. He said: My son was a servant in the house of this person and he committed adultery with his wife. I was informed that my son deserved stoning to death (as punishment for this offence). I gave one hundred goats and a slave girl as ransom for this. I asked the scholars (if this could serve as an expiation for this offence). They informed me that my son deserved one hundred lathes and exile for one year. and this woman deserved stoning (as she was married).

Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) said: By Him in Whose Hand is my life. I will decide between you according to the Book of Allah. The slave-girl and the goats should be given back, and your son is to be punished with one hundred lashes and exile for one year. And, O Unais (b. Zuhaq al-Aslami), go to this woman in the morning, and if she makes a confession, then stone her. He (the narrator) said: He went to her in the morning and she made a confession. And Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) made pronouncement about her and she was stoned to death.

4210: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 6| Stoning to death of jews and other dhimmis in case of adultery.

4211: Abdullah b. ‘Umar reported:
That a Jew and a Jewess were brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) who had committed adultery. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) came to the Jews and said: What do you find in Torah for one who commits adultery? They said: We darken their faces and make them ride on the donkey with their faces turned to the opposite direction (and their backs touching each other), and then they are taken round (the city).

He said: Bring Torah if you are truthful. They brought it and recited it until when they came to the verse pertaining to stoning, the person who was reading placed his hand on the verse pertaining to stoning, and read (only that which was) between his hands and what was subsequent to that.

Abdullah b. Salim who was at that time with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Command him (the reciter) to lift his hand. He lifted it and there was, underneath that, the verse pertaining to stoning. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) pronounced judgment about both of them and they were stoned. Ab-dullah b. ‘Umar said: I was one of those who stoned them, and I saw him (the Jew) protecting her (the Jewess) with his body.

4212: Ibn Umar reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) stoned to death the Jews, both male and female, who had committed adultery. The Jews brought them to Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him). The rest of the hadith is the same.

4213: Ibn ‘Umar reported:
That the Jews brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) a man and a woman who had committed adultery. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4214: Al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib reported:
There happened to pass by Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) a Jew blackened and lashed. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) called them (the Jews) and said: Is this the punishment that you find in your Book (Torah) as a prescribed punishment for adultery? They said: Yes. He (the Holy Prophet) called one of the scholars amongst them and said: I ask you in the name of Allah Who sent down the Torah on Moses if that is the prescribed punishment for adultery that you find in your Book. He said: No. Had you not asked me in the name of Allah, I would not have given you this information.

We find stoning to death (as punishment prescribed in the Torah). But this (crime) became quite common amongst our aristocratic class. So when we caught hold of any rich person (indulging in this offence) we spared him, but when we caught hold of a helpless person we imposed the prescribed punishment upon him. We then said: Let us argree (on a punishment) which we can inflict both upon the rich and the poor. So We decided to blacken the face with coal and flog as a substitute punishment for stoning. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: O Allah, I am the first to revive Thy command when they had made it dead. He then commanded and he (the offender) was stoned to death.

Allah, the Majestic and Glorious, sent down (this verse):” O Messenger, (the behaviour of) those who vie with one another in denying the truth should not grieve you…” up to” is vouchsafed unto you, accept it” (v. 41) 2176 It was said (by the Jews): Go to Muhammad; it he commands you to blacken the face and award flogging (as punishment for adultery), then accept it, but it he gives verdict for stoning, then avoid it.

It was (then) that Allah, the Majestic and Great, sent down (these verses):” And they who do not judge in accordance with what Allah has revealed are, indeed, deniers of the truth” (v. 44) ;” And they who do not judge in accordance with what Allah has revealed-they, they indeed are the wrongdoers” (v. 45) ;” And they who do not judge in accordance with what God has revealed-they are the iniquitous (v. 47). (All these verses) were revealed in connection with the non-believers.

4215: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of A’mash up to the words:” Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) pronounced judgment and he was stoned (to death)” And he mentioned nothing subsequent to that pertaining to the revelation of verses.

4216: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) stoned (to death) a person from Banu Aslam, and a Jew and his wife.

4217: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Juraij with a slight variation of words.

4218: Abu Ishaq Shaibani said:
I asked ‘Abdullah b. Abu Aufi if Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) awarded (the punishment) of stoning (to death). He said: Yes. I said: After Sura al-Nur was revealed or before that? He said: I do not know.

4219: Abu Huraira reported:
That he heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When the slave-woman of any of you commits adultery and this (offence of hers) becomes clear, she should be flogged (as the presribed) punishment, but hurl no reproach at her. If she commits adultery again, she should (again be punished) by flogging, but hurl no reproach upon her. It she commits fornication for the third time. and it becomes clear, then he should sell her, even if only for a rope of hair.

4220: This hadith his been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through another chain of transmitters with a slight variation of words.

4221: Abu Huraira reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about the slavewoman who committed adultery and was not protected (married). He said: If she commits adultery, then flog her and it she commits adultery again, then flog her and then sell her even for a rope. Ibn Shihab said: I do not know whether he said this (his statement pertaining to the sale of slave-woman) at the third or the fourth time. Ibn Shihab said that the word) dafir (used in the text) means rope.

4222: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira and Zaid b. Khalid al-Jubani, but in this no merition is made of the words of Ibn Shihab that dafir means rope.

4223: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Huraira and Zaid b. Khalid al-Juhani in the same way as transmitted by Malik with this (difference) tnat there is a doubt whether her sale (that of the slave-girl committing adultery) was mentioned after the third or the fourth time.

Chapter 7| The prescribed punishment should be deferred in case of one who is in a state of parturition.

4224: Abd al-Rahman reported:
That ‘Ali, while delivering the address said: O people, impose the prescribed punishment upon your slaves, those who are married and those not married, for a slave-woman belonging to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had committed adultery, and he committed me to flog her. But she had recently given birth to a child and I was afraid that if I flogged her I might kill her. So I mentioned that to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and he said: You have done well.

4225: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of as-Suddi with the same chain of trznsmitters, but he did not mention:” Those who are married and those who are not married.” There is also an addition in it:” I spare her until she is all right.”

Chapter 8| Prescribed punishment for (drinking) wine.

4226: Anas b. Malik reported:
That a person who had drink wine was brought to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him). He gave him forty stripes with two lashes. Abu Bakr also did that, but when Umar (assumed the responsibilities) of the Caliphate, he consulted people and Abd al-Rahman said: The mildest punishment (for drinking) is eighty (stripes) and ‘Umar their prescribed this punishment.

4227: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Anas through another chain of transmitters.

4228: Anas b. Malik reported:
That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) gave a beating with palm branches and shoes, and that Abu Bakr gave forty lashes. When Umar (became the Commander of the Faithful) and the people went near to pastures and towns, he said (to the Companions of the Holy Prophet). What is your opinion about lashing for drinking? Thereupon Abd al-Rahman b. Auf said: My opinion is that you fix it as the mildest punishment. Then ‘Umar inflicted eighty stripes.

4229:
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Hisham with the same chain of transmitters.

4230: Anas reported:
That Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) used to strike forty times with shoes and palm branches (in case of drinking of) wine. The rest of the hadith is the same and there is no mention of pastures and towns.

4231: Hudain b. al-Mundhir Abu Sasan reported:
I saw that Walid was brought to Uthmin b. ‘Affan as he had prayed two rak’ahs of the dawn prayer, and then he said: I make an increase for you. And two men bore witness against him. One of them was Humran who said that he had drunk wine. The second one gave witness that he had seen him vomiting. Uthman said: He would not have vomited (wine) unless he had drunk it. He said: ‘Ali, stand up and lash him. ‘Ali said: Hasan, stand up and lash him.

Thereupon Hasan said: Let him suffer the heat (of Caliphate) who has enjoyed its coolness. (‘Ali felt annoyed at this remark) and he said: ‘Abdullah b. Ja’far, stand up and flog him, and he began to flog him and ‘Ali counted the stripes until these were forty. He (Hadrat ‘Ali) said: Stop now, and then said: Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) gave forty stripes, and Abu Bakr also gave forty stripes, and Umar gave eighty stripes, and all these fall under the category of the Sunnab, but this one (forty stripes) is dearer to me.

4232: Ali reported:
If I impose Hadd on anyone, and he (in course of punish ment) dies, I would not mind except in case of a drunkard. If he dies. I would pay indemnity for him because the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) has laid down no rule for it.

4233: This hadith is narrated on the authority of Sufyan.

Chapter 9| Number of stripes in case of Ta’zir.

4234: Abu Barda Ansari reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: None should be given more than ten lashes, but in case of any Hadd out of the Huded of Allah.

Chapter 10| Imposition of hadd obliterates sins.

4235: Ubida b. as-Samit reported:
While we were in the company of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upoi him) he said: Swear allegiance to me that you will not associate anything with Allah, that you will not commit adultery, that you will not steal, that you will not take any life which it is forbidden by Allah to take but with (legal) justification; and whoever among you fulfils it, his reward is with Allah and he who commits any such thing and is punished for it, that will be all atonement for it And if anyone commits anything and Allah conceals (his faultfls), his matter rests with Allah. He may forgive if He likes, and He may punish him if He likes.

4236: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters with this addition:” He recited to us the verse pertaining to women, viz, that they will not associate anything with Allah.

4237: ‘Ubida b. as-Samit reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) took (a pledge) from us as he took from the women that we will not associate anything with Allah and we will not steal, and we will not commit adultery, and we will not kill our children, and we will not bring calumny upon one another. And he who amongst you fulfils (this pledge), his reward rests with Allah, and he upon whom amongst you is imposed the prescribed punishment and that is carried out, that is his expiation (for that sin), and he whose (sins) were covered by Allah, his matter rests with Allah. He may punish him if He likes or may forgive him if He so likes.

4238: Ubida b. as-Samit repnrted:
I was one of those headmen who swore allegiance to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) that we will not associate anything with Allah, and will not commit adultery, and will not steal, and will not kill any soul which Allah has forbidden, but with justice nor plunder, nor disobey (Allah and His Apostle), then Paradise (will be the reward) in case we do these (acts) ; and if we commit any outrage (and that goes unpunished in the world), it is Allah Who would decide about it. Ibn Rumh said: Its judgment lies with Allah.

Chapter 11| If the beast does any harm, or if one falls in a mine or a well, there will be no blood-wit for that.

4239: Abu Huraira reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: No requital is payable for a wound caused by an animal, for (falling into) a well and a mine, and one-fifth (is the share of the government) in the buried treasure (treasure-trove).

4240: A hadith like this has been transmitted on the authority of Zuhri.

4241: A hadith like this has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Huraira.

4242: Abu Huraira reported
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The wound caused (by falling) in the well, in the mine, and caused bv the animal has no requital for it; and there is onefifth (for the government) in the buried treasure.

4243: A hadith like this has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Huraira.

Sahih Muslima: The Book Pertaining to the Oaths

Sahih Muslim - Book 16

Sahih Muslima | The Book Pertaining to the Oaths, for Establishing the Responsibility of Murders, Fighting, Requital and Blood-wit. – Kitab Al- Qasama Wa’l-Muharaba Wa’l-Qisas Wa’l-Diyat.

Volume 2 | Book 16
Contents of Book 16: 10 Chapters, 56 Hadith

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Chapter 1| Al-Oasamah

4119: Sahl b. Abu Hathma and Rafi’ b. Khadij reported:
That ‘Abdullah b. Sahl b. Zaid and Muhayyisa b. Mas’ud b. Zaid went out and as they reached Khaibar they were separated. Then Muhayyisa found ‘Abdullah b. Sahl having been killed. He buried him, and then came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). They were Huwayyisa b. Mas’ud and ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Sahl, and he (the latter one) was the youngest of the people (those three who had come to seek an interview with the Holy Prophet) began to talk before his Companions (had spoken).

Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The eldest one (eldest in regard to age should speak). So he kept quiet, and his companions (Muhayyisa and Huwayyisa) began to speak, and he (‘Abd al Rahman) spoke along with them and they narrated to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) the murder of ‘Abdullah b. Sahl.

Thereupon he said to them: Are you prepared to take fifty oaths so that you may be entitled (to blood-wit) of your companion (or your man who has murdered)? They said: How can we take an oath on a matter which we have not witnessed? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Then the Jews will exonerate themselves by fifty oaths. They said: How can we accept the oaths of people who are unbelievers? When Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) saw that, he himself paid his blood-wit.

4120: Sahl. b. Abu Hathma and Rafi’ b. Khadij reported:
That Muhayyisa b. Mas’ud and ‘Abdullah b. Sahl went towards Khaibar and they separated near the palm-trees. ‘Abdullah b. Sahl was killed. They accused the Jews (for this act). And there came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) his brother (the brother of the slain person) ‘Abd al-Rahman and his cousins Huwayyisa and Muhayyisa; and ‘Abd al-Rahman talked to him about the matter pertaining to (the murder of) his brother, and he was the youngest among them.

Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Show regard for the greatness of the old, or he said: Let the eldest begin speaking. Then they (Huwayyisa and Muhayyisa) spoke about the matter of their companion (murder of their cousin, ‘Abdullah b. Sahl). Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Let fifty (persons) among you take oath for levelling the charge (of murder) against a person amongst them, and he would be surrendered to you.

They said: We have not witnessed this matter ourselves. How can we then take oath? He (the Holy Prophet) said: The Jews will exonerate themselves by the oaths of fifty of them. They said: Messenger of Allah, they are non-believing people. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) paid the blood wit for him. Sahl said: As one day I entered the fold a she-camel amongst those camels hit me with its leg.

4121: Sahl b. Abu Hathma has narrated this hadith through another chain of transmitters with a slight variation of words, but no mention has been made of the hitting by the she-camel.

4122: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Sahl b. Abu Hathma through another chain of transmitters.

4123: Bushair b. Yasar reported:
That ‘Abdullah b. Sahl b. Zaid and Muhayyisa b. Mas’ud b. Zaid, both of them were Ansar belonging to the tribe of Banu Haritha, set out to Khaibar during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). There was peace during those days and (this place) was inhabited by the Jews. They parted company for their (respective) needs. ‘Abdullab b. Sahl was killed, and his dead body was found in a tank. His companion (Muhayyisa) buried him and came to Medina, and the brothers of the slain ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Sahl. and Muhayyisa and Huwayyisa told Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) the case of ‘Abdullah and the place where he had been murdered.

Bushair reported on the authority of one who had seen Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) that he had said to them: You take fifty oaths and you are entitled to blood-wit of (one) slain among you (or your companion). They said: Messenger of Allah, we neither saw (with our own eyes this murder) nor were we present there. Thereupon (Allah’s Messenger is reported to have said): Then the Jews will exonerate themselves by taking fifty oaths. They said: Allah’s Messenger, how can we accept the oath of unbelieving people? Bushair said that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) paid the blood-wit himself.

4124: Bushair b. Yasar reported:
That a person from the Ansar belonging to the tribe of Banu Haritha who was called ‘Abdullah b. Sahl b. Zaid set out and the son of his uncle called Muhayyisa b. Mas’ud b. Zaid, the rest of the hadith is the same up to the words:” Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) paid the blood-wit himself.” Bushair b. Yasar reported that Sahl b. Abu Hathma said: One camel amongst the camels paid as blood-wit kicked me while I was in the (camel) enclosure.

4125: Bushair b. Yasar al-Ansari reported:
On the authority of Sahl b. Abu Hathma al-Ansari that some men (of his tribe went to Khaibar, and they were separated from one another, and they found one of them slain. The rest of the hadith is the same. And it was said in this connection: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be him) did not approve of his blood go waste. He paid blood-wit of one hundred camels of Sadaqa.

4126: Abu Laila ‘Abdullah b. ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Sahl reported:
That the elderly persons of (the tribe) had informed Sahl b. Abu Hathma that ‘Abdullah b. Sahl and Muhayyisa went out to Khaibar under some distress which had afflicted them. Muhayyisa came and informed that Abdutlah b. Sahl had been killed, and (his dead body) had been thrown in a well or in a ditch. He came to the Jews and said: By Allah, it is you who have killed him.

They said: By Allah, we have not killed him. He then came to his people, and made mention of that to them. Then came he and his brother Huwayyisa, and he was older than he, and ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Sahl. Then Muhayyisa went to speak, and it was he who had accompanied (‘Abdullah) to Khaibar, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to Muhayyisa: Observe greatness of the great (he meant the seniority of age). Then Huwayyisa spoke and then Muhayyisa also spoke.

Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: They should either pay blood-wit for your companion, or be prepared for war. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) wrote about it to them (to the Jews). They wrote: Verily, by Allah, we have not killed him.

Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to Huwayyisa and Muhayyisa and Abd al-Rahman: Are you prepared to take oath in order to entitle yourselves for the blood-wit of your companion? They said: No. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Then the Jews will take oath (of their innocence). They said: They are not Muslims. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), however, himself paid the blood-wit to them and sent to them one hundred camels until they entered into their houses, Sahl said: One red she-camel among them kicked me.

4127: Sulaiman b. Yasar, the freed slave of Maimuna, the wife of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), narrated from one of the Ansari Companions of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) retained (the practice) of Qasama as it was in the pre-Islamic days.

4128: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Shihab with the same chain of transmitters but with this addition:” Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) decided (according to Qasama) between the persons of Ansar (and yours) about a slain (Muslim) for which they made claim against the Jews.

4129: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Salama b. ‘Abd al-Rahman and Sulaiman b. Yasar.

Chapter 2| Pertaining to the combatants and apostates

4130: Anas b. Malik reported
That some people belonging (to the tribe) of ‘Uraina came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) at Medina, but they found its climate uncogenial. So Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to them: If you so like, you may go to the camels of Sadaqa and drink their milk and urine. They did so and were all right.

They then fell upon the shepherds and killed them and turned apostates from Islam and drove off the camels of the Prophet (may peace be upon him). This news reached Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and he sent (people) on their track and they were (brought) and handed over to him. He (the Holy Prophet) got their hands cut off, and their feet, and put out their eyes, and threw them on the stony ground until they died.

4131: Anas reported:
Eight men of the tribe of ‘Ukl came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and swore allegiance to him on Islam, but found the climate of that land uncogenial to their health and thus they became sick, and they made complaint of that to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he said: Why don’t you go to (the fold) of our camels along with our shepherd, and make use of their milk and urine. They said: Yes. They set out and drank their (camels’) milk and urine and regained their health.

They killed the shepherd and drove away the camels. This (news) reached Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and he sent them on their track and they were caught and brought to him (the Holy Prophet). He commanded about them, and (thus) their hands and feet were cut off and their eyes were gouged and then they were thrown in the sun, until they died. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn al-Sabbah with a slight variation of words.

4132: Anas b. Malik reported:
That some people of the tribe of ‘Ukl or ‘Uraina came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and they found the climate of Medina uncogenial. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded them to the milch she-camels and commanded them to drink their urine and their milk. The rest of the hadith is the same (and the concluding words are):” Their eyes were pierced, and they were thrown on the stony ground. They were asking for water, but they were not given water.”

4133: Abu Qilaba reported:
I was sitting behind ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz and he said to the people: What do you say about al-Qasama? Thereupon ‘Anbasa said: Anas b Malik narrated to us such and such (hadith pertaining to al-Qasama). I said: This is what Anas had narrated to me: People came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), and the rest of the hadith is the same. When I (Abu Qilaba) finished (the narration of this hadith), ‘Anbasa said: Hallowed be Allah. I said: Do you blame me (for telling a lie)? He (‘Anbasa) said: No. This is how Anas b Malik narrated to us. O people of Syria, you would not be deprived of good, so long as such (a person) or one like him lives amongst you.

4134: Anas b. Malik reported:
There came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) eight persons from the tribe of ‘Ukl, but with this addition that he did not cauterise (the wounds which hid been inflicted upon them while punishing them).

4135: Anas reported:
There came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) some ponple from ‘Uraina. They embraced Islam and swore allegiance to him and there had spread at that time pleurisy. The rest of the hadith is the same (but with this addition):” There were by his (the Prophet’s) side about twenty young men of the Ansar; he sent them (behind) them (culprits), and he also sent along with them one expert in following the track so that he might trace their footprints.”

4136: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Anas b. Malik through another chain of transmitters.

4137: Anas reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) pierced their eyes because they had pierced the eyes of the shepherds.

Chapter 3| The justification of qisas (retribution) when one is killed with stone or any other heavy thing and killing of a male for the murder of a female

4138: Anas b. Malik reported:
That a Jew killed a girl with a stone for her silver ornaments. She was brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) when there was yet some life in her. He (the Holy Prophet) said to her: Has so and so killed you? She indicated with the nod of her head: No. He said for the second time, and she again said: No with the nod of her head. He asked for the third time, and she said: Yes with the nod of her head and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded to crush his head between two stones.

4139: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters and in the hadith narrated on the authority of Ibn Idris (the words are):” He (commanded) to crush his head between two stones.

4140: Anas reported that: A Jew killed a girl of the Ansar for her ornaments and then threw her in a well and smashed her head with a stone. He was caught and brought to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), and he commanded that he should be stoned to death. So he was stoned until he died.

4141: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ayyub with the same chain of transmitters.

4142: Anas b. Malik reported:
A girl was found with her head crushed between two stones. They asked her as to who had done that-has so and so (done it) until they mentioned a Jew. She indicated with the nod of her head (that it was so). So the Jew was caught, and he made confession (of his guilt). And Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded that his head be smashed with stones.

Chapter 4| When anyone attacks the life of a person, or his limb, and the victim wards off the attack and in selfdefence either the life of the assailant is lost or his limb broken, there would be no penalty on the victim.

4143: Imran b. Husain reported: Ya’la b. Munya or Ibn Umayya fought with a person, and the one bit the hand of the other. And he tried to draw his hand from his mouth and thus his foreteeth ware pulled out. They referred their dispute to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), whereupon he said: Does any one of you bite as the camel bites? So there is no blood-wit for it.

4144: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ya’la.

4145: ‘Imran b. Husain reported:
Tthat a person bit the arm of another person; he pulled it out and his foretooth fell down. This matter was taken to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), and he turned it down saying: Did you want to eat his flesh?

4146: Safwan b. Ya’la reported:
That a person bit the arm of the servant of Ya’la b. Munya. He pulled it and his foretooth fell. The matter was referred to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and he turned it down and said: Did you intend to bite his hand, as the camel bites?

4147: ‘Imran b. Husain reported:
That a person bit the hand of a person. He withdrew his hand and his foretooth or foreteeth fell down. He (the man who lost his teeth) referred the matter to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and he said, What do you want me to do? Do you ask me that I should order him to put his hand in your month, and you should bite it as the camel bites? (If you want retaliation, then the only way out is) that you put your hand in his mouth (allow him) to bite that and then draw it away.

4148: Safwan b. Ya’la b. Munya reported:
On the authority of his father that there came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) a person who had bitten the hand of another person and who had withdrawn his hand (and as a result thereof) his foreteeth had fallen (those which had bitten). The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) turned down his (claim), and said: Do you wish to bite as the camel bites?

4149: Safwan b. Ya’la b. Umayya thus reported from his father:
I participated in the expedition to Tabuk with Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him). And Ya’la used to say: That was the most weighty of my deeds, in my opinion. Safwan said that Ya’la had stated: I had a servant; he quarrelled with another person, and the one bit the hand of the other. (‘Ata’ said that Safwan had told him which one had bitten the hand of the other.) So he whose hand was bitten drew ill from (the mouth) of the one who had bitten it and (in this scuffle) one of his foreteeth was also drawn out. They both came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and he declared his (claim for the compensation of) tooth as invalid.

4150: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Juraij with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 5| The veracity of rftribution in case of tooth

4151: Anas reported:
That Umm Haritha, the sister of Rubayyi’ (she was the father’s sister of Hadrat Anas) injured a person (she broke his teeth). The dispute was referred to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him). Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Retribution, retribution. Umm Rubayyi’ said: Messenger of Allah, will retribution be taken from so and so? By Allah, it shall not be taken from her (i. e. from Umm Haritha).

Thereupon Allah’s Apostle said: Hallowed be Allah. O Umm Rubayyi’, Qisas (retribution is a command, prescribed) in the Book of Allah. She said: No, by Allah, Qisas will never be taken from her; and she went on saying this until they (the relatives of the one who had been injured) accepted the blood-wit. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Verily there are amongst the servants of Allah (such pious persons) who, if they take oath of Allah, He honours it.

Chapter 6| When it is permissible to take the life of a muslim

4152: ‘Abdullah (b. Mas’ud) reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: It is not permissible to take the life of a Muslim who bears testimony (to the fact that there is no god but Allah, and I am the Messenger of Allah, but in one of the three cases: the married adulterer, a life for life, and the deserter of his Din (Islam), abandoning the community.

4153: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of A’mash.

4154: ‘Abdullah (b. Mas’ud) reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) stood up and said: By Him besides Whom there is no god but He, the blood of a Muslim who bears the testimony that there is no god but Allah, and I am His Messenger, may be lawfully shed only in case of three persons: the one who abandons Islam, and deserts the community [Ahmad, one of the narrators, is doubtful whether the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) used the word li’l-jama’ah or al-jama’ah), and the married adulterer, and life for life.

4155: This hadith has been reported on the authority of A’mash with the same chain of narrators but with a slight variation of words, i. e. he did not say: By Him besides Whom there is no god.

Chapter 7| He who sheds the blood first of all bears the burden of all subsequent murders

4156: ‘Abdullah (b. Mas’ud) reported: Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) having said: No person who is killed unjustly, but the share of (this offence of his also) falls upon the first son of Adam, for he was the first to introduce killing.

4157: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Jarir and ‘Isa b. Yunus with a slight variation of words.

Chapter 8| The (cases of) bloodshed would be decided first of all on the day of judgment.

4158: ‘Abdullah b. (Mas’ud) reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The first (thing) that will be decided among people on the Day of Judgment will pertain to bloodshed.

4159: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah through another chain of transmitters with a slight variation of words.

4160: Abu Bakra reported:
That (in the Farewell Address) Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Time has completed a cycle and come to the state of the day when Allah created the heavens and the earth. The year is constituted of twelve months, of which four are sacred; three of them consecutive, viz. Dhu’l-Qa’da, Dhu’l- Hijja and Muharram, and also Rajab the month of Mudar which comes between Jumada and Sha’ban. He (the Holy Prophet) then said: which month is this? We said Allah and His Messenger know best.

He (the narrator) said: He (the Holy Prophet) remained silent for some time until we thought that he would give it a name other than that (by which it was known). He said: Is it not Dha’l-Hijja? We said: Yes. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Which city is this? We said: Allah and His Messenger know best. He (the Holy Prophety remained silent until we thought that he would give it another name. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Is it not the Balda (the city of Mecca)? We said: Yes. He said: What day is this? We said: Allah and His Messenger know best.

He (the Holy Prophet) remained silent until we thought that he would give it another name. He said: Is it not the Day of Sacrifice? We said: Allah’s Messenger. yes. Thereupon he said: Your blood, your property (Muhammad, one of the narrators, said: I think, he also said this) and your honour are sacred to you like the sacredness of this day of yours, in this city of yours, and in this month of yours. You will soon meet your Lord and He will ask you about your deeds. So do not turn after me unbelievers (or misguided), some of you striking the necks of the others.

Behold I let him who is present convey to him who is absent, for many a one whom a message is conveyed has a more retentive memory than one who hears. He again said: Behold! have I not delivered (the message) to you? This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters, but with a slight variation of words.

4161: Abu Bakra reported:
That when it was that day (the 10th of Dhu’l-Hijja) he mounted his camel and a person caught its nosestring, whereupon he said: Do you know which day is this? They said: Allah and His Messenger know best. (The Holy Prophet [may peace be upon him] kept silent) until we thought that he would give that another name. He said: Is it not the day of Nahr (Sacrifice) (10th of Dhu’l- Hijja)? We said: Allah’s Messenger, yes. He (again) said: Which month is it? We said: Allah and His Messenger knows best. He said: Is it not Dhu’l-Hijja? We said: Allah’s Messenger, yes. He said: Which city is this? We said: Allah and His Messenger know best.

He (the narrator) said (that the Holy Prophet kept silent until we thought that he would give it another name besides its (original) name. He said: Is it not Balda (the city of Mecca)? We said: Yes, Allah’s Messenger. He (then) said: Verily your blood (lives) and your property and your honour are as sacred unto you as sacred is this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this city of yours. Let him who is present convey it to one who is absent. He then turned his attention towards two multicoloured (black and white) rams and slaughtered them, and two goats, and distributed them amongst us.

4162: Abu Bakra reported:
That when it was the day of (Dhu’l-Hijja) Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) mounted the camel and addressed and a person had been holding its nosestring. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4163: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Bakra through another chain of transmitters (and the words are):” Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) addressed us on the day of  Nahr (Sacrifice) and said: What day is this? And the rest of the hadith is the same except that he did not make mention of” your honour,” and also did not make mention of this: He then turned his attention towards two rams and what follows, and in a hadith (the words pertaining to sacred- ness are recorded in this way):” Like the sacredness of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this city of yours to the day when you will meet your Lord. Behold, have I not conveyed (the Message of God)? They said: Yes. He said: O Allah, bear witness.”

Chapter 9| The confession of murder is held valid and the person whose man is killed is entitled to get retribution. the offender has a right to beg for remission.

4164: ‘Alqama b. Wa’il reported on the authority of his-father:
While I was sitting in the company of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), a person came there dragging another one with the help of a strap and said: Allah’s Messenger, this man has killed my brother. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to him: Did you kill him? And the other man said: (In case he did not make a confession of this, I shall brine, a witness against him). He (the murderer) said: Yes, I have killed him.

He (the Holy Prophet) said: Why did you kill him? He said: I and he won striking down the leaves of a tree and he abused me and enraged me, and to I struck his head with an axe and killed him, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Have you anything with you to pay bloodwit on your behalf? He said: I do not possess any property but this robe of mine and this axe of mine. He (the Holy, Prophet) said: Do you think your people will pay ransom for you? He said: I am more insignificant among my people than this (that I would not be able to get this benefit from my tribe).

He (the Holy Prophet) threw the strap towards him (the claimant of the blood-wit) saying: Take away your man. The man took him away, and as he returned, Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: If he kills him, he will be like him. He returned and said: Allah’s Messenger, it has reached me that you have said that” If he killed him, he would be like him.” I caught hold of him according to your command, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Don’t you like that he should take upon him (the burden) of your sin and the sin of your companion (your brother)? He said: Allah’s Apostle, why not? The Messenger of Allah (may peace be. upon him) said: If it is so, then let it be. He threw away the strap (around the offender) and set him free.

4165: ‘Alaqama b. Wa’il reported:
On the authority of his father that a person was brought to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) who had killed another person, and the heir of the person slain had dragged him (to the Holy Prophet) with a strap around his neck. As he turned away Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said:

The killer and the killed are (doomed) to fire. A person came to the other person (the heir of the deceased) and he reported to him the words of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), and so he let him off. Isma’il b. Salim said: I made a mention of it to Habib b. Abu Thabit and he said: Ibn Ashwa’ reported to me that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) had asked him to pardon him, but he refused.

Chapter 10| Blood-wit of the child in the womb, and the essentiality of blood-wit in case of unintentional murder and in case of the quasi-intentional murder.

4166: Abu Huraira reported:
That among two women of the tribe of Hudhail one flung a stone upon the other causing an abortion to her Allah’s Apostle (may peace he upon him) gave judgment that a male or a female slave of best quality be given as compensation.

4167: Abu Huraira reported:
That Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave judgment in case of the abortion of a woman of Banu Lihyan (that the offender and near relative should give compensation in the form of) good quality of a slave or a slave-girl. And the woman about whom the judgment was given for compensation died and thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave judgment that her inheritance goes to her sons and her husband, and the payment of the blood-wit lies with the family of (one who struck her).

4168: Abu Huraira reported:
That two women of the tribe of Hudhail fought with each other and one of them flung a stone at the other, killing her and what was in her womb. The case was brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and he gave judgment that the diyat (indemnity) of her unborn child is a male or a female slave of the best quality, and he also decided that the diyat of the woman is to be paid by her relative on the father’s side, and he (the Holy Prophet) made her sons and those who were with them her heirs.

Hamal b. al-Nabigha al-Hudhali said: Messenger of Allah, why should I play blood-wit for one who neither drank, nor ate, nor spoke, nor made any noise; it is like a nonentity (it is, therefore, not justifiable to demand blood-wit for it). Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He seems to be one of the brothers of soothsavers on account of the rhymed speech which he has composed.

4169: Abu Huraira reported:
That two women fought-the rest of the hadith is the same but herein no mention has been made of: He made her son and those who were with them her heirs. Someone said: Why should we pay blood-wit? And he did not name Hamal b. Malik.

4170: Al-Mughira b. Shu’ba reported:
That a woman struck her co-wife with a tent-pole and she was pregnant and she killed her. One of them belonged to the tribe of Lihyan. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) made the relatives of the murderer responsible for the payment of blood-wit on her behalf, and fixed a slave or a female slave as the indemnity for what was in her womb. One of the persons amongst the relatives of the murderer said: Should we pay indemnity for one who, neither ate, nor drank, nor made any noise, who was just like a nonentity? Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) remarked: He speaks rhymed phrases like the people of the desert. He did impose indemnity upon them.

4171: Al-Mughira b. Shu’ba reported:
A woman killed her fellow-wife with a tent-pole. Her case was brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he gave judgment that blood-wit should be paid by the relatives (of the offender) on the father’s side. And as she was pregnant, he decided regarding her unborn child that a male or a female slave of good quality be given. Some of her offender’s) relatives said: Should we make compensation for one who never ate, nor drank, nor made any noise, who was like a nonentity? Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He was talking rhymed phrases like the rhymed phrases of desert Arabs.

4172: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Mansur with the same chain of transmitters.

4173: Mansur transmitted this hadith with a slight variation of words.

4174: Miswar b. Makhrama reported:
That ‘Umar b. Khattab consulted people about the diyat of abortion of an unboam child. Mughira b. Shu’ba said: I bear witness to the fact that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave judgment about it that a good quality of slave or female slave should be given for it. Thereupon ‘Umar said: Bring one who may bear witness to you. Then Muhammad b. Maslama bore witness to him.

Sahih Muslim: The Book of Oaths – Kitab Al-Aiman

Sahih Muslim - Book 15 - Kitab Al-Aiman

Kitab Al-Aiman | The Book Oaths

Sahih Muslim | Book 15
The Book of:  The Book of Oaths – Kitab Al-Aiman
The Content of Book 15: 13 Chapters & 84 A-Hadith

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Chapter 1| It is forbidden to take the oaths in the name of anyone else besides Allah. 

4035: ‘Umar b. al-Khattib reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Allah, the Great and Majestic, forbids you to swear by your fathers. Umar said: By Allah. I have never sworn (by my father) since I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbidding it mentioning them” on my behalf” nor on behalf of someone else.

4036: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Zuhri except that in the hadith narrated on the authority of Uqail the words are:” I did not take oath by (anyone else except Allah) since I heard Allah’s Messenger forbidding it. nor did I speak in such terms, and the narrator did not say,” on my own behalf or on behalf of someone else”.

4037: Salim reported on the authority of his father that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) heard ‘Umar while he was taking oath by his father. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4038: ‘Abdullah (b. Umar) reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) found, Umar b. al-Khattab amongst the riders and he was taking oath by his father Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) called them (saying) ; Our Allah, the Exated and Majestic, has forbidden you that you take oath by your father. He who bag to take an oath, he must take it by Allah or keep quiet.

4039: This hadith is narrated on the authority of Ibn Umar through another chain of transmitters.

4040: Ibn ‘Umar heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who has to take an oath, he must not take oath but by Allah. The Quraish used to take oath by their fathers. So he (the Holy Prophet) said: Do not take oath by your fathers.

Chapter 2| He who takes an oath by Lat and Uzza, he should say: There is no god but Allah.

4041: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who takes an oath in the course of which he says: By Lat (and al-‘Uzza), he should say: There is no god but Allah; and that it anyone says to his friend:” Come and I will gamble with you,” he should pay sadaqa.

4042: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri.

4043: Abd al-Rahman b. Samura reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not swear by idols, nor by your fathers.

Chapter 3| It is excellent to break the vow if one finds it better doing that which is against this vow one should expiate it.

4044: Abu Musa al-Ash’ari reported: I came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) along with a group of Ash’arites requesting to give us a mount. He (the Holy Prophet) said: By Allah, I cannot provide you with a mount, and there is nothing with me which I should give you as a ride. He (the narrator) said: We stayed there as long as Allah willed. Then there were brought to him (to the Holy Prophet) camels. He (the Holy Prophet) then ordered to give us three white humped camels, We started and said (or some of us said to the others): Allah will not bless us.

We came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) begging him to provide us with riding camels. He swore that he coul d not provide us with a mount, but later on he provided us with that. They (some of the Prophet’s Companions) came and informed him about this (rankling of theirs), whereupon he said: It was not I who provided you with a mount, but Allah has provided you with that. So far as I am concerned, by Allah, if He so wills, I would not swear, but if, later on, I would see better than it, I (would break the vow) and expiate it and do that which is better.

4045: Abu Musa reported: My friends sent me to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) asking him to provide them with mounts as they were going along with him in jaish al-‘Usrah (the army of destitute or of meagre means or army setting out during the hard times and that is the occasion of the expedition of Tabuk) I said: Apostle of Allah, my friends have sent me to you so that you may provide them with mounts. He (the Holy Prophet) said: By Allah, I cannot provide you with anything to ride.

And it so happened that he was at that time much perturbed. I little knew of it, so I came back with a heavy heart on account of the refusal of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and the fear that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) might have some feelings against me. I returned to my friends and informed them about what Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had said. I had hardly stayed for a little that I heard Bilal calling: ‘Abdullah b. Qais. I responded to his call.

He said: Hasten to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), he is calling you, When I came to the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) he said: Take this pair, this pair, and this pair (i. e. six camels which he had bought from Sa’d), and take them to y, our friends and say: Verily Allah (or he said: Verily Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has provided you with these animals.

So ride upon them. Abu Musa said: I went along with them to my friends and said: Verily Allah’s messenger (may peace be upon him) has provided you with these animals for riding; but by Allah, I shall not leave you until some of you go along with me to him who had heard the talk of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) then I asked him for you, and his refusal for the first time, and then his granting them to me subsequently; so you should not think that I narrated to you something which he did not say.

They said to me: By Allah, in our opinion you are certainly truthful, and we would do as you like. So Abu Musa went along withsome of the menfrom them until they came to those who had heard the words of Allah’s Messenger (may, peace be upon him) and his refusal to (provide) them with (animals) ; and subsequently his granting (the animals) to them; and they narrated to them exactly as Abu Masa had narrated to them.

4046: Ayyub said: We were sitting in the company of Abu Musa that he called for food and it consisted of flesh of fowl. It was then that a person from Banu Tamim visited him. His complexion was red having the resemblance of a slave. He said to him: Come and (join me in food). He showed reluctance. He (Abu Masa) said: Come on, for I saw Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) eating it (fowl’s meat), whereupon that person said: I saw it eating something (of filth and rubbish) and I found it repugnant and took an oath that I would never eat that.

He (Abu Muds) said: Come, so that I would narrate to you about that (the incident pertaining to vow). (And he narrated thus): I came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) along with a group of people belonging to the tribe of Ash’ari, asking him to provide us with riding camels. He (the Holy Prophet) said: By Allah, I cannot provide you with riding animals. And there is nothing with me with which I can provide you a mount. We stayed (for some time) there as Allah willed, and there was brought to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) booty of camels.

He called us and commanded that we should be given five white humped camels. As we were about to go back, some of us said to the other: As we made Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forget oath, there would be no blessing for us (in his gift). We went back to him and said: Allah’s Messenger, we came to you to provide us with riding animals and you took an oath that you would never equip us with mounts and then you have provided us with the riding beasts Allali’s Messenger, have you forgotten?

Thereupon he said: I swear by Allah that if Allah so wills, I shall not swear an oath, and then consider something else to be better than it without making atonement for my oath and doing the thing that is better. So you go; Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, has given you riding animals.

4047: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Musa al-Ash’ari with a slight variation of words.

4048: Zahdam al-Jarmi reported: We were in the company of Abu Musa. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4049: Zahdam al-Jarmi reported: I visited Abu Musa and lie was eating fowl’s meat. The rest of the hadith is the same with this addition that he (the Holy Prophet) said: By Allah, I did not forget it.

4050: Abu Musa al-Ash’ari reported: We came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) requesting him to provide us with riding camels. He (the Holy Prophet) said: There is nothing with me with which I should equip you. By Allah, I would not provide you with (riding camels). Then Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent to us three camels with spotted bumps. We said: We came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) asking him to equip us with riding animals. He took an oath that he could not equip us. We came to him and informed him. He said: By Allah, I do not take an oath, but when I find the other thing better than that, I do that which is better.

4051: Abu Musa reported: We walked on foot and came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace he upon him) asking him to provide us with mounts. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4052: Abu Huraira reported: A person sat late in the night with Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), and then came to his family and found that his children had gone to sleep. His wife brought food for him. but he took an oath that he would not eat because of his children (having gone to sleep without food) He then gave precedence (of breaking the vow and then expiating it) and ate the food He then came to Allah s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and made mention of that to him, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) said: He who took an oath and (later on) found something better than that should do that, and expiate for (breaking) his vow.

4053: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who took an oath and then found another thing better than (this) should expiate for the oath (broken) by him and do (the better thing).

4054: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who took an oath and (later on) found another thing better than that, he should do that which is better, and expiate for the vow (broken by him).

4055: This hadith is narrated on the authority of Suhail with the same chain of transmitters (with these words):” He should expiate for (breaking) the vow and do that which is better.”

4056: Tamim b. Tarafa reported: A beggar came to ‘Adi b. Hatim and he begged him to give him the price of a slave, or some portion of the price of the slave. He (‘Adi) said: I have nothing to give you except my coat-of-mail and helmet. I will, however, write to my family to give that to you, but he did not agree to that. Thereupon ‘Adi was enraged, and said: By Allah, I will not give you anything.

The person (then) agreed to accept that, whereupon he said: By Allah, had I not heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) saying:” He who took an oath, but then found something more pious in the sight of Allah, he should (break the oath) and do that which is more pious,” I would not have broken the oath (and thus paid you anything).

4057: ‘Adi b. Hatim reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who took an oath, but he found something else better than that, should do that which is better and break his oath.

4058: ‘Adi reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When anyone amongst you takes an oath, but he finds (something) better than that he should expiate (the breaking of the oath), and do that which is better.

4059: This hadith is reported on the authority of Adi b. Hatim through another chain of transmitters

4060: Tamim b. Tarafa reported that he beard ‘Adi b. Hatim say that a person came to him and asked for one hundred dirhams. He (‘Adi) said: You asked Me for one hundred dirhams and I am the son of Hatim; by Allah, I will not give you. But then he said: (I would have done that) if I had not heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) say: He who takes an oath, but then finds something better than that, should do that which is better.

4061: Tamim b. Tarafa reported: I heard ‘Adi b. Hatim say that a person asked that and then narrated (the hadith) like one (mentioned above), but he made this addition:” Here are four hundred (dirhams) for you out of my gift.”

4062: Abd al-Rahman b. Samura reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to me: Abd al-Rahman b. Samura, don’t ask for authority for if it is granted to you for asking for it, you would be commissioned for it (without having the support of Allah), but if you are granted it without your asking for it. You would be helped (by Allah) in it. And when you take an oath and find something else better than that, expiate for (breaking) your oath, and do that which is better. This hadith has also been transmitted on the authority of Ibn Farrukh.

4063: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Samura through another chain of transmitters but there is no mention of the word” authority”.

Chapter 4| The oath would be considered on the basis of the intention of one who takes an oath.

4064: Abu Haraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Your oath should be about something regarding which your companion will believe you. ‘Amr said: By which your companion will believe you.

4065: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: An oath is to be interpreted according to the intention of the one who takes it.

Chapter 5| Expressing the words “god willing” in the oath

4066: Abu Huraira reported that (Hadrat) Sulaiman had sixty wives. He (one day) said: I will visit each one of them every night, and every one of them will become pregnant and give birth to a male child who will be a horseman and fight in the cause of Allah. But (it so happened) that none of them became pregnant except one, but she gave birth to an incomplete child. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Had he said Insha’ Allah (if God so wills), then every one of them would have given birth to a child who would have been a horseman and fought in the cause of Allah.

4067: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Prophet (may peace be upon him) as saying that Sulaiman b. Dawud, the Apostle of Allah, observed: I will have an intercourse with seventy wives during the night; all of them will give birth to a male child who will fight in the cause of Allah. His companion or the ang I said to him: Say,” If God wills.” But he (Hadrat Sulaimin) did not say so, and he forgot it. And none of his wives gave birth to a child, but one who gave birth to a premature child. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Had he said Insha’ Allah (if God so will). he would not have failed and his desire would have been materialised.

4068: Abu Huraira reported this hadith from the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) through another chain of transmitters.

4069: Abu Huraira reported that Sulaiman b. Dawud said: I will certainly have intercourse with seventy wives during the night, and every wife amongst them will give birth to a child, who will fight in the cause of Allah. It was said to him: Say:” Insha’ Allah” (God willing), but he did not say so and forgot it. He went round them but none of them give birth to a child except one woman and that too was an incomplete person. Upon this Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: If he had said” Insha’ Allah.” he would not have failed, and his desire must have been fulfilled.

4070: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying that Sulaiman b. Dawud (once) said: I will go round in the night to my ninety wives, and every one of them will give birth to a child (who will grow up) as a horseman and fight in the cause of Allah His companions said to him: Say” Insha’ Allah.” but he did not say Inshii’ Allah. He went round all of them but none of them became pregnant but one, and she gave birth to a premature child.

And by Him in Whose hand is the life of Muhammad, if he had said, Insha’ Allah (his wives would have given birth to the children who would all have grown up into horsemen and fought in the way of Allah). This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Zinad with the same chain of transmitters with a variation of (these words):” Every one of them giving birth to a child, who would have fought in the cause of Allah.”

Chapter 6| It is forbidden to persist in an oath which causes trouble to the family, and is not lawful.

4071: Hammam b. Munabbih reported: This is what Abu Huraira reported to us from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he narrated a hadith and (one) of them is that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I swear by Allah, it is more sinful in Allah’s sight for one of you to persist in an oath regarding his family than payment of its expiation which Allah has imposed upon him (for breaking the oath).

Chapter 7| What a non-believer should do with his vow when he embraces islam

4072: Ibn ‘Umar reported that Umar (b. Khattab) said: Messenger of Allah, I had taken a vow during the days of Ignorance (Jahiliyya) that I would observe I’tikaf for a night in the Sacred Mosque. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Fulfil your vow.

4073: This hadith is transmitted on the authority of Ibn Umar with a slight variation of words.

4074: ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar reported that ‘Umar b. Khattab asked the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) as he was at ji’rana (a town near Mecca) on his way back from Ta’if: Messenger of Allah, I had taken a vow during the days of Ignorance that I would observe I’tikaf for one day in the Sacred Mosque. So what is your opinion? He said: Go and observe I’tikaf for a day. And Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) gave him a slave girl out of the one-fifth (of the spoils of war meant for the Holy Prophet).

And when Allah’s Messenger (inay peace be upon him) set the war prisoners free. ‘Umar b. Khattab heard their voice as they were saying: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has set as free. He (Hadrat ‘Umar) said: What is this? They said: Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) has set free the prisoners of war (which had fallen to the lot of people). Thereupon he (Hadrat ‘Umar) said: Abdullah, go to that slave-girl and set her free.

4075: lbn ‘Umar reported: When Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) came back from the Battle of Hunain, Umar asked Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about the vow he had taken during the days of Ignorance that he would observe I’tikaf for a day. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4076: Nafi’ reported: A mention of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) observing ‘Umra from ja’rina was made before Ibn ‘Umar. He said: He did not enter into the state of Ihram from that (place), and Umar had taken a vow of observing I’tikaf for a night during the days of Ignorance. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4077: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ibn Umar through another chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of words.

Chapter 8| How should the masters treat their slaves and expiation if they show high-handedness.

4078: Zadhan Abl Umar reported: I came to Ibn ‘Umar as he had granted freedom to a stave. He (the narrator further) said: He took hold of a wood or something like it from the earth and said: It (freedom of a slave) has not the reward evert equal to it, but the fact that I heard Allah’s Messenger (way peace be upon him) say: He who slaps his slave or beats him, the expiation for it is that he should set him free.

4079: Zadhan reported that Ibn Umar called his slave and he found the marks (of beating) upon his back. He said to him: I have caused you pain. He said: No. But he (Ibn Umar) said: You are free. He then took hold of something from the earth and said: There is no reward for me even to the weight equal to it. I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who beats a slave without cognizable offence of his or slaps him (without any serious fault), then expiation for it is that he should set him free.

4080: This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters with a slight variation of words.

4081: Mu’awiya b. Suwaid reported: I slapped a slave belonging to us and then fled away. I came back just before noon and offered prayer behind my father. He called him (the slave) and me and said: Do as he has done to you. He granted pardon. He (my father) then said: We belonged to the family of Muqarrin during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him. and had only one slavegirl and one of us slapped her. This news reached Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and he said: Set her free. They (the members of the family) said: There is no other servant except she. The-reupon he said: Then employ her and when you can afford to dispense with her services, then set her free.

4082: Hilal b. Yasaf reported that a person got angry and slapped his slave-girl. Thereupon Suwaid b. Muqarrin said to him: You could find no other part (to slap) but the prominent part of her face. See I was one of the seven sons of Muqarrin, and we had but only one slave-girl. The youngest of us slapped her, and Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded us to set her free. 2097

4083: Hilal b. Yasaf reported: We used to sell cloth in the house of Suwaid b. Muqarrin, the brother of Nu’man b. Muqarrin. There came out a slave-girl, and she said something to a person amongst us, and he slapped her. Suwaid was enraged-the rest of the hadlth is the same.

4084: Suwaid b. Muqarrin reported that he had a slave-girl and a person (one of the members of the family) slapped her, whereupon Suwaid said to him: Don’t you know that it is forbidden (to strike the) face. He said: You see I was the seventh one amongst my brothers during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and we had but only one servant. One of us got enraged and slapped him. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded us to set him free.

4085: Wahb b. Jarir reported: Shu’ba informed that Muhammad b. Munkadir said to me: What is your name? The rest of the hadith is the same.

4086: Abu Mas’ud al-Badri reported: I was beating my slave with a whip when I heard a voice behind me: Understand, Abu Masud; but I did not recognise the voice due to intense anger. He (Abu Mas’ud) reported: As he came near me (I found) that he was the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and he was saying: Bear in mind, Abu Mas’ud; bear in mind. Abu Mas’ud. He (Aba Maslad) said: threw the whip from my hand. Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Bear in mind, Abu Mas’ud; verily Allah has more dominance upon you than you have upon your slave. I (then) said: I would never beat my servant in future.

4087: This hadith has been narrated on the authorityo A’mash but with this variation of words:” There fell from my hand the whip on account of his (the Prophet’s) awe.”

4088: Abu Mas’ud al-Ansari reported: When I was beating my servant, I heard a voice behind me (saying): Abu Mas’ud, bear in mind Allah has more dominance over you than you have upon him. I turned and (found him) to be Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). I said: Allah’s Messenger, I set him free for the sake of Allah. Thereupon he said: Had you not done that, (the gates of) Hell would have opened for you, or the fire would have burnt you.

4089: Abu Mas’ud reported that he had been beating his slave and he had been saying: I seek refuge with Allah, but he continued beating him, whereupon he said: I seek refuge with Allah’s Messenger, and he spared him. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: By Allah, God has more dominance over you than you have over him (the slave). He said that he set him free. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters, but made no mention of (these words) of his: I seek refuge with Allah, I seek refuge with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him).

Chapter 9| It is improper to accuse the slave of adultery

4090: Abu Huraira reported that Abu’l-Qasim (one of the names of Allah’s Messenger [may peace be upon him]) said: He who accused his slave of adultery, punishment would be imposed upon him on the Day of Resurrection, except in case the accusation was as he had said.

4091: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Ghazwan (and the words are):” I heard Abu’l-Qasim (may peace be upon him) as the Prophet of repentance.”

Chapter 10| Feeding of slave with what the master eats himself and clothing him with what he wears himself and not to burden him beyond capacity.

4092: Al-Ma’rur b. Suwaid said: We went to Abu Dharr (Ghifari) in Rabadha and he had a mantle over him, and his slave had one like it. We said: Abu Dharr, had you joined them together, it would have been a complete garment. Thereupon he said: There was an altercation between me and one of the persons among my brothers. His mother was a non-Arab. I reproached him for his mother. He complained against me to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him). As I met Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) he said: Abu Dharr, you are a person who still has (in him the remnants) of the days (of Ignorance).

Thereupon I said: Allah’s Messenger, he who abuses (other) persons, they abuse (in return) his father and mother. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Abu Dharr, you are a person who still has (the remnants) of Ignorance in him They (your servants and slaves) are your brothers. Allah has put them in your care, so feed them with what you eat, clothe them with what you wear. and do not  urden them beyond their capacities; but if you burden them (with an unbearable burden), then help them (by sharing their extra burden).

4093: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of A’mash but with a slight variation of words, e. g. in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Zuhair and Abu Mu’awiya after his words (these words of the Holy Prophet):” You are a person having the remnants of Ignorance in him.” (these words also occur, that Abu Dharr) said: Even up to this time of my old age? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Yes. In the tradition transmitted on the authority of Abu Mu’awiya (the words are):” Yes, in this time of your old age.”

In the tradition transmitted on the authority of ‘Isa (the words are):” If you burden him (with an unbearable burden), you should sell him (and get another slave who can easily undertake this burden).” In the hadith transmitted on the authority of Zuhair (the words are):” Help him in that (work).” In the hadith transmitted by Abu Mu’awiya (separately) there is no such word: Then .sell him or help him.” This hadith concludes with these words:” Do not burden him beyond his capacity.”

4094: Ma’rur b. Suwaid reported: I saw Abu Dharr wearing clothes, and his slave wearing similar ones. I asked him about it, and he narrated that he had abused a person during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upoe. him) and he reproached him for his mother. That person came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and made mention of that to him.

Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: You are a person who has (remnants of) Ignorance in him. Your slaves are brothers of yours. Allah has placed them in your hand, and he who has his brother under him, he should feed him with what he eats, and dress him with what he dresses himself, and do not burden them beyond their capacities, and if you burden them, (beyond their capacities), then help them.

4095: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: It is essential to feed the slave, clothe him (properly) and not burden him with work which is beyond his power.

4096: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When the slave of anyone amongst you prepares food for him and he serves him after having sat close to (and undergoing the hardship of) heat and smoke, he should make him (the slave) sit along with him and make him eat (along with him), and if the food seems to run short, then he should spare some portion for him (from his own share) – (another narrator) Dawud said:” i. e. a morsel or two”. 4097

Chapter 11| Reward of the salve when he is loyal to his master and is good in worshipping Allah.

4097: Ibn Umar reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When a slave looks to the welfare of his master and worships Allah well, he has two rewards for him.

4098: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar through another chain of transmitters.

4099: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: For a faithful slave there are two rewards. By him in Whose hand is the life of Abu Huraira, but for Jibad in the cause of Allah, and Pilgrimage and kindness to my mother, I would have preferred to die as a slave. He (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) said: This news reached us that Abu Huraira did not perform Pilgrimage until his mother died for (keeping himself constantly) in her service. This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Tahir but with a slight variation of words.

4100: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When a slave fulfils obligation of Allah and obligation of his master, he has two rewards for him. I narrated this to Ka’b, and Ka’b said: (Such a slave) has no accountability, nor has a poor believer.

4101: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: It is good for a slave that he worships Allah well, and serves his master (well). It is good for him.

Chapter 12| He who emancipates his share in the slave

4102: Ibn ‘Umar reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who gives up his share in a slave, and has enough money to pay the full price of the slave, then full emancipation devolves upon him; but if he has not the money, then he emancipated what he emancipated.

4103: Ibn ‘Umar reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who emancipates his share in the slave, it is his responsibility to secure full freedom for him provided he (the slave) has enough money to pay the (remaining) price, but it he has not so much money he would be emancipated to the extent that the first man emancipated.

4104: ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who gives up his share in a slave, and he has money enough to meet the full price, a fair price for him should be fixed; otherwise be has emancipated him to the extent that he has emancipated.

4105: This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters with a slight variation of words.

4106: Salim b. ‘Abdullah reported on the authority of his father that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: He who emancipates a slave (shared) by him and another one, his full price may be justly assessed from his wealth, neither less nor more, and he (the slave) would be emancipated if he (the partner) would be solvent enough (to forgo the amount of his share).

4107: Ibn ‘Umar reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who gives up his share in a slave, the remaining (share) will be paid out of his riches if his riches are enough to meet the price of the slave.

4108: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: In case the slave is owned by two persons, and one of them emancipates him, he will guarantee (his full freedom).

4109: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Shu’ba with the same chain of transmitters (and the words are):” He who emancipates a portion in a slave, he should (secure full) freedom for him from his property.”

4110: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who emancipates his portion in a slave, full emancipation may be secured for him out of his property (if he has money) if he has enough property to meet (the required expenses), but if he has not enough property, the slave should be put to extra labour (in order to earn money for buying his freedom), but he should not be overburdened.

4111: This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters (and the words are):” He will be required to work (in order to secure freedom) for that por- tion in which he has not been emancipated, without overburdening him.”

4112: ‘Imran b. Husain reported that a person who had no other property emancipated six slaves of his at the time of his death. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) called for them and divided them into three sections, cast lots amongst them, and set two free and kept four in slavery; and he (the Holy Prophet) spoke severely of him.

4113: This hadith has been narrated through another chain of transmitters (and the words are):” A person from among the Ansar willed away the freedom of six slaves of his at the time of his death.”

4114: This hadith has been reported on the authority of Imran b. Husain through another chain of narrators.

Chapter 13| The permissibility of buying a mudabbar slave

4115: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah said that a person among the Ansar declared his slave free after his death, as he had no other property. This news reached the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) and he said: Who will buy him from me? And Nu’aim b. al-Nahham bought him for eight hundred dirhams and he handed them over to him, ‘Amr (one of the narrators) said: I heard Jabir b. ‘Abdullah as saying: He was a Coptic slave, and he died in the first year (of the Caliphate of ‘Abdullah b. Zubair).

4116: Jabir is reported to have said: A person amongst the Ansar who had no other property declared a slave free after his death. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) sold him, and Ibn al-Nahham bought him and he was a Coptic slave (who) died in the first year of the Caliphate of Ibn Zubair.

4117: A hadith like this has been narrated on the authority of Jabir through another chain of transmitters.

4118: This hadith has been narrated from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) through other chains of transmitters.

Sahih Muslim: The Book of Vows – Kitab An-Nadhr

Sahih Muslim - Book 14 - Kitab An-Nadhr

Kitab An-Nadhr | The Book Vows

Sahih Muslim | Book 14
The Book of:  The Book of Vows – Kitab An-Nadhr
The Content of Book 14: 3 Chapters & 18 A-Hadith

Chapter 1

4017: Ibn Abbas reported that Sa’d b. Ubida asked Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) for a decision about a vow taken by his mother who had died before fulfilling it. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Fulfil it on her behalf.

4018: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri with a different chains of transmitters.

4019: ‘Abdullah b. Umar reported: Allah’s Messenger (may peace he upon him) singled out one day forbidding us to take vows and said: It would not avert anything; it is by which something is extracted from the miserly person.

4020: Ibn Umar reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: The vow neither hastens anything nor defers anything, but is the means whereby (something) is extracted from the miserly person.

4021: Ibn Umar reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade (people) taking vows, and said: It does not (necessarily) bring good (in the form of substantial, and tangible results), but it is the meant whereby something is extracted from the miserly persons.

4022: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Mansur with the same chain of transmitters.

4023: Abu Heraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not take vows, for a vow has no effect against Fate; it is only from the miserly that something is extracted.

4024: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) forbidding taking of vows, and said: It does not avert Fate, but is the means by which something is extracted from the miser.

4025: Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: The vow does not bring anything near to the son of Adam which Allah has not ordained for him, but (at times) the vow coincides with Destiny, and this is how something is extracted from the miserly person, which that miser was not willing to give.

4026: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of ‘Amr b. Abu ‘Amr.

Chapter 2| The vow is not to be fulfilled which is made in disobedience to allah, nor that over which a man has no control

4027: Imran b. Husain reported that the tribe of Thaqif was the ally of Banu ‘Uqail. Thaqif took two persons from amongst the Companiobs of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as prisoners. The Campanions of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) took one person at Banu Uqail as prisoner, and captured al-‘Adbi (the she-camel of the Holy Prophet) along with him.

Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) came to him and he was tied with ropes. He said: Muhammad. He came near him and said: What is the matter with you? Thereupon he (the prisoner) said: Why have you taken me as prisoner and why have you caught hold of one proceeding the pilgrims (the she-camel as she carried the Holy Prophet on her back and walked ahead of the multitude)? He (the Holy Prophet) said: (Yours is a great fault).

I (my men) have caught hold of you for the crime of your allies, Banu Thaqif. He (the Holy Prophet) then turned away. He again called him and said: Muhammad, Muhammad, and since Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was very compassionate, and tenderhearted, he returned to him, and said: What is the matter with you? He said: I am a Muslim, whereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Had you said this when you had been the master of yourself, you would have gained every success. He then turned away. He (the prisoner) called him again saying: Muhammad, Muhammad. He came to him and said: What is the matter with you? He said: I am hungry, feed me, and I am thirsty, so provide me with drink. He (the Holy Prophet) said: That is (to satisfy) your want.

He was then ransomed for two persons (who had been taken prisoner by Thaqif). He (the narrator) said: A woman of the Ansar had been taken prisoner and also al-Adbi’ was caught. The woman had been tied with ropes. The people were giving rest to their animals before their houses. She escaped one night from the bondage and came to the camels. As she drew near the camels, they fretted and fumed and so she left them until she came to al-, Adbi’. It did not fret and fume; it was docile She rode upon its back and drove it away and she went off. When they (the enemies of Islam) were warned of this, they went in search of it, but it (the she-camel) exhausted them.

She (the woman) took vow for Allah, that in case He would save her through it, she would offer that as a sacrifice. As she reached Medina, the people saw her and they said: Here is al-Adbi, the she-camel of Allah’s Messanger (may peace be upon him). She (the woman) said that she had taken a vow that if Allah would save her on its back, she would sacrifice it.

They (the Prophet’s Companions) came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and made a mention of that to him, whereupon he said: Hallowed be Allah, how ill she rewarded it that she took vow to Allah that if He saves her on its back, she would sacrifice it! There is no fulfilment of the vow in an act of disobedience, nor in an act over which a person has no control. In the version of Ibn Hujr (the words are):” There is no vow in disobedience to Allah.”

4028: This hadith is narrated on the authority of Ayyub with the same chain of transmitters and a slight variation of words.

Chapter 3| He who took the vow that he would go on foot to the Ka’ba

4029: Anas reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) saw an old man being supported between his two sons. He (the Holy Prophet) said: What is the matter with him? They said: He had taken the vow to walk (on foot to the Ka’ba). Thereupon he (Allah’s Apoitle) said: Allah is indifferent to his inflicting upon himself chastisement, and he commanded him to ride.

4030: Abu Huraira reported: Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) found an old man walking between his two sons supported by them, whereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: What is the matter with him? He (the narrator) said: Allah’s Messenger, they are his sons and there is upon him the (fulfilment) of the vow, whereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Ride, old man, for Allah is not in need of you and your vow.

4031: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Amr b. Abu ‘Amr with the same chain of  transmitters.

4032: ‘Uqba b. Amir reported: My sister took a vow that she would walk bare foot to the house of Allah (Ka’ba). She asked me to inquire from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about it. I sought his decision and he said: She should walk on foot and ride also.

4033: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Uqba b. Amir Juhani. but in this no mention has been made of” barefoot”.

4034: ‘Uqba. b. Amir reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The expiation of the (breach of) a vow is the same as that of the (breach of an oath).

Sahih Muslim: The Book of Bequests – Kitab Al-Wasiyya

Sahih Muslim - Book 13 - Kitab Al-Wasiyya

Kitab Al-Wasiyya | The Book of Bequests

Sahih Muslim | Book 13
The Book of:  Bequests – Kitab Al-Wasiyya
The Content of Book 13: 6 Chapters & 30 A-Hadith

LineTree

Introduction

A bequest (Wasiyya) or will is defined as a transfer to come into operation after the testator’s death. The testator is called Musi, and the legatee or devisee is called Musa lahu, and the executor is called Wasi. It is a spiritual testament of a man enabling him to make up his shortcomings in the worldly life and securing rewards in the Hereafter.

According to the Shar’iah, one is entitled to make a will for one-third of one’s property and not beyond that so that the rights of the legal heirs are not adversely affected. ” Again, the principle on which the legality of a testamentary disposition is based being in defiance pro tanto of the rights of heirs generally the law requires that such disposition should be for the benefit of non-heirs alone.

” A further reason why a bequest in favour of an heir is not allowed is that it would amount to giving preference to some heirs over others, thus defeating the spirit of the law which has fixed the portion of each in the inheritance and causing disputes among persons related to one another. If the other heirs consent to a bequest to one of them or to a bequest of more than one-third of the estate, the above reasons no longer hold good and the bequest as made will be valid” (Abdur Rahim, The Principles of Muhammadan jurisprudence, pp. 311-2).

It is, however, preferable and most advisable not to will away the property if the legal heirs are poor, because it manifests benevolence to the heirs who have superior claim to it from the relations in which they stand. Another principle which is observed in case of bequest is that the proprietary right of a legatee in a bequest is establislied if he accepts it.

Chapter 1 | One should make it a point to write the will

3987: Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: It is the duty of a Muslim who has something which is to be given as a bequest not to have it for two nights without having his will written down regarding it.

3988: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of ‘Ubaidullah with the same chain of transmitters. but with a slight variation of words.

3989: A hadith like this have been narrated on the authority of Nifi’, who based his narrations of the words of Ibn ‘Umar but with a slight variation of words.

3990: Salim reported on the authority of his father (‘Abdullah b. Umar) that he (his father) had heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: It is not proper for a Muslim who has got something to bequeathe to spend even three nights without having his will written down with him regarding it. ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them) said: Ever since I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) say this I have not spent a night without having my will (written) along with me. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 2| Will can be made only for one-third.

3991: Amir b. Sa’d reported on the authority of his father (Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas): Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) visited me in my illness which brought me near death in the year of Hajjat-ul-Wada’ (Farewell Pilgrimage). I said: Allah’s Messenger, you can well see the pain with which I am afflicted and I am a man possessing wealth, and there is none to inherit me except only one daughter. Should I give two-thirds of my property as Sadaqa? He said: No. I said: Should I give half (of my property) as Sadaqa? He said: No. He (further) said: Give one-third (in charity) and that is quite enough.

To leave your heirs rich is better than to leave them poor, begging from people; that you would never incur an expense seeking therewith the pleasure of Allah, but you would be rewarded therefor, even for a morsel of food that you put in the mouth of your wife. I said: Allah’s Messenger. would I survive my companions?

He (the Holy Prophet) said: If you survive them, then do such a deed by means of which you seek the pleasure of Allah, but you would increase in your status (in religion) and prestige; you may survive so that people would benefit from you, and others would be harmed by you. (The Holy Prophet) further said: Allah, complete for my Companions their migration, and not cause them to turn back upon their heels. Sa’d b. Khaula is, however, unfortunate. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) felt grief for him as he had died in Mecca.

3992: This hadith is narrated on the authority of Zuhri with the same chain of transmitters.

3993: ‘Amir b. Sa’d reported from S’ad (b. Abu Waqqas): Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) visited me to inquire after my health, the rest of the hadith is the same as transmitted on the authority of Zuhri, but lie did not make mention of the words of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) in regard to Sa’d b. Khaula except this that he said:” He (the Holy Prophet) did not like death in the land from which lie had migrated.”

3994: Mus’ab b. Sa’d reported on the authority of his father. I was ailing. I sent message to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) saying: Permit me to give away my property as I like. He refused. I (again) said: (Permit me) to give away half. He (again refused). I (again said): Then one-third. He (the Holy Prophet) observed silence after (I had asked permission to give away) one-third. He (the narrater) said: It was then that endowment of one-third became permissible.

3995: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Simak with the same chain of transmitters. But he did not mention:” It was then that one-third became permissible.”

3996: Ibn Sa’d reported his father as saying: Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) visited me during my illness. I said: I am willing away the whole of my property. He said: No. I said: Then half? He said: No. I said: Should I will away one-third? He said: Yes, and even one-third is enough.

3997: Humaid b. ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Himyari reported from three of the sons of Sa’d all of whom reported from their father that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) visited Sa’d as he was ill in Mecca. He (Sa’d) wept. He (the Holy Prophet) said: What makes you weep? He said: I am afraid I may die in the land from where I migrated as Sa’d b. Khaula had died. Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: O Allah, grant health to Sa’d. O Allah, grant health to Sad.

He repeated it three times. He (Sa’d) said: Allah’s Messenger, I own a large property and I have only one daughter as my inheritor. Should I not will away the whole of my property? He (the Holy Prophet) said: No. He said: (Should I not will away, ) two-thirds of the property? he (the Holy Prophet) said: No. He (Sa’d) (again) said: (Should I not will away) half (of my property)? He said: No. He (Sa’d) said: Then onethird? Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: (Yes), one-third, and one-third is quite substanial.

And what you spend as charity from your property is Sadaqa and flour spending on your family is also Sadaqa, and what your wife eats from your property is also Sadaqa, and that you leave your heirs well off (or he said: prospreous) is better than to leave them (poor and) begging from people. He (the Holy Prophet) pointed this with his hands.

3998: Humaid b. Abd al-Rahmin al-Himayri reported on the authority of the three of the sons of Sa’d: They said: Sa’d fell ill in Mecca. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) visited him to inquire after his health. The rest of the hadith is the same.

3999: Humaid b. Abd al-Rahman reported this hadith on the authority of three of Sa’d’s sons: Sa’d fell ill in Mecca and Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) visited him. The rest of the hadith is the same.

4000: Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) said: (I wish) if people would reduce from third to fourth (part for making a will of their property), for Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: So far as the third (part) is concerned it is quite substantial. In the hadith transmitted on the authority of Waki (the words are)” large” or” much”.

Chapter 3| The deceased is entitled to reward for the sadaqa given after his death.

4001: Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported:
That a person said to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him): My father died and left behind property without making any will regarding it. Would he be relieved of the burden of his sing if I give sadaqa on his behalf? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Yea.

4002: A’isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported:
That a man said to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him): My mother died all of a sudden, and I think if she (could have the opportunity) to speak she would have (made a will) regarding Sadaqa’. Will I be entitled to reward if I give charity on her behalf? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Yes.

4003: A’isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported:
That a man came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said: Allah’s Messenger, my mother died all of a sudden without making any will. I think if (she could have the opportunity) to speak she would have made a Sadaqa. Would there be any reward for her if I give charity on her behalf? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Yes.

4004: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Hisham b. ‘Urwa with the same chain of transmitters.

Chapter 4| What reward man gets after his death

4005: Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When a man dies, his acts come to an end, but three, recurring charity, or knowledge (by which people) benefit, or a pious son, who prays for him (for the deceased).

Chapter 5| Waqf

4006: Ibn Umar reported:
Umar acquired a land at Khaibar. He came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) and sought his advice in regard to it. He said: Allah’s Messenger, I have acquired land in Khaibar. I have never acquired property more valuable for me than this, so what do you command me to do with it? Thereupon he (Allah’s Apostle) said: If you like, you may keep the corpus intact and give its produce as Sadaqa. So ‘Umar gave it as Sadaqa declaring that property must not be sold or inherited or given away as gift. And Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, aired in the way of Allah and guests.

There is no sin for one, who administers it if he eats something from it in a reasonable manner, or if he feeds his friends and does not hoard up goods (for himself). He (the narrator) said: I narrated this hadith to Muhammad, but as I reached the (words)” without hoarding (for himself) out of it.” he (Muhammad’ said:” without storing the property with a view to becoming rich.” Ibn ‘Aun said: He who read this book (pertaining to Waqf) informed me that in it (the words are)” without storing the property with a view to becoming rich.”

4007: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Ibn ‘Aun with the same chain of transmitters up to the words:” Or he may feed the friend withoiut hoarding from it” and he made no mention of what follows.

4008: ‘Umar reported:
I acquired land from the lands of Khaibar. I came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: I have acquired a piece of land. Never have I acquired land more loved by me and more cherished by me than this. The rest of the hadith is the same, but he made no mention of this:” I narrated it to Muhammad” and what follows.

Chapter 6| He who has not anything with him to will away should not do it.

4009: Talha b. Musarrif reported:
I asked ‘Abdullah b. Abu Aufa whether Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) had made any will (in regard to his property). He said: NO. I said: Then why has making of will been made necessary for the Muslims, or why were they commanded to make will? Thereupon he said: He made the will according to the Book of Allah, the Exalted and Majestic.

4010: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Malik b. Mighwal with the same chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of words. In the hadith related by Waki (the words are)” I said: How the people have been ordered about the will” ; and in the hadith of Ibn Numair (the words are):” How the will has been prescribed for the Muslims, ‘.

4011: A’isha reported:
Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) left neither dinar nor dirham (wealth in the form of cash), nor goats (and sheep), nor camels. And he made no will about anything (in regard to his material possessions, as he had none),

4012: This hadith has been narrated on the authority of A’mash with the same chain of transmitters.

4013: Aswad b. Yazid reported:
It was mentioned before A’isha that will had been made (by the Holy Prophet) in favour of ‘Ali (as the Prophet’s first caliph), whereupon she said: When did he make will in his favour? I had been providing support to him (to the Holy Prophet) with my chest (or with my lap). He asked for a tray, when he fell in my lap (relaxing his body), and I did not realise that he had breathed his last. When did he make any will in his (‘Ali’s) favour?

4014: Sa’id b. Jubair reported that Ibn ‘Abbas said:
Thursday, (and then said): What is this Thursday? He then wept so much that his tears moistened the pebbles. I said: Ibn ‘Abbas, what is (significant) about Thursday? He (Ibn ‘Abbas) said: The illness of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) took a serious turn (on this day), and he said: Come to me, so that I should write for you a document that you may not go astray after me.

They (the Companions around him) disputed, and it is not meet to dispute in the presence of the Apostle. They said: How is lie (Allah’s Apostle)? Has he lost his consciousness? Try to learn from him (this point). He (the Holy Prophet) said: Leave me. I am better in the state (than the one in which you are engaged). I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the (foreign) delegations as I used to show them hospitality. He (the narrator) said: He (Ibn Abbas) kept silent on the third point, or he (the narrator) said: But I forgot that.

4015: Sa’id b. Jubair reported from Ibn Abbas that he said:
Thursday, and what about Thursday? Then tears began to flow until I saw them on his cheeks as it they were the strings of pearls. He (the narrator) said that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Bring me a shoulder blade and inkpot (or tablet and inkpot), so that I write for you a document (by following which) you would never go astray. They said: Allah’s Messenger (may peace upon him) is in the state of unconsciousness.

4016: Ibn Abbas reported:
When Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was about to leave this world, there were persons (around him) in his house, ‘Umar b. al-Kbattab being one of them. Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that. Thereupon Umar said: Verily Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) is deeply afflicted with pain. You have the Qur’an with you. The Book of Allah is sufficient for us.

Those who were present in the house differed. Some of them said: Bring him (the writing material) so that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) may write a document for you and you would never go astray after him And some among them said what ‘Umar had (already) said. When they indulged in nonsense and began to dispute in the presence of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), he said: Get up (and go away) ‘Ubaidullah said: Ibn Abbas used to say: There was a heavy loss, indeed a heavy loss, that, due to their dispute and noise. Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) could not write (or dictate) the document for them.

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